SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of the Internet

The history of the Internet has its origin in the efforts to interconnect computer networks that arose from research and development in the United States and involved international collaboration with researchers in the United Kingdom and France. Computer science was an emerging discipline in the late 1950s that began to consider time-sharing between computer users and the possibility of achieving this over wide area networks. Independently, Paul Baran proposed a distributed network based on data in message blocks in the early 1960s and Donald Davies conceived of packet switching in 1965 at the National Physics Laboratory in the UK, which became a testbed for research for two decades; the U. S. Department of Defense awarded contracts in 1969 for the development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts. ARPANET adopted the packet switching technology proposed by Davies and Baran, underpinned by mathematical work in the early 1970s by Leonard Kleinrock.

The network was built by Bolt and Newman. Early packet switching networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, Merit Network, CYCLADES in the early 1970s researched and provided data networking; the ARPANET project and international working groups led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks, which produced various standards. Vint Cerf, at Stanford University, Bob Kahn, at ARPA, published research in 1973 that evolved into the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol, the two protocols of the Internet protocol suite; the design included concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. In the early 1980s the NSF funded national supercomputing centers at several universities in the United States and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which created network access to these supercomputer sites for research and academic organizations in the United States. International connections to NSFNET, the emergence of architecture such as the Domain Name System, the adoption of TCP/IP internationally marked the beginnings of the Internet.

Commercial Internet service providers began to emerge in the late 1980s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Limited private connections to parts of the Internet by commercial entities emerged in several American cities by late 1989 and 1990; the NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. Research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989-90 resulted in the World Wide Web, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network. Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, social networking, online shopping sites. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s, or more.

The Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was rapid in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, 51% by 2000, more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today, the Internet continues to grow, driven by greater amounts of online information, commerce and social networking. However, the future of the global network may be shaped by regional differences; the concept of data communication – transmitting data between two different places through an electromagnetic medium such as radio or an electric wire – pre-dates the introduction of the first computers. Such communication systems were limited to point to point communication between two end devices. Semaphore lines, telegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication; the telegraph in the late 19th century was the first digital communication system. Early computers had remote terminals.

As the technology evolved, new systems were devised to allow communication over longer distances or with higher speed that were necessary for the mainframe computer model. These technologies made it possible to exchange data between remote computers. However, the point-to-point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems; the technology was considered unsafe for strategic and military use because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of an enemy attack. Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, Ralph Hartley in the early 20th century. Information theory, as enunciated by Shannon in 1948, provided a firm theoretical underpinning to understand the trade-offs between signal-to-noise ratio and error-free transmission in the presence of noise, in telecommunications technology; the development of transistor technology was fundamental to a new generation of electronic devices that effected every aspect of the human experience.

The long-sought realization of the field-effect transistor, in form of the MOS transistor, by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, brought new opportunities for miniaturization and mass-production for a wide range of uses. It became the basic building block of

1947 Ice Hockey World Championships

The 14th Ice Hockey World Championships and 25th European Championship was the first after the Second World War. It was held from 15 to 23 February 1947 in Czechoslovakia. Eight teams participated, but the competition was notably missing the reigning world champion, Canada; the world champion was decided for the first time by round robin league play. Czechoslovakia won the world championship for the first time and the European championship for the seventh time. King Gustav V had sent a telegram of congratulations to the Swedish team after beating the Czechoslovaks, but they had finished celebrating when they were upset by the Austrians, costing them the gold medal; the 1947 congress of the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace was the first meeting or the organization since World War II. During the war, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association united with the Amateur Hockey Association of the United States to form the International Ice Hockey Association, invited the British Ice Hockey Association to join.

The new group was led by CAHA president W. G. Hardy, was a means of shifting the control of world hockey from Europe to Canada; the CAHA severed its ties to the LIHG in 1944, pledged allegiance to the International Ice Hockey Association instead, a closer relationship to AHAUS. The CAHA and AHAUS agreed in 1946 to propose a merger with the LIHG to oversee international ice hockey; the proposal sought forthe Ice Hockey World Championships to alternate between Europe and North America, with the Olympic hockey tournaments played under the same rules as the CAHA and the National Hockey League. The CAHA attended the LIHG meeting during the 1947 championships, pushed for the definition of amateur to be anyone not engaged in professional sport; the LIHG agreed to a merger where the presidency would alternate between North America and Europe every three years, recognized AHAUS as the governing body of hockey in the United States instead of the Amateur Athletic Union. The CAHA was permitted to have its own definition of amateur as long as teams at the Olympic games adhered to existing LIHG rules.

Many notable changes were made to the rules for this championship. The game was standardized to be played in three 20 minute periods, aligning with the Canadian practice; the net size was standardized as well. There would be no more one- and three-minute penalties, penalty shots were instituted. Japan and Germany were barred from participation, but the LIHG was careful to illustrate that it was the politics, not the people, who were at fault, allies like Austria and Italy were admitted. World Champion 1947 Czechoslovakia 1947 European Champion Czechoslovakia Complete results Duplacey, James. Total Hockey: The official encyclopedia of the National Hockey League. Total Sports. Pp. 498–528. ISBN 0-8362-7114-9. Podnieks, Andrew. IIHF Media Guide & Record Book 2011. Moydart Press. P. 131

Götaland

Götaland is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises ten provinces. Geographically it is located in the south of Sweden, bounded to the north by Svealand, with the deep woods of Tiveden, Tylöskog and Kolmården marking the border. Götaland once consisted of petty kingdoms, their inhabitants were called Gautar in Old Norse. However, the term referred to the population of modern Västergötland, it is agreed that these were the same as the Geats, the people of the hero Beowulf in England's national epic, Beowulf. The modern state of Sweden started forming when some provinces of Götaland became more and more politically intertwined with those of Svealand; this process can be traced back to at least the 11th century, would continue for several hundred years. Other parts of modern Götaland were at that time either Norwegian; the province of Småland, with the important city Kalmar on its coast, was sparsely populated and the status of the Baltic island Gotland varied during the Middle Ages. Bohuslän became Swedish first during the 17th century after being lost from Norway, around the same time as Denmark lost Scania and Blekinge to Sweden.

The earliest possible mentions of the götar is by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy, who mentions the Goutai. The Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf is set among the Gēatas. Norwegian and Icelandic sources sometimes use Gautar only for the people of Västergötland, but sometimes as a common ethnic term for the people of both Västergötland and Östergötland. Västergötland appears in medieval Icelandic and Norwegian sources as Gautland, a form, not etymologically identical to Götaland; the name Götaland replaced the old Götland in the 15th century, it was to distinguish the wider region it denoted from the traditional heartland in Västergötland. The name Götaland originally referred only to Västergötland and Östergötland, but was extended to adjoining districts; the name Götaland is a plural construction and means the "lands of the Geats", where Göta- is the genitive plural of the ethnonym Göt. The interpretation that the neuter noun -land is a plural and not a singular noun is indicated by Bo Jonsson Grip's will in 1384, where he stated that he donated property in Swerige, Österlandom and in Göthalandom to monasteries.

Here Götaland appears in the plural form of the dative case. For the etymology of the element Geat/Gaut/Göt and Goth, see Geat. Västergötland and Östergötland, once rival kingdoms themselves, constitute Götaland proper; the Geatish kings, belong to the domain of Norse mythology. Both Västergötland and Östergötland have large agricultural areas, it was along the coasts and at the agricultural areas as people settled down and towns grew up and the population grew fastest. The large river Göta Älv drains the third largest in Lake Vänern. At its mouth the population in Västergötland had rights to reach the Cattegat sea. Otherwise the Göta Älv estuary was the border between the Kingdoms of Denmark. Geatland is the land, it was only late in the Middle Ages. In Old Norse and in Old English sources, Gautland/Geatland is still treated as a separate country from Sweden. In Sögubrot af Nokkrum for instance, Kolmården between Svealand and Östergötland is described as the border between Sweden and Ostrogothia, in Hervarar saga, King Ingold I rides to Sweden through Östergötland: Ingi konungr fór með hirð sína ok sveit nokkura ok hafði lítinn her.

Hann reið austr um Smáland ok í eystra Gautland ok svá í Svíþjóð. In 1384 Bo Jonsson stated in his will that the kingdom consisted of Swerige, Österland and Göthaland; the small countries to the south – Finnveden, Kind, Möre, Tjust, Tveta, Värend, Ydre – were merged into the province of Småland. Off the coast of Småland was the island of Öland, which became a separate province. Dal to the north west became the province of Dalsland. Småland, Öland and Dalsland were seen as lands belonging to Götaland during the Scandinavian Middle Ages. Småland was full of deep coniferous forest in the south, of lesser importance to Götaland compared to the agricultural areas in Västergötland and Östergötland, but on its Baltic Sea coast lay the important town of Kalmar. In 1397, the Kalmar Union was proclaimed at Kalmar Castle, a personal union of the three countries of Sweden and Norway under one King – or one Queen, as Queen Margaret I became the first sovereign of this, the largest of Scandinavian states. In the Treaty of Roskilde, the kingdom of Denmark-Norway ceded the Danish provinces of Blekinge, Halland and Norwegian province of Bohuslän to Sweden.

These provinces are since counted as parts of Götaland. The island of Gotland shifted allegiance between the Danes several times. Although the island may be perceived to have closer links to Svealand, it is counted as part of Götaland. Värmland belonged to the Göta Court of Appeal, but the province changed to become part of the Court of Appeal for Svealand for a period of time in the early 19th century. Today, Götaland has no administrative function and is thus an unofficial entity, but it is considered to be one of three Swedish lands or parts, it is made up of ten