History of animation

The history of animation started long before the development of cinematography. Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Much shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with projected images on a screen, moving as the result of manipulation by hand and/or minor mechanics. In 1833, the stroboscopic disc introduced the stroboscopic principles of modern animation, which decades would provide the basis for cinematography. Between 1895 and 1920, during the rise of the cinematic industry, several different animation techniques were developed, including stop-motion with objects, clay or cutouts, drawn or painted animation. Hand-drawn animation animation painted on cels, was the dominant technique throughout most of the 20th century and became known as traditional animation. Around the turn of the millennium, computer animation became the dominant technique. Computer animation is associated with a three-dimensional appearance with detailed shading, although many different animation styles have been generated or simulated with computers.

In practice, computer animation with a two-dimensional appearance, stark outlines and less shading, will be considered "traditional animation". For instance, the first feature movie made on computers, without a camera, is The Rescuers Down Under, but its style can hardly be distinguished from cel animation; this article details the history of animation which looks like drawn or painted animation, regardless of the underlying technique. There are several examples of early sequential images that may seem similar to series of animation drawings. Most of these examples would only allow an low frame rate when they are animated, resulting in short and crude animations that are not lifelike. However, it's unlikely that these images were intended to be somehow viewed as an animation, it is possible to imagine technology that could have been used in the periods of their creation, but no conclusive evidence in artifacts or descriptions have been found. It is sometimes argued that these early sequential images are too interpreted as "pre-cinema" by minds accustomed to film, comic books and other modern sequential images, while it is uncertain that the creators of these images envisioned anything like it.

Fluid animation needs a proper breakdown of a motion into the separate images of short instances, which could hardly be imagined before modern times. Measuring instances shorter than a second first became possible with instruments developed in the 1850s. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are sometimes depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions or in series that can be interpreted as one animal in different positions, it has been claimed that these superimposed figures were intended for a form of animation with the flickering light of the flames of a fire or of a passing torch, alternately illuminating different parts of the painted rock wall, revealing different parts of the motion. Archaeological finds of small paleolithic discs with a hole in the middle and drawings on both sides have been claimed to be a kind of prehistoric thaumatropes that show motion when spun on a string.

A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. An Egyptian mural 4000 years old, found in the tomb of Khnumhotep at the Beni Hassan cemetery, features a long series of images that depict the sequence of events in a wrestling match; the Parthenon Frieze has been described as displaying analysis of motion and representing phases of movement, structured rhythmic and melodically with counterpoints like a symphony. It has been claimed that parts form a coherent animation if the figures are shot frame by frame. Although the structure follows a unique time-space continuum, it has narrative strategies; the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius wrote in his poem De rerum natura a few lines that come close to the basic principles of animation: "...when the first image perishes and a second is produced in another position, the former seems to have altered its pose. Of course this must be supposed to take place swiftly: so great is their velocity, so great the store of particles in any single moment of sensation, to enable the supply to come up."

This was in the context of dream images, rather than images produced by an actual or imagined technology. The medieval codex Sigenot has sequential illuminations with short intervals between different phases of action; each page has a picture inside a frame above the text, with great consistency in size and position throughout the book. A page of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci show anatomical studies with four different angles of the muscles of shoulder and neck of a man; the four drawings can be read as a rotating movement. Ancient Chinese records contain several mentions of devices, including one made by the inventor Ding Huan, said to "give an impression of movement" to a series of human or animal figures on them, but these accounts are unclear and may only refer to the actual movement of the figures through space. Since before 1000 CE the Chinese had a rotating lantern which had silhouettes projected on its thin paper sides that appeared to chase each other; this was called the "trotting horse lamp" as it would depict horses and horse-riders.

The cut-out silhouettes were attached inside the l

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Red of Tooth and Claw is the fourth full-length album by the American five-piece indie rock band Murder by Death and is the first record the band has released on the Vagrant record label. The title comes from a reference in Lord Tennyson's poem In Memoriam A. H. H.. It was recorded by the Grammy winning producer Trina Shoemaker at Dark Horse Recording Studio in Tennessee and was released by Vagrant Records, on March 4, 2008. Red of Tooth and Claw is, as the singer/guitarist Adam Turla put it, a "Homer's Odyssey of revenge, only without the honorable character at the center", it is a concept album, a prequel to their second album, Who Will Survive, What Will Be Left of Them?. Critics compared Turla's vocals to those of Nick Cave and Nick Drake. Overall, critical reception has been positive; the album has a score of 70% on Metacritic, indicated favorable reviews. Alternative Press gave the album four stars, writing, "They've realized their full potential..." AllMusic described "...a taut, elegant delivery..." and gave the album four stars as well, stating "the band's combination of a taut, elegant delivery and poetic lyrics breathes life into each of Red of Tooth and Claw's song".

In a mixed review, Spin felt it "...runs low on contemporary touchstones or appeal". The A. V. Club gave the album a C+, stating it "envisions turbulence, stages it professionally, downplays Murder By Death's power to frighten listeners and conjure up dust storms". Sputnikmusic criticized the album for sounding too similar to the previous album. Adam Turla – lead vocals, keyboards Sarah Balliet – cello Dagan Thogerson – drums, percussion Matt Armstrong – bass guitar Vincent Edwards – keyboards on "Ball and Chain"

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