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History of the Jews in Austria

The history of the Jews in Austria begins with the exodus of Jews from Judea under Roman occupation. Over the course of many centuries, the political status of the community rose and fell many times: during certain periods, the Jewish community prospered and enjoyed political equality, during other periods it suffered pogroms, deportations to concentration camps and mass murder, antisemitism; the Holocaust drastically reduced the Jewish community in Austria and only 8,140 Jews remained in Austria according to the 2001 census, but other estimates place the current figure at 9,000, 15,000 and 20,000 people, if accounting for those of mixed descent. Jews have been in Austria since at least the 3rd century AD. In 2008 a team of archeologists discovered a third-century CE amulet in the form of a gold scroll with the words of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael inscribed on it in the grave of a Jewish infant in Halbturn, it is considered to be the earliest surviving evidence of a Jewish presence in. It is hypothesized that the first Jews immigrated to Austria following the Roman legions after the Roman occupation of Israel.

It is theorized that the Roman legions who participated in the occupation and came back after the First Jewish–Roman War brought back Jewish prisoners, though this presumption has no concrete evidence. A document from the 10th century that determined equal rights between the Jewish and Christian merchants in Danube implies a Jewish population in Vienna at this point, though again, there is no concrete proof; the existence of a Jewish community in the area is only known for sure after the start of the 12th century, when two synagogues existed. In the same century, the Jewish settlement in Vienna increased with the absorption of Jewish settlers from Bavaria and from the Rhineland. At the start of the 13th century, the Jewish community began to flourish. One of the main reasons for the prosperity was the recognition by Frederick II that the Jews were a separate ethnic and religious group, were not bound to the laws that targeted the Christian population. Following this assumption, in July 1244, the emperor published a bill of rights for Jews, which encouraged them to work in the money lending business, encouraged the immigration of additional Jews to the area, promised protection and autonomous rights, such as the right to judge themselves and the right to collect taxes.

This bill of rights affected other kingdoms in Europe such as Hungary, Lithuania and Bohemia, which had a high concentrations of Jews. During this period, the Jewish population dealt with commerce and the collection of taxes and gained key positions in many other aspects of life in Austria. In 1204, the first documented synagogue in Austria was constructed. In addition, Jews went through a period of relative prosperity; the group established a beit midrash, considered to be the most prominent school of Talmudic studies in Europe at the time. The insularity and assumed prosperity of the Jewish community caused increased tensions and jealousy from the Christian population along with hostility from the church. In 1282, when the area became controlled by the Catholic House of Habsburg, Austria’s prominence decreased as far as being a religious center for Jewish scholarly endeavors; some Jewish business enterprises focused on civic finance, private interest-free loans and government accounting work enforcing tax collection and handling moneylending for Christian landowners.

The earliest evidence of Jewish officials tasked with the unpleasant role of collecting unpaid taxes appears in a document from 1320. During the same time, riots occurred scapegoating all Jews; the entire Jewish population was unfairly targeted by some angry non-Jewish neighbors and the animosity made daily life unbearable — the population continued to decline in middle of the 14th century. At the start of the 15th century, during the regime of Albert III and Leopold III, the period was characterized by the formal cancellations of many outstanding debts that were owed to Jewish financiers, those that would have been enforced by debt collection activity by Jews were left purposely outstanding so as to impoverish the creditor. In middle of the 15th century, following the establishment of the anti-Catholic movement of Jan Hus in Bohemia, the condition of Jews worsened as a result of unfounded accusations that the movement was associated with the Jewish community. In 1420, the status of the Jewish community hit a low point when a Jewish man from Upper Austria was falsely accused and charged with the crime of desecration of the sacramental bread.

This led Albert V to order the imprisonment of all of Jews in Austria. 210 Jewish men and children were forcibly taken from their homes and were burnt alive in the public town square, while the remaining families were rounded up and deported from Austria, forced to leave all their belongings behind. In 1469, the deportation order was cancelled by Frederick III, who became known for his fairness and strong relationship by allowing Jews to live free from scapegoating and hate-crimes — he was referred to at times as the "King of the Jews", he allowed Jews to settle in all the cities of Styria and Carinthia. Under his regime, Jews gained a short period of peace. In 1496, Maximilian I ordered a decree. In 1509, he passed the "Imperial Confiscation Mandate" wh

Schläfli graph

In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Schläfli graph, named after Ludwig Schläfli, is a 16-regular undirected graph with 27 vertices and 216 edges. It is a regular graph with parameters srg; the intersection graph of the 27 lines on a cubic surface is a locally linear graph, the complement of the Schläfli graph. That is, two vertices are adjacent in the Schläfli graph if and only if the corresponding pair of lines are skew; the Schläfli graph may be constructed from the system of eight-dimensional vectors, and,and the 24 other vectors obtained by permuting the first six coordinates of these three vectors. These 27 vectors correspond to the vertices of the Schläfli graph. Alternately, this graph can be seen as the complement of the collinearity graph of the generalized quadrangle GQ; the neighborhood of any vertex in the Schläfli graph forms a 16-vertex subgraph in which each vertex has 10 neighbors. These subgraphs are all isomorphic to the complement graph of the Clebsch graph. Since the Clebsch graph is triangle-free, the Schläfli graph is claw-free.

It plays an important role in the structure theory for claw-free graphs by Seymour. Any two skew lines of these 27 belong to a unique Schläfli double six configuration, a set of 12 lines whose intersection graph is a crown graph in which the two lines have disjoint neighborhoods. Correspondingly, in the Schläfli graph, each edge uv belongs uniquely to a subgraph in the form of a Cartesian product of complete graphs K6 ◻ K2 in such a way that u and v belong to different K6 subgraphs of the product; the Schläfli graph has a total of 36 subgraphs of this form, one of which consists of the zero-one vectors in the eight-dimensional representation described above. A graph is defined to be k-ultrahomogeneous if every isomorphism between two of its induced subgraphs of at most k vertices can be extended to an automorphism of the whole graph. If a graph is 5-ultrahomogeneous, it is ultrahomogeneous for every k; the infinite Rado graph is countably ultrahomogeneous. There are only two connected graphs that are 4-ultrahomogeneous but not 5-ultrahomogeneous: the Schläfli graph and its complement.

The proof relies on the classification of finite simple groups. Gosset graph - contains the Schläfli graph as an induced subgraph of the neighborhood of any vertex. Buczak, J. M. J. Finite Group Theory, Ph. D. thesis, Oxford University. As cited by Devillers. Bussemaker, F. C.. "Exceptional graphs with smallest eigenvalue-2 and related problems", Mathematics of Computation, 59: 583–608, doi:10.1090/S0025-5718-1992-1134718-6. Cameron, Peter Jephson, "6-transitive graphs", Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, 28: 168–179, doi:10.1016/0095-895690063-5. As cited by Devillers. Cameron, Peter Jephson. Chudnovsky, Maria. Soc. Lecture Note Ser. 327, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 153–171, MR 2187738. Devillers, Classification of some homogeneous and ultrahomogeneous structures, Ph. D. thesis, Université Libre de Bruxelles. Holton, D. A.. The Petersen Graph, Cambridge University Press, pp. 270–271. Weisstein, Eric W. "Schläfli Graph". MathWorld. Andries E. Brouwer page

St. Luke's Episcopal Church (New Haven, Connecticut)

St. Luke's Episcopal Church is a historic church at 111-113 Whalley Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut. Built in 1905 for a congregation founded in 1844, it is a good example of late Gothic Revival architecture, is further notable as the second church in the city established as an African-American congregation, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. St. Luke's Episcopal Church is located northwest of the New Haven Green, at the corner of Whalley Avenue and Sperry Street in the city's Dixwell neighborhood, it is a single-story masonry structure, built out of red bricks with Indiana sandstone trim. It is L-shaped in plan, with the main sanctuary oriented with its long axis perpendicular to Whalley Avenue, covered by a gabled roof; the sides are buttressed. A hyphen connects the sanctuary to a 20th-century addition fronting Sperry Avenue to the rear right side; the main entrance is at the center of the tower, set in a round-arch opening, above, a small ornately surrounded stained glass window.

The congregation of St. Luke's has its origin in one established in 1844, when the African-American membership of the city's Trinity Church on the Green separated to organize it. At first they met in a chapel owned by Trinity, they purchased the building of an African-American Baptist congregation in 1852, they began a building drive in 1894 to raise funds for construction of this building, completed in 1905. It was designed by the local firm of Brown and von Beren, who did extensive work in the city in the early decades of the 20th century. National Register of Historic Places in New Haven, Connecticut St. Luke's web site


Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALPL gene. There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental-like, liver/bone/kidney; the first three are located together on chromosome 2, whereas the tissue-nonspecific form is located on chromosome 1. The product of this gene is a membrane-bound glycosylated enzyme, not expressed in any particular tissue and is, referred to as the tissue-nonspecific form of the enzyme; the exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is matrix mineralization. However, mice that lack a functional form of this enzyme show normal skeletal development; this enzyme has been linked directly to a disorder known as hypophosphatasia, a disorder, characterized by hypercalcemia and includes skeletal defects. The character of this disorder can vary, depending on the specific mutation, since this determines age of onset and severity of symptoms.

The severity of symptoms ranges from premature loss of deciduous teeth with no bone abnormalities to stillbirth depending upon which amino acid is changed in the ALPL gene. Mutations in the ALPL gene lead to varying low activity of the enzyme tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase resulting in hypophosphatasia. There are different clinical forms of HPP which can be inherited by an autosomal recessive trait or autosomal dominant trait, the former causing more severe forms of the disease. Alkaline phosphatase allows for mineralization of calcium and phosphorus by teeth. ALPL gene mutation leads to insufficient TNSALP enzyme and allows for an accumulation of chemicals such as inorganic pyrophosphate to indirectly cause elevated calcium levels in the body and lack of bone calcification; the mutation E174K, where a glycine is converted to an alanine amino acid at the 571st position of its respective polypeptide chain, is a result of an ancestral mutation that occurred in Caucasians and shows a mild form of HPP.

GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hypophosphatasia Human ALPL genome location and ALPL gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser

Uji Station (JR West)

Uji Station is a train station located on the Nara Line in Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, operated by West Japan Railway Company. This station administrates all intermediate stations on the Nara Line, it has the station number "JR-D09". There was a side platform and an island platform serving three tracks. Both these and the station building were at ground level; the station was rebuilt in 2000 with two island platforms serving four tracks and a new station building designed imitating the Phoenix Hall of Byōdō-in, a major tourist attraction in Uji. According to the Kyoto Prefecture statistical report, the average number of passengers per day is as follows. Uji City Hall Byōdō-in Agata Shrine Ujigami Shrine Uji Bridge Uji Station Official website

International Federation of Inventors' Associations

The International Federation of Inventors' Associations is a non-profit, nongovernmental organization founded in London, on July 11, 1968, by inventor's associations of Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Norway and Switzerland. IFIA was established in 1968 in London by the cooperation of the representatives of seven European countries namely Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Norway and Switzerland; the IFIA is registered as one of the partners of International Geneva United Nation Office in Geneva. The IFIA logo registered in Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property; the organization has member organizations in more than 100 countries, around 175 member organizations in total. The IFIA has a General Assembly, that elects the IFIA President. In 2018 the IFIA founded the Silicon Valley International Invention Festival. IFIA has observer status at the United Nations Conference on Development. IFIA received a grant special consultative status from the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations on June 6, 2019.

The IFIA is run according to the following mandatory objectives: “Improvement of the status of inventors and promote cooperation between inventors’ associations.” “Collection of information about the state of affairs and practical conditions relating to inventors and innovation, in order to disseminate them world-wide.” “Regular scrutinizing of national laws and international conventions, in order to reform them in accordance with the continuous changes in the innovation field and with due consideration to the inventors’ rights.” “Permanent improvement of the conditions for successful knowledge and technology transfer within the particular countries and internationally via the Technology Transfer Center, working under the supervision of IFIA.” All other activities in order to encourage and promote invention and innovation, to support inventor's project from the idea development to the invention commercialization, to raise the appreciation of inventors and inventions.” IFIA is organizes and supports the publication of reference books, surveys, studies and conventions, competitions and awards for inventions, illustrative exhibits related to inventors and inventions, consultative services.

They sponsor the IFIA Awards, which since 2015 have including the Best Invention Medal, Ambassador Medal, the Memorial medal. Prior awards have included the Global Golden Medal; the Memorial Medal has been awarded to Ivo Josipoviæm, President of Croatia Teresa Stanek Rea, USPTO Acting Director Benoît Battistelli, EPO President Miklós Bendzsel, HIPO President Francis Gurry, Thailand Deputy Prime Minister Prajin Juntong. The Presidents of IFIA since 1968: A. W. Richardson, Great Britain, 1968–1971 Harald A. R. Romanus, Sweden, 1971–1974 Freidrich Burmester, Germany, 1974–1977 Leif Nordstrand, Norway, 1977–1982 L. L. Ware, United Kingdom, 1982–1984 Torfin Rosenvinge Johnsen, Norway, 1984–1985 Bo Goran Wallin, Swedish, 1985–1987 Clarence P. Fledmann, Switzerland, 1987–1990 Farag Moussa, Switzerland, 1990–2006 András Vedres, Hungary, 2006-2010-2014 Alireza Rastegar, 2014-2018-2022 UN NGO WIPO Observer list Unctad Observer list EPO Standing Advisory Committee before the European Patent Office EAI Assembly of Professional Societies United Nation Office in Geneva IFIA inventors and inventions award IFIA memorial medal IFIA inventions, new product and technology events MANTAD INTERNATIONAL MANTAD MANTAD 2 IFIA website