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History of the Jews in Europe

The history of the Jews in Europe spans over two thousand years, at least. Some Jews, a Judaean Israelite tribe from the Levant, migrated to Europe just before the rise of the Roman Empire. A notable early event in the history of the Jews in the Roman Empire was Pompey's conquest of the East beginning in 63 Before Common Era, although Alexandrian Jews had migrated to Rome before this event; the pre-World War II Jewish population of Europe is estimated to have been close to 9 million. Around 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust, followed by the emigration of much of the surviving population; the Jewish population of Europe in 2010 was estimated to be 1.4 million. Hellenistic Judaism, originating from Alexandria, was present throughout the Roman Empire before the Jewish–Roman wars. Large numbers lived in Greece as early as the beginning of the 3rd century BCE; the first recorded mention of Judaism in Greece dates on the island of Rhodes. As early as the middle of the 2nd century BCE, the Jewish author of the third book of the Oracula Sibyllina, addressing the "chosen people," says: "Every land is full of thee and every sea."

The most diverse witnesses, such as Strabo, Seneca and Josephus, all mention Jewish populations in the cities of the Mediterranean Basin. Most Jewish population centers of this period were, still in the East and Alexandria in Egypt was by far the most important of the Jewish communities, with the Jews in Philo's time inhabiting two of the five sections of the city. A Jewish community is recorded to have existed in Rome at least since the 1st century BCE, although there may have been an established community there as early as the second century BCE, for in the year 139 BCE, the pretor Hispanus issued a decree expelling all Jews who were not Italian citizens). At the commencement of the reign of Caesar Augustus in 27 BCE, there were over 7,000 Jews in Rome: this is the number that escorted the envoys who came to demand the deposition of Archelaus; the Jewish historian Josephus confirms that as early as 90 Common Era there was a Jewish diaspora living in Europe, made-up of the two tribes and Benjamin.

Thus, he writes in his Antiquities: " …there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now and are an immense multitude." The Roman Empire period presence of Jews in Croatia dates to the 2nd century, in Pannonia to the 3rd to 4th century. A finger ring with a Menorah depiction found in Augusta Raurica in 2001 attests to Jewish presence in Germania Superior. Evidence in towns north of the Loire or in southern Gaul date to 6th centuries. By late antiquity, Jewish communities were found in modern-day Germany. Persecution of Jews in Europe begins with the presence of Jews in regions that became known as the lands of Latin Christendom and modern Europe. Not only were Jewish Christians persecuted according to the New Testament, but as a matter of historical fact anti-Jewish pogroms occurred not only in Jerusalem, Carthage, but in Italy and Menorca, Daphne-Antioch, amongst other places. Hostility between Christians and Jews grew over the generations beyond.

The early medieval period was a time of flourishing Jewish culture. Jewish and Christian life evolved in'diametrically opposite directions' during the final centuries of Roman empire. Jewish life became autonomous, community-centered. Christian life became a hierarchical system under the supreme authority of the Pope and the Roman Emperor. Jewish life can be characterized as democratic. Rabbis in the Talmud interpreted Deut. 29:9, "your heads, your tribes, your elders, your officers all the men of Israel" and "Although I have appointed for you heads and officers, you are all equal before me" to stress political shared power. Shared power entailed responsibilities: "you are all responsible for one another. If there be only one righteous man among you, you will all profit from his merits, not you alone, but the entire world... But if one of you sins, the whole generation will suffer."In the Early Middle Ages, persecution of Jews continued in the lands of Latin Christendom. After the Visigoths converted from more tolerant non-trinitarian Arianism to the stricter trinitarian Nicene Christianity of Rome, in 612 CE and again in 642 CE, expulsions of all Jews were decreed in the Visigoth Empire.

The Catholic Merovingian dynasty decreed forced conversion for Jews in 582 and 629 CE. Under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toledo, multiple persecutions and stake burnings of Jews occurred. Jewish pogroms occurred in the Diocese of Uzes. Between 800 and 1100, there were 1.5 million Jews in Christian Europe. They were not part of the feudal system as serfs or knights, thus were spared the oppression and warfare. Persecution of Jews in Europe increased in the High Middle Ages in the context of the Christian Crusades. In the First C

Marion Lewis

Marion Jean Lewis is a Canadian medical researcher, known for her work on the Rh factor and on the Duffy antigen system. Lewis graduated from Winnipeg's Gordon Bell High School in 1943, she was trained as a medical technician at Winnipeg General Hospital. In 1944, the pediatric pathologist Bruce Chown, assisted by Lewis, opened the Rh Laboratory in Winnipeg to study and eradicate Rh disease, their research led to a vaccine that prevents Rh disease. In 1950-51, Lewis spent four months at an Italian university studying the Italian language and culture, she spent another three months studying in London under world-renowned ‘blood groupers’ Robert Race and Ruth Sanger. In 1951, she returned to the Rh lab. From 1952 and 1960, Chown and Lewis made annual trips, visiting Canadian tribal groups, including the Blackfoot and Cree, to test their blood for Rh factors, they tested Inuit people at Kugluktuk and Southampton Island and Hutterites in Manitoba. While Chown retired in 1977, Lewis continued on in the field of blood group gene mapping and branched out into the field of genetics.

She and her colleagues at the Rh Laboratory, including Hiroko Kaita, became internationally renowned for their work. In the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Manitoba's the Faculty of Medicine, Lewis was an assistant professor from 1973 to 1977, an associate professor from 1977 to 1984, a full professor from 1984 to 1996, when she retired as professor emerita, she is the co-author of more than 140 articles. On 27 June 2019, Lewis was appointed as an Officer to the Order of Canada for her contributions to the prevention and treatment of Rh disease. 1971 — Karl Landsteiner Memorial Award of the American Association of Blood Banks 1986 — honorary D. Sc. from the University of Winnipeg 1993 — election as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada 1996 — Emily Cooley Memorial Award of the AABB 2019 — Officer of the Order of Canada


A referent is a person or thing to which a name – a linguistic expression or other symbol – refers. For example, in the sentence Mary saw me, the referent of the word Mary is the particular person called Mary, being spoken of, while the referent of the word me is the person uttering the sentence. Two expressions which have the same referent are said to be co-referential. In the sentence John had his dog with him, for instance, the noun John and the pronoun him are co-referential, since they both refer to the same person; the word referent may be considered to derive from the Latin referentem, the present participle of the verb referre. It is defined in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as "one, referred to. A subsequent meaning is "a word referring to another"; the next meaning, which appears to stand in opposition to the previous meaning, as well as to the meaning implied by the etymology, is nonetheless the one which has gained currency: "that to which something has reference". This sense is first recorded in Richards' The Meaning of Meaning.

In logic, the word referent is sometimes used to denote one of the two objects participating in a relation, the other being called the relatum. In fields such as semantics and the theory of reference, a distinction is made between a referent and a reference. Reference is a relationship in which a sign signifies something; the referent may be an actual person or object, or may be something more abstract, such as a set of actions. Reference and referents were considered at length in the 1923 book The Meaning of Meaning by the Cambridge scholars C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards. Ogden has pointed out that reference is a psychological process, that referents themselves may be psychological – existing in the imagination of the referrer, not in the real world. For further ideas related to this observation, see failure to refer. Considerations of the possible arrangement of expressions which may be co-referential – having the same referent – have been undertaken by linguists engaged in the study of syntax since Noam Chomsky's launch of Government and Binding Theory in the 1980s.

The subject of binding is concerned with the possible syntactic positions of co-referential noun phrases and pronouns. Attempts are made to explain phenomena such as that illustrated by the following pair of sentences: Before she dried off, Mary was wet, she dried off. In the first sentence and Mary may have the same referent, but in the second they cannot. More details of these considerations can be found in the articles on GBT and binding linked to above. Considerations of references and their referents are sometimes of importance in computing and programming. References play a role in the Perl programming language, for example, the ref function is used to obtain the type of the referent of an object. Referring expression Language-game Private language argument The dictionary definition of referent at Wiktionary SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms: referent

Origin of the Azerbaijanis

The Azerbaijani people are of mixed ethnic origins. These include the indigenous peoples of eastern Transcaucasia, the Medians, an ancient Iranian people, the Oghuz Turkic tribes that began migrating to Azerbaijan in the 11th century AD. Modern Azerbaijanis are the second most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks and speak North Azerbaijani and/or South Azerbaijani. Both languages have dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects. Between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE there was a Persianization of the population, during the period of the Sassanian dynasty. A subsequent Turkification of the population occurred after the region’s conquest by the Seljuq Turks in the 11th century and a continued influx of Turkic peoples over subsequent centuries – including groups that migrated during the Mongol conquests of the 13th century The Caucasian origin of the Azerbaijanis defines a link between Azerbaijanis and their pre-Turkification Caucasian past and applies to the Azerbaijanis of the Caucasus, most of whom are now inhabitants of what is now the Republic of Azerbaijan.

There is evidence that, despite repeated invasions and migrations, aboriginal Caucasians may have been culturally assimilated, first by Iranians, such as the Alans, by the Oghuz Turks. Considerable information has been learned about the Caucasian Albanians including their language, early conversion to Christianity, close ties to the Armenians. Many academics believe that the Udi language, still spoken in Azerbaijan, is a remnant of the Albanians' language; this Caucasian influence extended further south into Iranian Azerbaijan. During the 1st millennium BCE, another Caucasian people, the Mannaeans populated much of this area; this ancient country was in northwestern Iran, south of Lake Urmia. During the period of its existence in the early 1st millennium bc, Mannai was surrounded by three major powers: Assyria and Media. With the intrusion of the Scythians and the rise of the Medes in the 7th century, the Manneans lost their identity and were subsumed under the term Medes. Although genetic testing demonstrates the Turkification of the region rather than that the Azerbaijani Turks are descendants of migrants from Central Asia, it does however show that the region is a genetically mixed one.

Though the population of Azerbaijan is culturally diverse, genetic testing has revealed common genetic markers that support an autochthonous background for most Azerbaijani Turks. There is evidence of genetic admixture derived from Central Asians, notably the Turkmen, higher than that of their neighbors, the Georgians and Armenians. MtDNA analysis indicates that the main relationship with Iranians is through a larger West Eurasian group, secondary to that of the Caucasus, according to a study that did not include Azerbaijani Turks, but Georgians who have clustered with Azerbaijani Turks in other studies; the conclusion from the testing shows that the Azerbaijani Turks of the republic are a mixed population with relationships, in order of greatest similarity, with the Caucasus and Near Easterners and Turkmen. Other genetic analysis of mtDNA and Y-chromosomes indicates that Caucasian populations are genetically intermediate between Europeans and Near Easterners, but that they are more related to Near Easterners overall.

Another study, conducted in 2003 by the Russian Journal of Genetics, compared Iranian-language speakers of the Republic of Azerbaijan with Turkic Azerbaijanis and found that the genetic structure of those populations, compared with the other Iranian-speaking populations, was closer to Turkic Azerbaijanis than to Iranian-speaking populations elsewhere. In 2006 M. Regueiro and A. M. Cadenas of Stanford University showed that the population of central Iran group to Caucasian Azerbaijani people was more than the population of Turkey in terms of haplogroup distributions and genetic homogeneity; the latest comparative study on the complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians has indicated that Iranian Azerbaijanis are more related to the people of Georgia, than they are to other Iranians, as well as to Armenians. However the same multidimensional scaling plot shows that Azerbaijanis from the Caucasus, despite their supposed common origin with Iranian Azerbaijanis, cluster closer with other Iranians than they do with Iranian Azerbaijanis.

The Iranian origin of the Azerbaijanis defines a link between present-day Azerbaijanis and their pre-Turkification Iranian past and applies to Iranian Azerbaijanis. It is supported by historical accounts, by the existence of the Old Azari language, present day place names, cultural similarities between Iranian peoples and Azerbaijanis, archaeological and ethnical evidence, it is favored by notable scholars and sources, such as Vladimir Minorsky, Richard Frye, Xavier De Planhol, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Iranica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopedique Larousse, World Book Encyclopedia. According to Vladimir Minorsky, around the 9th and 10th centuries: Professor Ighrar Aliyev mentions that the Arab historians Baladhuri, Ibn Hawqal and Yaqut have mentioned this language by name. Medieval historians and scholars record that the language of the region of Azerbaijan, as well as its people there, as Iranians who spoke Iranian languages. Among these writes are Al-Istakhri, Al-Masudi, Ibn al-Nadim, Hamzeh Esfahani, Ibn Hawqal, Al-Baladhuri, Moqadda

Hélia Correia

Hélia Correia is a Portuguese novelist, playwright and translator. Correia was born in Lisbon in February 1949, raised in Mafra, her mother's home town, her father was an anti-fascist, arrested before her birth by the Salazar regime. At the University of Lisbon, she studied Romance Philology. During these years, she began publishing poetry in literary supplements of the time, such as the Juvenil do Diário de Lisboa under the aegis of Mário Castrim. After a period working as a high school teacher, Hélia Correia undertook postgraduate studies in Classical Theatre, her literary career started in earnest in the 1981 with the publication of her debut work titled O Separar das Águas. She achieved great commercial success and critical renown, with critics lauding her innovative writing which remained linked to the best literary traditions, they saw influences of Camilo Castelo Branco and Emily Brontë, as well as connections to ancient Greek drama. Several of her novels, including O Número dos Vivos and Montedemo, could be considered works of magical realism.

Correia accepted this saying. Some critics have noted. Maria Teresa Horta has described Correia's works as "visceral" and "primordial". From the 1990s, she began to create theatrical works, she reinterpreted ancient Greek myths from the view point of female heroines, such as Antigone in Perdition, Helen of Troy in Hatred, Medea in Boundless. In 2001, her most popular book, Lillias Fraser, set between 1746 and 1762 and ranging across Scotland and Portugal, covering the earthquake of Lisbon; the book won the Portuguese PEN Club prize. 1981 – O Separar das Águas 1982 – O Número dos Vivos 1983 – Montedemo 1985 – Villa Celeste 1987 – Soma 1988 – A Fenda Erótica 1991 – A Casa Eterna 1996 – Insânia 2001 – Lillias Fraser 2001 – Antartida de mil folhas 2002 – Apodera-te de mim 2008 – Contos 2014 – Vinte degraus e outros contos 1986 – A Pequena Morte / Esse Eterno Canto 2012 – A Terceira Miséria 1991 – Perdição, Exercício sobre Antígona 1991 – Florbela 2000 – O Rancor, Exercício sobre Helena 2005 – O Segredo de Chantel 2008 – A Ilha Encantada 1988 – A Luz de Newton 2001 Portuguese PEN Club prize - for Lillias Fraser 2006 Prémio Máxima de Literatura - for Bastardia 2010 Prémio da Fundação Inês de Castro - for Adoecer 2012 Casino da Póvoa prize - for her poetry collection A Terceira Miséria 2013 Vergílio Ferreira Prize - for her entire oeuvre, awarded by the University of Évora 2013 Prémio Literário Correntes d'Escritas - for A Terceira Miséria, a tribute to Greece.

2015 Grand Prize Camilo Castelo Branco - for 20 Degraus e Outros Contos. 2015 Camões Prize Works by or about Hélia Correia in libraries

Fairfield, Oklahoma

Fairfield is a census-designated place in Adair County, United States. The population was 584 at the 2010 census. Mulberry Mission was founded in Pope County, Arkansas Territory, among the Western Cherokees by Dr. Marcus Palmer It was a branch of Dwight Mission, which moved to Indian Territory and was renamed as the Fairfield Mission, when most of the Cherokees were forced to move there from their former homes in the Southeast. In 1832, The mission established a lending library. Sited on Sallisaw Creek, about 8 miles southwest of Stilwell, the mission closed in 1859. No structures remain in place; the mission cemetery still remains, it has been renamed as McLemore Cemetery. Fairfield is located at 35°51′29″N 94°36′58″W. According to Carolyn Foreman's history of the mission, it was 15 miles from Evansville, Arkansas, 35 miles from Fort Smith and about 35 miles from Fort Gibson. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 0.015 square miles, or 0.30%, is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 367 people, 118 households, 96 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 102.3 people per square mile. There were 124 housing units at an average density of 34.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 36.51% White, 49.05% Native American, 14.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.63% of the population. There were 118 households out of which 44.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.11 and the average family size was 3.45. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 36.2% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $23,750, the median income for a family was $26,667. Males had a median income of $23,000 versus $19,722 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $10,497. About 27.5% of families and 25.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 21.1% of those age 65 or over. Mike Dart, award-winning, contemporary Cherokee basket weaver