Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
A flatbread is a bread made with flour and salt, thoroughly rolled into flattened dough. Many flatbreads are unleavened—although some are leavened, such as pita bread. There are many other optional ingredients that flatbreads may contain, such as diced onion, jalapeños, raisins, sunflower seeds, hemp nuts, chili powder, curry powder, cumin, or black pepper. Olive oil or sesame oil may be added as well as yogurt. Flatbreads can range from below one millimeter to a few centimeters thick, they can be baked in an oven, fried in hot oil, grilled over hot coals, cooked on a hot pan, comal, or metal griddle and eaten fresh or packaged and frozen for use. In 2018 charred bread crumbs were found at a Natufian site called Shubayqa 1 in Jordan dating to 12,400 BC, some 4000 years before the start of agriculture in the region. Analysis showed that they were from flatbread containing wild barley, einkorn wheat and Bolboschoenus glaucus tubers. Bannock Bolo do caco Borlengo Farl Flammkuchen/Tarte flambée: thin bread dough rolled out in a circle or a rectangle and covered with onions and lardons Flatbrød: barley flour and water, or potato and salt, or peas flour and salt.
Flatkaka: rye flatbread Focaccia Ftira Hoggan: made from barley flour containing pieces of pork, potato Lagana Lepinja Lepyoshka Pita Lavash Lefse Matnakash Opłatek Pane carasau Piadina: white flour, lard and water Pita Pită/Lipie Pissaladière Pizza Podpłomyk Pogača Posúch Părlenka Rieska Shotis Puri Somun and Lepina Spianata sarda Staffordshire oatcake Tigella Tonis Puri Torta Torta al testo Torta de Gazpacho Tunnbröd: any combination of wheat and rye Barbari Bataw Bazlama: made from wheat flour and table salt Eish merahrah: made with 5–10% ground fenugreek seeds and maize Gözleme: folded over a savoury filling and fried on a griddle Gurassa Harsha: fried buttery bread made of semolina Injera: teff flour Khebz Khubz Lahoh Lebanese Bread: white flour, dried yeast, sugar and water Muufo Malooga: water, yeast and flour M'lawi: water, olive oil and flour Chapati Markook Matzo: white plain flour and water Murr Ngome: millet and vegetable oil Pita Sangak Taftan Khubz Asmr: made of wholemeal flour and salt Yufka: wheat flour and table salt Afghan bread or "Nan" Aloo paratha Akki rotti Aparon Appam: made from fermented rice batter and coconut milk Bánh Bakarkhani Bhakri: made with water and millet flour Bhatura: made with white flour, yogurt and yeast Bindaeddeok: made from mung bean flour Bing Bolani: a vegetarian flat-bread dish Chapati: made from atta flour and salt Chili parotha Chikkolee Dhebra Dosa: made from rice and black gram batter Gobi paratha Jolada rotti Green onion pancake: made with oil and minced scallions Obi Non Kaak Kabkab Kachori Khanom buang: rice flour Kiping Kothu parotta Kulcha Laobing Luchi: fine maida flour with water and a spoonful of ghee Makki di roti Mughlai paratha Pathiri: is a traditional roti that originated from Malabar cuisine.
Naan: leavened with yeast, unlike Roti breadCheese Naan: A Naan bread filled with cheeses and local seasoning Nutella Naan/Paratha: A Naan bread filled with Nutella or a paratha with similar spreadParatha Parotta Pesarattu: made from green gram batter Phulka: made from whole wheat flour and salt. It is like a baked variety of Puri. Piaya Poli: made from whole wheat flour and salt, it is layered round flat bread. Pol roti: made from scraped coconut and wheat or kurakkan flour, with green chillis and onion Puri: prepared from dough of atta and salt Ragi rotti Roast paan: bread mixture baked in a flat mold, producing a'flat' bread. Roti Roti prata Roti canai Rumali roti Sanchuisanda Sheermal Shelpek Tapansha, Taba nan Taftan Tandoor-nan Arepa: flat, unleavened patty made of cornmeal Bammy (Jam
Kaiane Loise Aldorino Lopez, GMH is a Gibraltarian politician and former Mayor of Gibraltar, as well as Miss World 2009. From 2017 to 2019, she held the ceremonial position of Mayor of Gibraltar, after serving as Deputy Mayor since 2014. Aldorino was a beauty pageant titleholder, being crowned Miss Gibraltar 2009, winning Miss World 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa, she was the first Gibraltarian woman to reach the semifinals of a major international pageant, is the only to win one, as well. Aldorino was raised in Gibraltar. Prior to becoming Miss Gibraltar 2009, she had been working as a human resources clerk at St Bernard's Hospital for five years. Aldorino was raised bilingually, speaking both Spanish, like most Gibraltarians. Aldorino began dancing with Urban Dance Group, she participated at the 2008 International Dance Organization World Showdance Championships, in Riesa, where she represented Gibraltar in the Formation category as part of the Gibraltar National Dance Team. They placed 17th, made history by being the first Gibraltarian formation team to pass the first round.
Aldorino married Aron Lopez in June 2015. They have one daughter, born in 2016. On 27 June 2009, Aldorino was crowned Miss Gibraltar 2009, succeeding Krystle Robba at the Alameda Open Air Theatre. Aldorino made history on 12 December 2009, by becoming the first Miss Gibraltar to be crowned Miss World, she was the first Gibraltarian contestant to have reached the semifinals of one of the major international pageants after receiving the title of Miss World Beach Beauty. Shortly after Aldorino was crowned by her predecessor, Ksenia Sukhinova of Russia, Gibraltar burst into celebration as many Gibraltarians took to the streets. Supporters waved the flag of Gibraltar, chanted as cars honked their horns, fireworks were set off. Chief Minister of Gibraltar Peter Caruana hailed her win as a "wonderful achievement for her and for Gibraltar" and promised a "homecoming fit for a queen". In 2010, she was guest judge in the final Mister World 2010 beauty pageant in South Korea. During her reign, Lopez traveled to over 40 countries.
Some of these countries include: United Kingdom, Japan, Hong Kong, United States, Germany, Italy, South Africa and China. On 15 December 2009, HM Government of Gibraltar announced Aldorino would be flown into Gibraltar from London on a private jet the following afternoon. On 16 December 2009, the government issued a press release in which it detailed the events that would take place upon Aldorino's arrival; these included a public greeting at Gibraltar Airport, a parade through Main Street where Aldorino would ride in the same convertible car as Diana, Princess of Wales and Prince Charles during their honeymoon visit to Gibraltar. On 17 December 2009, Aldorino paraded down Main Street preceded by the band of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, appeared at the City Hall balcony; this was followed by a press reception at the Rock Hotel. The celebrations culminated with a fireworks display from Gibraltar Harbour; the Government requested all businesses in Gibraltar who were reasonably able to do so to close between 4pm and 6pm on this day to allow their staff to take part in the welcoming celebrations.
In March 2014, Aldorino was appointed deputy to the Mayor of Gibraltar, Adolfo Canepa, as a result of a motion by the Chief Minister Fabian Picardo, passed by the Parliament. On 5 April 2017, she became the mayor of the territory. On 7 July 2011, Aldorino was the awarded with both the Freedom of the City of Gibraltar and the Gibraltar Medallion of Honour by a unanimous vote in the Gibraltar Parliament; the motion, tabled by Chief Minister of Gibraltar Peter Caruana recognised her: Aldorino became the first woman to receive the Freedom of the City in Gibraltar. Official Miss Gibraltar pageant website
Farinata, torta di ceci, or cecina is a type of thin, unleavened pancake or crêpe of chickpea flour originating in Genoa and a typical food of the Ligurian Sea coast, from Nice to Elba island. The origin of the dish is unknown, although various flat-bread techniques predate written history, as do chickpeas, chickpea flour. One origin-story says farinata was invented by a group of Roman soldiers who roasted chickpea-flour on a shield. In standard Italian, the dish is called farinata while in Ligurian in the Genoese dialect, it goes by the name of fainâ. In Nice and the Côte d'Azur, it is called socca, in Tuscany, cecina or torta di ceci and in Sardinia fainè. In Uruguay and Argentina it is massively popular and is called fainá, it is made by stirring chickpea flour into a mixture of water and olive oil to form a loose batter, pouring it into a pan to make a pancake 4mm thick, baking it for a few minutes, traditionally in an open oven in a tin-plated copper baking-pan. Farinata may be seasoned with fresh rosemary and sea salt.
Traditionally farinata is cut into irregularly shaped triangular slices, eaten on small plates with optional black pepper. Elsewhere in Italy - traditionally in Tuscany, where it is called cecina - it is served stuffed into small focaccia or between two slices of bread, as it is traditional in Livorno, it is sold in bakeries. On the Tuscan coast, south of Liguria in the province of Pisa, Lucca, Massa Carrara cecina or, in Livorno, torta is baked. In Sassari, due to the historical ties with Genoa, la fainé genovese, is a typical dish. In Savona province, a version of farinata called, it is made with wheat flour instead of chickpea flour. The name panissa or paniscia in Genoese indicates a solidified boiled polenta-like paste, made with the same ingredients as farinata, it can be cut into fried, called panissette. In Genoa, variants of the farinata include sometimes onions or artichokes, but the most famous derivative recipe is the fainâ co i gianchetti, at times hard to find due to fishing regulations, but traditionally seen as the quintessential fainâ.
Socca is a specialty of southeastern French cuisine in and around the city of Nice, is the same as farinata. It may be baked on a tinned copper plate more than a meter in diameter. Panisse is a specialty of Marseille, is a similar dish, but thicker, is cut into rectangles and fried. In Algeria, karantita is a similar dish, popular, it is dressed with cumin and harissa. In Argentina and Uruguay farinata is known as fainá, similar to the original Genoese name fainâ, it is eaten on top of pizza. In Uruguay, "el fainá" is considered a traditional Uruguayan dish, brought by immigrants in 1915, so much so that 27 August has been called "Fainá Day". Olive oil, expensive, is not used. In Gibraltar, where a significant portion of its population is of Genoese origin, it is known as calentita when it is baked or panissa when it is fried, they are eaten plain, without any toppings. These are considered to be Gibraltar's national dishes. In India, the dal "chila" or besan "puda", depending on the region, is a similar dish made by cooking chickpea flour and water on an oiled skillet.
Vegetables such as onions, green chillies and herbs and spices such as coriander are added in certain versions of the preparation. List of pancakes Food portal Media related to Socca at Wikimedia Commons
Chief Minister of Gibraltar
The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the head of Her Majesty's Government of Gibraltar, elected by the Gibraltar Parliament, formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Monarch. The incumbent Chief Minister is Fabian Picardo, since 9 December 2011, leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party. List of current heads of government in the United Kingdom and dependencies Governor of Gibraltar
Sir Joseph John Bossano KCMG is a Gibraltarian politician who served as Chief Minister of Gibraltar from 1988 to 1996 and Leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party from 1978 to 2011. He served as Leader of the Opposition from 1984 to 1988 and 1996 to 2011. Bossano was born in Gibraltar and has a degree in Economics from the London School of Economics, as well as a degree in Italian from the University of Birmingham, he became part of the trade union movement in the 1960s while working as a seaman in Britain, where he was a member of the British Labour Party. He was asked by a group of Gibraltarian politicians to return to Gibraltar and was elected a member of the House of Assembly in 1972, as a candidate of the Integration with Britain Party. In 1969 the IWBP leader the Chief Minister, Sir Robert Peliza, was the mover of the Preamble to the Constitution which safeguards Gibraltar from passing to Spain without the expressed wishes of the Gibraltarians, he became the Branch Officer for the Transport and General Workers Union.
In 1975, he left the IWBP to form the Gibraltar Democratic Movement, which won four seats in the Assembly in the 1976 election and two years became the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party. He has always kept a hard line stance against any sovereignty deal with Spain without the consent of the Gibraltarians. In 1980 he led a demonstrations of about 2,000 Gibraltarians protesting at the opening of negotiations between Spain and the United Kingdom agreed on the Lisbon Agreement. In 1987 he supported the position of the Government of Gibraltar and the Assembly against any agreement between Spain and the United Kingdom with regard to the joint use of the Airport of Gibraltar. On 10 November and Joshua Hassan Chief Minister, led a demonstration of about 12,000 Gibraltarians, one of the largest held in the territory. In February 1988, Bossano and Adolfo Canepa, the leader of the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights, stated that the Gibraltar House of Assembly would not approve the agreement reached by Spain and UK in December 1987 on the joint use of the Airport unless Spain accepted the British sovereignty over the isthmus.
In the key 1988 election, Bossano's party called for the self-determination, expressed its opposition to the negotiations over the sovereignty and future of Gibraltar between Spain and the United Kingdom, opposed to any transfer of sovereignty to Spain. It asked for the withdrawal of the negotiations on the Brussels Declaration and opposed to the Airport agreement; the GSLP got a 58.2 % of the popular vote. Bossano received a personal vote of 8,1128, about 4,000 more than Adolfo Canepa; therefore Bossano was the new Chief Minister. His re-election in 1992 with a 72% share of the vote, caused considerable friction with governments in both London and Madrid who were looking for a solution to the 300-year-old Spanish claim to Gibraltar; as Chief Minister he maintained good relations with Spanish politicians at municipal level, but would not sit to discuss the sovereignty of Gibraltar with them. During his time in office, Bossano oversaw significant economic change, resulting from the decline of traditional sources of employment, such as the UK Ministry of Defence, the creation of a private sector economy based on offshore finance and tourism.
He broke the back of the severe housing problem existing in Gibraltar before he came into power, by reclaiming land from the sea and constructing hundreds of affordable flats, which were offered at reasonable prices. For the first time, since Gibraltarians have become home owners, rather than renting from the government, as was traditional, his main quest is and has always been to achieve the decolonisation of Gibraltar through the maximum level of self-government possible resulting in the removal of Gibraltar from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. As leader of the GSLP and the Opposition and following his retirement as party leader, Bossano is still prominent in Gibraltar politics, he stood down as GSLP leader in April 2011. Bossano remains active in politics and was a GSLP candidate in the Gibraltar general election in December 2011. Upon the GSLP-Liberal victory, Bossano got a seat in the Gibraltar Parliament and was appointed Minister for Enterprise and Employment by the Chief Minister, Fabian Picardo.
The GSLP-Liberal government under Fabian Picardo won a second term at the 2015 general election and as of 2017, Bossano held the position of Minister for Economic Development, Telecommunications & the Gibraltar Savings Bank. Bossano was appointed a Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in the 2018 New Year Honours. List of Gibraltarians Politics of Gibraltar