History of Thailand

The Thai people, a descended of Tai ethnic group, who migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. The word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည the same root as Shan and Ahom. Chinese: 暹羅; the country's designation as Siam by Westerners came from the Portuguese. Portuguese chronicles noted that the Borommatrailokkanat, king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sent an expedition to the Malacca Sultanate at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in 1455. Following their conquest of Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese sent a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya. A century on 15 August 1612, The Globe, an East India Company merchantman bearing a letter from King James I, arrived in "the Road of Syam". "By the end of the 19th century, Siam had become so enshrined in geographical nomenclature that it was believed that by this name and no other would it continue to be known and styled."Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra had ruled the region.

The Thai established their own states: Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, Lan Na, the Ayutthaya Kingdom. These states fought each other and were under constant threat from the Khmers and Vietnam. Much the European colonial powers threatened in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but Thailand survived as the only Southeast Asian state to avoid European colonial rule because of centralising reforms enacted by King Chulalongkorn and because the French and the British decided it would be a neutral territory to avoid conflicts between their colonies. After the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand endured sixty years of permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected-government system. In 2014 there was yet another coup d'état. Prior to the southwards migration of the Tai peoples from Guangxi in the 10th century, mainland Southeast Asia had been a home to various indigenous communities for thousands of years; the discovery of Homo erectus fossils such as Lampang man is an example of archaic hominids.

The remains were first discovered during excavations in Lampang Province. The finds have been dated from 1,000,000–500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene. Stone artefacts dating to 40,000 years ago have been recovered from, e.g. Tham Lod rockshelter in Mae Hong Son and Lang Rongrien Rockshelter in Krabi, peninsular Thailand; the archaeological data between 18,000–3,000 years ago derive from cave and rock shelter sites, are associated with Hoabinhian foragers. There are many sites in Thailand dating to Iron Ages; the most researched of these sites are in the country's northeast in the Mun and Chi River valleys. The Mun River in particular is home to many "moated" sites composed of mounds surrounded by ditches and ramparts; the mounds contain evidence of prehistoric occupation. Around the first century, according to epigraphy of the Kingdom of Funan and the records of Chinese historians, a number of trading settlements of the south appear to have been organised into several Malay states, among the earliest of which are believed to be Langkasuka and Tambralinga.

Some trading settlements show evidence of trade with the Roman Empire: a Roman gold coin showing Roman emperor Antoninus Pius has been found in southern Thailand. Prior to the arrival of the Thai people and culture into what is now Thailand, the region hosted a number of indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking and Malayo-Sumbawan-speaking civilisations. However, little is known about Thailand before the 13th century, as the literary and concrete sources are scarce and most of the knowledge about this period is gleaned from archaeological evidence. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was influenced by the culture and religions of India, starting with the Kingdom of Funan around the first century until the Khmer Empire. Indian influence on Siamese culture was the result of direct contact with Indian settlers, but it was brought about indirectly via the Indianised kingdoms of Dvaravati and the Khmer Empire. E. A. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Thailand from India at the time of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire and into the first millennium.

Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Chao Phraya River in what is now central Thailand had once been the home of the Mon Dvaravati culture, which prevailed from the 7th century to the 10th century; the existence of the civilisations had long been forgotten by the Thai when Samuel Beal discovered the polity among the Chinese writings on Southeast Asia as "Duoluobodi". During the early 20th century archaeologists led by George Coedès made excavations in what is now Nakhon Pathom Province and found it to be a centre of Dvaravati culture; the constructed name Dvaravati was confirmed by a Sanskrit plate inscription containing the name "Dvaravati". On, many more Dvaravati sites were discovered throughout the Chao Phraya valley; the two most important sites were U Thong. The inscriptions of Dvaravati were in Sanskrit and Mon using the script derived from the Pallava alphabet of the South Indian Pallava dynasty; the religion of Dvaravati is thought to be Theravada Buddhism through contacts with Sri Lanka, with the ruling class participating in Hindu rites.

Dvaravati art, including th

Nueva Loja

Nueva Loja known as Lago Agrio, is the capital of the province of Sucumbíos in Ecuador. It was founded in the 1960s as a base camp of Texaco; the official population as of the 2010 census is 57,727. Nueva Loja is located in central Sucumbíos, in the Amazonian forest, is one of the most important cities in northeastern Ecuador, its importance comes from the oil extraction. It is named after Loja; the area around the city, the Lago Agrio oil field, has many ecological problems. The rainforest has been all but obliterated in this region and environmental degradation is severe, with catastrophic oil pollution in some areas. On February 14, 2011, a judge in Lago Agrio ruled that Chevron, now owner of Texaco, had to pay $9 billion in environmental damages for polluting the rainforest. In 2017, the Superior Court of Justice of Brasil rejected enforcement of the 2013 Ecuadorian Supreme Court award, with the Prosecutor concluding that verdict was “issued in an irregular manner under deplorable acts of corruption.”In 2018 the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ruled in favor of Chevron and said the 2013 Ecuador Supreme Court case was obtained "through fraud and corruption."Manchester United Right Back Antonio Valencia was born in Nueva Loja.

The city is served with daily flights from/to Quito. Lago Agrio oil field

Map matching

Map matching is the problem of how to match recorded geographic coordinates to a logical model of the real world using some form of Geographic Information System. The most common approach is to take recorded, serial location points and relate them to edges in an existing street graph in a sorted list representing the travel of a user or vehicle. Matching observations to a logical model in this way has applications in satellites navigation, GPS tracking of freight, transportation engineering. Map matching algorithms can be divided in offline algorithms. Real-time algorithms associate the position during the recording process to the road network. Offline algorithms are used after the data is recorded and are matched to the road network. Real-time applications can only calculate based upon the points prior to a given time, but are intended to be used in'live' environments; this brings a compromise of performance over accuracy. Offline applications can consider all points and so can tolerate slower performance in favour of accuracy.

Uses for map-matching algorithms range from the immediate and practical, such as applications designed for guiding travellers, to the analytical, such as generating detailed inputs for traffic analysis models and the like. The most common use of map-matching is where a traveller has some mobile computer giving him or her directions across a street network. In order to give accurate directions, the device must know where in the street network the user is. A GPS location has positional error though, so picking the nearest street segment and routing from there will not work. Instead, the history of locations reported by the GPS can be used to guess a plausible route and infer the current location more accurately. Other uses, more analytical in nature, include: extracting traffic flow information from vehicle GPS tracks associating user-reported attributes with a street automatically infer turn restrictions based on an analysis of multiple GPS tracksThere are other examples and this subject is still undergoing active research and development.

Map matching is implemented in a variety of programs, including the open-source GraphHopper and Open Source Routing Machine routing engines. It is included in a variety of proprietary programs and mapping/routing applications