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History of manga

The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century. Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as "comic", their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-war and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses that manga was shaped by United States cultural influences, including US comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from US television and cartoons. According to Sharon Kinsella, the booming Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.

Manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 13th centuries. During the Edo period, another book of drawings, Toba Ehon, embedded the concept of manga; the word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai who lived from 1760–1849. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. Writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga, they include Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, Eric Peter Nash. Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga that told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Schodt stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-e and shunga woodblock prints and modern manga.

While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the first manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period. However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli co-founder and director, contends there is no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga. Schodt and Nash see a significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street. Torrance has pointed to similarities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. Kinko Ito roots manga in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its post-WWII history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has produced new genres and markets, e.g. for girls' manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics in the 1980s.

Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshi nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium; the first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798, Kern points out, predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several decades. Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip.

By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes. Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the Allied occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art derives from Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic art, whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel, was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-war Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a common written language. Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga; the roots of the wide-eyed look associated with manga dates back to shōjo magazine illustrations during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. The most important illustrators associated with this style at the time were Yumeji Takehisa and Jun'ichi Nakahara, influenced by his work as a doll creator drew female characters with big eyes in the early 20th century.

This had a significant influe

St Peter's Church, Raunds

St Peter’s Church is an Anglican Church and the parish church of Raunds. It is a Grade; the present building is thought to be on the site of an earlier place of worship. The majority of the existing structure was erected between the 12th and 14th centuries, the walls being constructed of limestone with ashlar dressings; the spire is the second tallest in Northamptonshire. The bowl of the 13th-century circular font is decorated with a carving of a ram's head. A brass on the floor commemorates his wife Margaret. There is a tomb-chest dedicated to John Wales, vicar from 1447 to 1496. In the south chapel are monuments to William Gage of Magilligan, Ireland. A number of other substantial monuments and medieval wall paintings survive within the building; the church features a rare'left-handed fiddler' decoration above the western entrance. Until the 15th century the dedication of the church was to St Mary but the dedication now used is to St Peter; the interior was restored in 1878 by Sir Gilbert Scott.

The three-manual organ was built by Peter Conacher and was one of the largest organs by Conacher of Huddersfield. It was donated in 1893 by John King–Smith, a prominent boot manufacturer in Raunds and was most restored in 2006. In 2007, Hargrave and Stanwick were united as "The 4 Spires Benefice", with each village retaining its own church

Short Program (manga)

Short Program is the title of a series of unrelated short manga collections by Mitsuru Adachi. Four volumes compile stories selected from shōjo, shōnen and seinen works released from 1985 until 2009; the first collection, titled Short Program, collected stories published between 1985 and 1988. In Japan, Shogakukan published this in November 1988. In the United States, Viz Media published this collection in March 2000; the chapters are arranged differently for unknown reasons. As was customary with most manga published in the US at the time, the pages were'flopped' so that they read left to right, rather than right to left as drawn, it is printed at a larger paper size than the now-standard manga size. The second collection, titled Short Program 2, collected stories published between 1988 and 1995. In Japan, Shogakukan published this in June 1996. In the United States, Viz Media published this collection in April 2004. Unlike the first volume, this collection was published right to left, in the now-standard paper size for manga.

This volume was published in July 2007 in Japan. No announcements have been made regarding an English-language release in North America; this volume was published 11 May 2009 in Japan. No announcements have been made regarding an English-language release in North America; the Wilamette Week's Jamie Rich called the first volume of Short Program "solid, escapist entertainment" and "as irresistibly infatuating as comic books can get." He described the worlds created by Adachi as "ageless", describing his style as having "crisp, delicate " and having a "genuine sweetness". あだち充作品 リスト - Listing of Mitsuru Adachi's short stories Short Program at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Short Program 2 at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

2012 Cotton Bowl Classic

The 2012 AT&T Cotton Bowl Classic, the 76th edition of the game, was a post-season American college football bowl game, held on January 6, 2012 at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas as part of the 2011–12 NCAA Bowl season. The game, telecast at 7:00 p.m. CT on FOX, featured the Kansas State Wildcats from the Big XII Conference versus the Arkansas Razorbacks from the SEC Conference. Arkansas won the game 29–16, their first win over Kansas State since 1967; this was only the second time in the BCS era that a non-BCS bowl had two teams with higher BCS rankings playing than teams in a BCS bowl. The 2012 Sugar Bowl, 2012 Orange Bowl had teams with lower BCS rankings squaring off; as of the 2013 season, this is the most recent bowl game involving an SEC team, not played within the conference footprint, as Texas A&M did not join the SEC until 2012. This was the first meeting between Arkansas and Kansas State in the postseason and the fifth time overall. Arkansas came into this game with a 10–2 record, including a perfect 7–0 record at home.

Arkansas' only losses were on the road to #1 LSU and #2 Alabama. Quarterbacking for the Razorbacks was No. 8 Tyler Wilson. The team was ranked 13th in passing 27th in total offense. In 2011, Wilson threw for 3,422 yards for 22 touchdowns with a 63.1 percent pass completion. 2011 National and Big XII Coach of the Year Bill Snyder brought into this game a successful ground game that went 10–2 during the 2011 season. Quarterbacking for the Wildcats was No. 7 Collin Klein. Klein had 26 rushing scores, he passed for 12 touchdowns, fifth in the Big XII. Running back John Hubert had 933 rushing yards and three touchdowns for the Wildcats in 2011. Arkansas placekicker Zach Hocker started off the scoring with a 26-yard field goal, to give Arkansas a 3-0 lead. K-State couldn’t do anything with the ball early, as the Hogs defense played outstanding against the run for most of the night. After pinning the Wildcats near their own goal line, K-State punted. Arkansas return man Joe Adams fielded that 47 yard kick at the Hogs 49 yard line, got three or four great blocks by his teammates, ran down the right sideline for a touchdown.

It was Adams’ fourth punt returned for a touchdown on the season, was the first in the Cotton Bowl since Arkansas’ Lance Alworth took one back in the 1961 Cotton Bowl versus Duke. After another Hocker field goal to make it 13-0, Arkansas QB Tyler Wilson connected with receiver Jarius Wright on a 45-yard touchdown bomb, stretching Arkansas’ lead to 19-0. Kansas State lineman Raphael Guidry blocked the extra point attempt, Nigel Malone scooped up the ball and returned it for 2 points, making the Hogs lead 19-2. K-State would get a TD pass from Klein to TE Andre MacDonald just before halftime, setting the score at 19-9. In the 3rd quarter K-State drove 60 yards in just over three minutes, Klein dove in from the six yard line to cut Arkansas’ lead to 19-16. Two possessions the Hogs put together a 68-yard drive that took three minutes and twenty-five seconds; the drive culminated with a 9-yard TD pass from Wilson to Cobi Hamilton, pushing Arkansas’ lead back to ten points, 26-16. With time winding down, KSU abandoned their vaunted option-style running game, started throwing the ball.

The Razorbacks sacked the K-State QB 7 times, one shy of the record set in the 2000 Cotton Bowl by Arkansas, in a 27-6 win over Texas. Hocker would add his third field goal to stretch Arkansas’ lead to 29-16, with three and a half minutes to play. On their final possession, KSU only ran for positive yardage once, on a Klein scramble. Most of Klein’s completions for the game were underneath the coverage, for shorter gains, his longest completion went for 23 yards. With under a minute to play, Klein went deep. Arkansas rover Jerico Nelson was there for the interception, returning it 61 yards, sealing the victory for the Hogs. Arkansas improved to 11-2 for the 2011 season, claimed their fourth Cotton Bowl championship in school history, was ranked #5 in the final polls, it was Arkansas' first 11 win season since 1977. Kansas State fell to 10-3. Arkansas QB Tyler Wilson was the Offensive MVP... 20 completions on 31 attempts, 216 yards, 2 TD. Arkansas DE Jake Bequette was the Defensive MVP... 5 tackles, 3 sacks, 1 caused fumble


RNA-binding protein Musashi homolog 1 known as Musashi-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSI1 gene. This gene encodes a protein containing two conserved tandem RNA recognition motifs and functions as an RNA binding protein, involved in post-transcriptional gene editing, it is a stem cell marker that controls the balance between self-renewal and terminal differentiation. Over expression of this gene is associated with the grade of the malignancy and proliferative activity in gliomas and melanomas. An increased expression of MSI1 protein is observed in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma siRNA-mediated inhibition of MSI expression in endometrial carcinoma cells induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation by affecting the Notch signaling pathway MSI1 is expressed in neural progenitor cells and is required for normal development of the brain. A mutation in these gene is responsible for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. MSI1 interacts with the Zika virus genome and may explain why these cells are susceptible to Zika virus infection.


2010 United States Senate special election in New York

The 2010 United States Senate special election in New York took place on November 2, 2010, concurrently with other elections to the United States Senate in other states as well as elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Governor David Paterson had appointed Kirsten Gillibrand to serve as United States Senator from New York until the 2010 special election, replacing former Senator Hillary Clinton, who resigned to serve as Secretary of State in the Barack Obama administration; the winner of the special election was to complete the term ending in January 2013. The special election took place concurrently with the regular election for the Senate seat held by Charles Schumer and the 2010 New York gubernatorial election. Due to this special election, 2010 marked the first time since the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 that all of New York's six statewide offices were up for popular election on the same day; this coincided with the election of all 29 United States Representatives from New York, all 212 members of the New York State legislature, many other officeholders.

Hillary Clinton's temporary status as the front-runner for the Democratic nomination for president in 2008 generated intense speculation about who would be appointed to serve out the rest of her term if she won the presidency. As envisioned Eliot Spitzer would have been making the appointment, David Paterson Lieutenant Governor of New York, was considered the "friendly and politically expedient choice" to be appointed senator, but a variety of other choices were considered plausible. Once Barack Obama won the Democratic nomination, speculation about Clinton's successor evaporated and resumed when President-elect Obama selected Clinton to serve as Secretary of State. Clinton announced. Paterson, who succeeded Gov. Spitzer following his resignation, said he would not announce a selection until Clinton formally resigned resulting in intense political maneuvering and speculation about his eventual choice. During the appointment process, a large number of candidates were mentioned, including: Buffalo Mayor Byron Brown Former President Bill Clinton New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo Former Governor Mario Cuomo New York State Assemblywoman RoAnn Destito Actress Fran Drescher Then-U.

S. Representative and eventual seat-winner Kirsten Gillibrand U. S. Representative Brian Higgins U. S. Representative Steve Israel Attorney and eventual U. S. Ambassador to Japan Caroline Kennedy U. S. Representative Nita Lowey Former Lieutenant Governor Stan Lundine U. S. Representative Carolyn Maloney U. S. Representative Greg Meeks U. S. Representative Jerrold Nadler New York State Assemblyman Daniel J. O'Donnell Nassau County Executive Thomas Suozzi U. S. Representative Nydia Velázquez United Federation of Teachers President Randi Weingarten An early favorite for selection was New York Congresswoman Nita Lowey, who in the late 1990s had been planning a run for the 2000 Senate election, but had stepped aside once then-First Lady of the United States Clinton had decided to run for the office, but soon Lowey withdrew from consideration, as in the intervening years she had gained enough seniority to become one of the powerful "cardinals" on the House Appropriations Committee and did not want to relinquish that position.

Another who withdrew from consideration was New York Congresswoman Nydia Velázquez. Senator Schumer did not publicly indicate a preference, but favored Congresswoman Gillibrand; the indication by Caroline Kennedy that she was interested in being appointed drew the most media attention. Her family legacy and star power was balanced against her inexperience in elections, her uncle Senator Ted Kennedy, in a battle with brain cancer, encouraged her to seek the position. On December 15, Kennedy indicated that she was seeking the appointment, making phone calls to Paterson and other prominent Democrats. Kennedy and her uncle had backed Obama over Clinton at a crucial time in the long presidential nomination struggle, some past Clinton supporters disparaged Kennedy's qualifications for the senate seat, but soon Clinton told her supporters not to stand in the way of a Kennedy selection. Public opinion polls showed that Kennedy and Cuomo were the two most popular choices of New York residents, with their large name recognition factors playing a role.

Paterson faced a complex set of factors in making the choice. Women's groups were pressuring him to replace Clinton with another woman, while upstate groups were dissatisfied at their lack of representation in top-level statewide offices. Paterson's own gubernatorial election campaign could benefit from a Democratic star such as Kennedy in the senate race, which would help him raise money and increase voter enthusiasm, while the choice of Kennedy would bolster his relations with the Obama administration. Whatever candidate is chosen would be faced with having to raise $35 million for the 2010 special election and if victorious, another $35 million for the 2012 regular election two years later. By in December, Kennedy had mounted a concerted effort to gain support around the state, had made several trips and appearances as well. Kennedy's appointment was supported by Congresswoman Louise Slaughter, State Assemblyman Vito Lopez, New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg, former New York City Mayor Ed Koch and the New York Post editorial page.

She received criticism for not voting in a number of Democratic primaries and general elections since registering in 1988 in New York City and