Panic of 1837
The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits and wages went down while unemployment went up. Pessimism abounded during the time; the panic had both foreign origins. Speculative lending practices in western states, a sharp decline in cotton prices, a collapsing land bubble, international specie flows, restrictive lending policies in Great Britain were all to blame. On May 10, 1837, banks in New York City suspended specie payments, meaning that they would no longer redeem commercial paper in specie at full face value. Despite a brief recovery in 1838, the recession persisted for seven years. Banks collapsed, businesses failed, prices declined, thousands of workers lost their jobs. Unemployment may have been as high as 25% in some locales; the years 1837 to 1844 were speaking, years of deflation in wages and prices. The crisis followed a period of economic expansion from mid-1834 to mid-1836; the prices of land and slaves rose in these years.
The origins of this boom had many sources, both international. Because of the peculiar factors of international trade at the time, abundant amounts of silver were coming into the United States from Mexico and China. Land sales and tariffs on imports were generating substantial federal revenues. Through lucrative cotton exports and the marketing of state-backed bonds in British money markets, the United States acquired significant capital investment from Great Britain; these bonds financed transportation projects in the United States. British loans, made available through Anglo-American banking houses like Baring Brothers, fueled much of the United States's westward expansion, infrastructure improvements, industrial expansion, economic development during the antebellum era. In 1836, directors of the Bank of England noticed that the Bank's monetary reserves had declined precipitously in recent years because of poor wheat harvests that forced Great Britain to import much of its food. To compensate, the directors indicated that they would raise interest rates from 3 to 5 percent.
The conventional financial theory held that banks should raise interest rates and curb lending when faced with low monetary reserves. Raising interest rates, according to the laws of supply and demand, was supposed to attract species since money flows where it will generate the greatest return. In the open economy of the 1830s, characterized by free trade and weak trade barriers, the monetary policies of the hegemonic power – in this case, Great Britain – were transmitted to the rest of the interconnected global economic system, included the U. S; the result was that as the Bank of England raised interest rates, major banks in the United States were forced to do the same. When New York banks raised interest rates and scaled back on lending, the effects were damaging. Since the price of a bond bears an inverse relationship to the yield, the increase in prevailing interest rates would have forced down the price of American securities. Demand for cotton plummeted; the price of cotton fell by 25% in February and March 1837.
The United States economy in the southern states, was dependent on stable cotton prices. Receipts from cotton sales provided funding for some schools, balanced the nation's trade deficit, fortified the US dollar, procured foreign exchange earnings in British pound sterling, the world's reserve currency at the time. Since the United States was still a predominantly agricultural economy centered on the export of staple crops and an incipient manufacturing sector, a collapse in cotton prices would have caused massive reverberations. Within the United States, there were several contributing factors. In July 1832, President Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the Second Bank of the United States, the nation's central bank and fiscal agent; as the BUS wound up its operations in the next four years, state-chartered banks in the West and South relaxed their lending standards, maintaining unsafe reserve ratios. Two domestic policies, in particular, exacerbated an volatile situation; the Specie Circular of 1836 mandated that western lands could be purchased only with gold and silver coin.
The circular was an executive order issued by Andrew Jackson and favored by Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri and other hard-money advocates. The intent was to curb speculation in public lands, but the circular set off a real estate and commodity price crash as most buyers were unable to come up with sufficient hard money or "specie" to pay for the land. Secondly, the Deposit and Distribution Act of 1836 placed federal revenues in various local banks across the country. Many of these banks were located in western regions; the effect of these two policies was to transfer specie away from the nation's main commercial centers on the East Coast. With lower monetary reserves in their vaults, major banks and financial institutions on the East Coast had to scale back their loans, a major cause of the panic along with the real estate crash. Americans at the time attributed the cause of the panic principally to domestic political conflicts. Democrats blamed the bankers. Whigs blamed Jackson for refusing to renew the charter of the Bank, resulting in the withdrawal of government funds from the bank.
Martin Van Buren, who became president in March 1837, was blamed for the panic though his inauguration preceded the panic by only five weeks. Van Buren's refusal to use government intervention to address the crisis (such as emergency relief and increa
Henry Inman (painter)
Henry Inman was an American portrait and landscape painter. He was born at Utica, N. Y. to English immigrant parents who were among the first settlers of Utica. His family moved to New York City in 1812. Beginning in 1814 and continuing for the next seven years, he was an apprentice pupil of John Wesley Jarvis in New York City, along with John Quidor, he was the first vice president of the National Academy of Design. He was less careful in genre pictures. Among his landscapes are Rydal Falls, October Afternoon, Ruins of Brambletye, his genre subjects include Rip Van Winkle, The News Boy, Boyhood of Washington. His portraits include those of Henry Rutgers and Fitz-Greene Halleck in the New York Historical Society, he painted portraits of Angelica Singleton Van Buren, Bishop White, Chief Justices Marshall and Nelson, Jacob Barker, William Wirt, Audubon, DeWitt Clinton, Martin Van Buren, William H. Seward. Thomas L. McKenney assigned Inman, an accomplished lithographer, the task of copying more than a hundred oil paintings of Native American leaders by Charles Bird King to translate into a printed book, the History of the Indian Tribes of North America.
The oil paintings are now in the collections of White House, the Joslyn Art Museum, the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, among others. In the Metropolitan Museum, New York, are his Martin Van Buren, The Young Fisherman, William C. Maccready as William Tell. During a year spent in England in 1844–1845, he painted Wordsworth, John Chambers, Sir William Stewart, Baronet of Blair and other celebrities. At the time of his death, he was engaged on a series of historical pictures for the Capitol at Washington, he was president of National Academy of Design. Among his pupils was the portraitist and still life painter Thomas Wightman. In 1822, Inman was married to Jane Riker O'Brien. Together, they were the parents of: Mary Lawrence Inman, who married Smith Cutter Coddington in 1844. John O'Brien Inman, a painter. Mary Lucy Inman, who married William Vail Henry Inman, Jr. a writer who married Eunice Churchill Dyer in 1862. Inman died on January 1846 after returning from England to America due to failing health.
Paintings by Henry Inman This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Art and the empire city: New York, 1825–1861, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Inman Gallery of Henry Inman's works, Art Authority Henry Inman collection at the New-York Historical Society
Pushmataha, the "Indian General", was one of the three regional chiefs of the major divisions of the Choctaw in the 19th century. Many historians considered him the "greatest of all Choctaw chiefs". Pushmataha was regarded among Native Americans and white Americans, for his skill and cunning in both war and diplomacy. Rejecting the offers of alliance and reconquest proffered by Tecumseh, Pushmataha led the Choctaw to fight on the side of the United States in the War of 1812, he negotiated several treaties with the United States. In 1824, he traveled to Washington to petition the Federal government against further cessions of Choctaw land, he died in the capital city and was buried with full military honors in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. C; the exact meaning of Pushmataha's name is unknown, though scholars agree that it suggests connotations of "ending". Many possible etymologies have been suggested: Apushamatahahubi: "a messenger of death. Apushim-alhtaha, "the sapling is ready, or finished, for him."
Pushmataha, "the warrior's seat is finished." Pushmataha, "He has won all the honors of his race." Apushimataha, "No more in the bag." Pushmataha's early life is poorly documented. His parents are unknown killed in a raid by a neighboring tribe. Pushmataha never spoke of his ancestors, it came before a rushing wind, covered the Choctaw country with darkness. Out of it flew an angry fire, it struck a large oak, scattered its limbs and its trunk all along the ground, from that spot sprung forth a warrior armed for war. Most historians agree that he was born in 1764 in the normal manner near the future site of Macon, Mississippi; when he was 13, Pushmataha fought in a war against the Creek people. Some sources report that he was given the early warrior-name of "Eagle". Better attested is his participation in wars with the Osage and Caddo tribes west of the Mississippi River between 1784 and 1789, he served as a warrior in other conflicts into the first decade of the 1800s, by his reputation as a warrior was made.
These conflicts were due to depletion of the traditional deer-hunting grounds of the Choctaw around their holy site of Nanih Waiya. Population had increased in the area, competition among tribes over the fur trade with Europeans exacerbated violent conflict; the Choctaw raided traditional hunting grounds of other tribes for deer. Pushmataha's raids extended into the territories that would become the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma, his experience and knowledge of the lands would prove invaluable for negotiations with the US government for those same lands. By 1800, Pushmataha was recognized as a military and spiritual leader, he was chosen as the mingo of the Okla Hannali or Six Towns district of the Choctaw.. His sharp logic, humorous wit, lyrical, eloquent speaking style earned him renown in councils. Pushmataha took a central position in diplomacy, first meeting with United States envoys at Fort Confederation in 1802. Pushmataha negotiated the Treaty of Mount Dexter with the United States on November 16, 1805, met Thomas Jefferson during his term as President.
Early in 1811, Tecumseh garnered support for his British-backed attempt to recover lands from the United States settlers. As chief for the Six Towns district, Pushmataha resisted such a plan, pointing out that the Choctaw and their neighbors the Chickasaw had always lived in peace with European Americans, had learned valuable skills and technologies, had received honest treatment and fair trade; the joint Choctaw-Chickasaw council voted against alliance with Tecumseh. When Tecumseh departed, Pushmataha accused him of tyranny over his own Shawnee tribe and other tribes, he warned Tecumseh. With the outbreak of war, Pushmataha led the Choctaw in alliance with the United States, he argued against the Creek alliance with Britain after the massacre at Fort Mims. In mid-1813, Pushmataha went to St. Stephens, Alabama with an offer of alliance and recruitment of warriors, he was escorted to Mobile to speak with General Flournoy commanding the district. Flournoy declined Pushmataha's offer and offended the chief.
Flournoy's staff convinced the general to reverse his decision. A courier carrying a message accepting Pushmataha's offer caught up with the chief at St. Stephens. Returning to Choctaw territory, Pushmataha raised a company of 500 warriors, he was commissioned in the United States Army at St. Stephens. After observing that the officers and their wives would promenade along the Tombigbee River, Pushmataha invited his wife to St. Stephens and took part in this custom. Under Brigadier General Ferdinand Claiborne, Pushmataha and 150 Choctaw warriors took part in an attack on Creek forces at the Battle of Holy Ground known as Kantachi or Econochaca, on December 23, 1813. With this victory, Choctaw began to volunteer in greater numbers from the other two districts of the tribe. By February 1814, Pushmataha led a larger band of Choctaws and joined General Andrew Jackson's force to sweep the Creek territories near Pensacola. Many Choctaw departed after the final defeat of the Creek at Horseshoe Bend. By the Battle of New Orleans, only a few Choctaw remained with the army.
Shakopee (Dakota leaders)
Shakopee or Chief Shakopee may refer to any of the three Mdewakanton Dakota leaders, in what is now the United States, who lived in the area of Minnesota from the late 18th century through 1865. The name comes from the Dakota Shák'pí meaning "Six," as the wife of the first Shakopee gave birth to sextuplet boys. Shakopee I. Shakopee was given this name when White Buffalo Woman, gave birth to sextuplet boys. Shakopee met Major Stephen Harriman Long at the mouth of the Minnesota River in 1817, when Long came up to distribute the presents for which Lieutenant Zebulon Pike had contracted to send them 12 years earlier when he made the Pike's Purchase. Long reported finding Chief Shakopee offensive. Shakopee was executed at Fort Snelling in June 1827 by running a gauntlet manned by Ojibwa as part of his punishment for murdering some Ojibwa before. Shakopee Lake near Mille Lacs Lake was named after him. Shakopee II, or the Eaglehead. Shakopee was the biological twin son of the Ojibwa leader Ozaawindib "Yellow Head".
His father gave him to the Dakota in order to forge an alliance with the band, to provide them with a hereditary chief. As an adult, Shakopee identified as being both Ojibwa and Dakota, he had been adopted by Shakopee I as his son. After signing the 1825 First Treaty of Prairie du Chien, Shakopee II was forced to identify as Dakota, because he was representing them in negotiations and treaties with the United States, he was signatory to the 1826 Treaty of Fond du Lac, 1837 Treaty of St. Peters, the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe of the Ojibwa. Shakopee was a signatory to the Treaty of Mendota of August 5, 1851,. Annuities of food and money were to be distributed from the federal government to the Indians as part of the treaty, but several years after the outbreak of the American Civil War, United States broke their treaty obligations. Shakopee served as a guide to Joseph Nicollet in part of the exploration of the upper Mississippi River, providing details on its tributaries, such as Rice Creek near Fridley, Minnesota.
In Ojibwe, he was called Zhaagobe. His descendants who identified as Ojibwa rather than Dakota are known by the surname of "Shaugobay," spelled "Shagobince". Shakopee III was first named as Eatoka, he was named Shakpedan in Dakota or Zhaagobens in Ojibwe, both meaning "Little Shakopee," or Little Six at the death of his father. Shakopee was the son of his Dakota wife, he was born in the Dakota village of Shakopee. He became a chief following the death of his father. During the Dakota War of 1862, Shakopee III was a war leader of the Yankton Dakota in Minnesota, he escaped to Canada after the conflict. With fellow leader Medicine Bottle, he was betrayed, drugged and turned over to U. S. forces. Shakopee and Medicine Bottle were executed at Fort Snelling on November 11, 1865 for their participation in the Dakota War. While he was held prisoner at Fort Snelling, Shakopee III was photographed in 1864, he is the namesake of the Little Six Casino operated by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community in Shakopee, Minnesota.
Eden Prairie History — Three Chiefs Shakopee
The Menominee are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans, with a 353.894 sq mi reservation in Wisconsin. Their historic territory included an estimated 10 million acres in present-day Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; the tribe has about 8,700 members. The tribe was terminated in the 1960s under policy of the time. During that period, they brought what has become a landmark case in Indian law to the United States Supreme Court, in Menominee Tribe v. United States, to protect their treaty hunting and fishing rights; the Wisconsin Supreme Court and the United States Court of Claims had drawn opposing conclusions about the effect of the termination on Menominee hunting and fishing rights on their former reservation land. The U. S. Supreme Court determined that the tribe had not lost traditional hunting and fishing rights as a result of termination, as Congress had not ended these in its legislation; the tribe regained federal recognition in 1973 in an act of Congress, re-established its reservation in 1975.
They operate under a written constitution establishing an elected government. Their first government under it took over tribal government and administration from the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1979; the Menominee are part of the Algonquian language family of North America, made up several tribes now located around the Great Lakes and many other tribes based along the Atlantic coast. They are one of the historical tribes of Wisconsin, they are believed to have been well-settled in that territory for more than 1,000 years. By some accounts, they are descended from the Old Copper Culture people and other indigenous peoples, in this area for 10,000 years. Menominee oral history states, their reservation is located 60 miles west of the site of their Creation, according to their tradition. They arose where the Menominee River enters Green Bay of Lake Michigan, where the city of Marinette, Wisconsin has since developed, their name for themselves is Mamaceqtaw, meaning "the people". The name "Menominee" is not their autonym.
It was adopted by Europeans from the Ojibwe people, another Algonquian tribe whom they encountered first as they moved west and who told them of the Menominee. The Ojibwe name for the tribe was manoominii, meaning "wild rice people", as they cultivated wild rice as one of their most important food staples; the Menominee were known to be a peaceful and welcoming nation, who had a reputation for getting along with other tribes. When the Oneota culture arose in southern Wisconsin between AD 800 and 900, the Menominee shared the forests and waters with them; the Menominee are a Northeastern Woodlands tribe. They were encountered by European explorers in Wisconsin in the mid-17th century during the colonial era, had extended interaction with them during periods in North America. During this period they lived in numerous villages; the anthropologist James Mooney in 1928 estimated. The early French explorers and traders referred to the people as "folles avoines", referring to the wild rice which they cultivated and gathered as one of their staple foods.
The Menominee have traditionally subsisted on a wide variety of plants and animals, with wild rice and sturgeon being two of the most important. Wild rice has a special importance to the tribe as their staple grain, while the sturgeon has a mythological importance and is referred to as the "father" of the Menominee. Feasts are still held annually at. Menominee customs are quite similar to those of the Chippewa, another Algonquian people, their language has a closer affinity to those of the Kickapoo tribes. All four spoke part of the Algonquian family; the five principal Menominee clans are the Bear, the Eagle, the Wolf, the Crane, the Moose. Each has traditional responsibilities within the tribe. With a patrilineal kinship system, traditional Menominee believe that children derive their social status from their fathers, are born "into" their father's clan. Members of the same clan are considered relatives, so must choose marriage partners from outside their clan. Ethnologist James Mooney wrote an article on the Menominee which appeared in Catholic Encyclopedia, incorrectly reporting that their descent and inheritance proceeds through the female line.
Such as a matrilineal kinship system is common among many other Native American peoples, including other Algonquian tribes. Menominee mythology is rich with ethical meaning, it has many elements in common with the sacred literature and cultures of other Native American peoples. Traditional Menominee believe that the Earth forms a partition between lower worlds; the upper world represents good and the lower world represents evil. These two worlds are divided into the furthest being the most powerful; the Sun is at the highest level in the upper world, followed by the Thunderbird and the Morning Star, the Golden Eagles and other birds, led by the Bald Eagle. The first level below the earth in the lower world is occupied by the Horned Serpent; the succeeding lower levels are the home of the White Deer. The next level is that of the Underwater Panther; the lowest level is ruled by the Great White Bear. Traditional Menominee use dr
The Sioux known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. The Santee Dakota reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas and northern Iowa; the Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, meaning "Seven Council Fires").
Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, they are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters".
This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST; the alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. The Sioux comprise three related language groups: Eastern Dakota Santee Sisseton Western Dakota Yankton Yanktonai Lakota The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai. However, the latest studies show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name the same as the Santee; these studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota.
Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóda. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived. The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States. Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations.
The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio to Minnesota. Some came up from area of South Carolina; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name "Dakota Territory"
Smithsonian Institution Building
For similar uses and terms, see Smithsonian. The Smithsonian Institution Building, located near the National Mall in Washington, D. C. behind the National Museum of African Art and the Sackler Gallery, houses the Smithsonian Institution's administrative offices and information center. The building is constructed of Seneca red sandstone in the faux Norman style and is nicknamed The Castle, it was completed in 1855 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. The Castle was the first Smithsonian building, designed by architect James Renwick, Jr. whose other works include St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City and the Smithsonian's Renwick Gallery in Washington D. C; the building committee held a nationwide design competition in 1846 and selected Renwick's design by a unanimous vote. A cardboard model of Renwick's winning design is on display in the Castle. Renwick was assisted by Robert Mills in the internal arrangement of the building. Intended to be built in white marble in yellow sandstone, the architect and building committee settled on Seneca red sandstone from the Seneca Quarry in Montgomery County, Maryland.
The redstone was less expensive than granite or marble, while easy to work, was found to harden to a satisfactory degree on exposure to the elements. Scholarly evidence indicates it is that slaves were employed at Seneca in quarrying stone for the Castle, though no evidence has surfaced that slaves were involved in the actual Castle construction; the building committee selected Gilbert Cameron as the general contractor, construction began in 1847. The East Wing occupied by Secretary Joseph Henry and his family; the West Wing was completed the same year. A structural collapse in 1850 of completed work raised questions of workmanship and resulted in a change to fireproof construction; the Castle's exterior was completed in 1852. Cameron continued the interior work, which he completed in 1855. Construction funds came from "accrued interest on the Smithson bequest."Despite the upgraded fireproof construction, a fire in 1865 caused extensive damage to the upper floor of the building, destroying the correspondence of James Smithson, Henry's papers, two hundred oil paintings of American Indians by John Mix Stanley, the Regent's Room and the lecture hall, the contents of the public libraries of Alexandria and Beaufort, South Carolina, confiscated by Union forces during the American Civil War.
The ensuing renovation was undertaken by local Washington architect Adolf Cluss in 1865-67. Further fireproofing work ensued in 1883 by Cluss, who by this time had designed the neighboring Arts and Industries Building. A third and fourth floor were added to the East Wing, a third floor to the West Wing. Electric lighting was installed in 1895. Around 1900 the wooden floor of the Great Hall was replaced with terrazzo and a Children's Museum was installed near the south entrance. A tunnel connected to the Industries Building. A general renovation took place in 1968-70 to install modern electrical systems and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems; the Enid A. Haupt Garden was dedicated in 1987, along with the Renwick Gate facing Independence Avenue, built from Seneca redstone retrieved from the demolished D. C. Jail. James Renwick designed the Castle as the focal point of a picturesque landscape on the Mall, using elements from Georg Moller's Denkmäler der deutschen Baukunst. Renwick intended to detail the building with American sculptural flora in the manner of Benjamin Henry Latrobe's work at the United States Capitol, but the final work used conventional pattern-book designs.
The building is completed in the Gothic Revival style with Romanesque motifs. This style was chosen to evoke the Collegiate Gothic in England and the ideas of knowledge and wisdom; the façade is built with red sandstone from the Seneca quarry in Seneca, Maryland in contrast to the granite and yellow sandstone from the other major buildings in Washington, D. C; the building comprises a central section, two extensions or ranges, two wings. Four towers contain occupiable space, while five smaller towers are decorative, although some contain stairs; as constructed, the central section contained the main entry and museum space, with a basement beneath and a large lecture room above. Two galleries on the second floor were used to display artifacts and art; this area is now Associates' Reception area. The East Range contained laboratory space on the first research space on the second; the East Wing contained storage space on the first floor and a suite of rooms on the second as an apartment for the Secretary of the Smithsonian.
This space is used as administrative offices and archives. The West Range was one story and used as a reading room; the West Wing, known as the chapel, was used as a library. The West Wing and Range are now used as a quiet room for visitors to go. On the exterior, the principal tower on the south side is 37 feet square. On the north side there are the taller on 145 feet tall. A campanile at the northeast corner is 117 feet tall; the plan allowed for expansion at either end, a major reason for the informal medievally-inspired design, which would not suffer if asymmetrically developed. The Smithsonian Castle houses the administrative offices of the Smithsonian; the main Smithsonian visitor center is located here, w