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History of the Jews in Hungary

The history of the Jews in Hungary dates back to at least the Kingdom of Hungary, with some records predating the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895 CE by over 600 years. Written sources prove that Jewish communities lived in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and it is assumed that several sections of the heterogeneous Hungarian tribes practiced Judaism. Jewish officials served the king during the early 13th century reign of Andrew II. From the second part of the 13th century, the general religious tolerance decreased and Hungary's policies became similar to the treatment of the Jewish population in Western Europe; the Jews of Hungary were well integrated into Hungarian society by the time of the First World War. By the early 20th century, the community had grown to constitute 5% of Hungary's total population and 23% of the population of the capital, Budapest. Jews became prominent in the arts and business. By 1941, over 17% of Budapest's Jews were Roman Catholic conversos. Anti-Jewish policies grew more repressive in the interwar period as Hungary's leaders, who remained committed to regaining the territories lost at the peace agreement of 1920, chose to align themselves with the governments of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy – the international actors most to stand behind Hungary's claims.

Starting in 1938, Hungary under Miklós Horthy passed a series of anti-Jewish measures in emulation of Germany's Nürnberg Laws. Following the German occupation of Hungary on 19 March 1944, Jews from the provinces were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp; the 2011 Hungary census data had 10,965 people who self-identified as religious Jews, of whom 10,553 declared themselves as ethnic Hungarian. Estimates of Hungary's Jewish population in 2010 range from 54,000 to more than 130,000 concentrated in Budapest. There are many active synagogues in Hungary, including the Dohány Street Synagogue, the largest synagogue in Europe and the second largest synagogue in the world after the Temple Emanu-El in New York City, it is not known when Jews first settled in Hungary. According to tradition, King Decebalus permitted the Jews who aided him in his war against Rome to settle in his territory. Dacia included part of modern-day Hungary as well as Romania and Moldova and smaller areas of Bulgaria and Serbia.

Prisoners of the Jewish Wars may have been brought back by the victorious Roman legions stationed in Provincia Pannonia. Marcus Aurelius ordered the transfer of some of his rebellious troops from Syria to Pannonia in 175 CE; these troops had been recruited in Antioch and Hemesa, which still had a sizable Jewish population at that time. The Antiochian troops were transferred to Ulcisia Castra, while the Hemesian troops settled in Intercisa. According to Raphael Patai, stone inscriptions referring to Jews were found in Brigetio, Aquincum, Triccinae, Siklos, Sopianae (Pécs and Savaria. A Latin inscription, the epitaph of Septima Maria, discovered in Siklós refers to her Jewishness; the Intercisa tablet was inscribed on behalf of "Cosmius, chief of the Spondilla customhouse, archisynagogus Iudeorum " during the reign of Alexander Severus. In 2008, a team of archeologists discovered a 3rd-century AD amulet in the form of a gold scroll with the words of the Jewish prayer Shema' Yisrael inscribed on it in Féltorony.

Hungarian tribes settled the territory 650 years later. In the Hungarian language, the word for Jew is zsidó, adopted from one of the Slavic languages; the first historical document relating to the Jews of Hungary is the letter written about 960 CE to King Joseph of the Khazars by Hasdai ibn Shaprut, the Jewish statesman of Córdoba, in which he says that the Slavic ambassadors promised to deliver the message to the King of Slavonia, who would hand the same to Jews living in "the country of Hungarian", who, in turn, would transmit it farther. About the same time Ibrahim ibn Jacob says that Jews went from Hungary to Prague for business purposes. Nothing is known concerning the Jews during the period of the grand princes, except that they lived in the country and engaged in commerce there. In 1061, King Béla I ordered that markets should take place on Saturdays instead of the traditional Sundays. In the reign of St. Ladislaus, the Synod of Szabolcs decreed that Jews should not be permitted to have Christian wives or to keep Christian slaves.

This decree had been promulgated in the Christian countries of Europe since the 5th century, St. Ladislaus introduced it into Hungary; the Jews of Hungary at first formed small settlements, had no learned rabbis. One tradition relates the story of Jews from Ratisbon coming into Hungary with merchandise from Russia, on a Friday; the unintentional Sabbath-breakers were fined. The ritual of the Hungarian Jews faithfully reflected contemporary German customs. Coloman, the successor of St. Ladislaus, renewed the Szabolcs decree of 1092, adding further prohibitions against the employment of Christian slaves and

Adam's Curse (poem)

Adam's Curse is a poem written by William Butler Yeats. In the poem, Yeats describes the difficulty of creating something beautiful; the title alludes to the book of Genesis, evoking the fall of man and the separation of work and pleasure. Yeats included the poem in the volume, In the Seven Woods, published in 1904. Adam's Curse was written just before the marriage of John MacBride. Yeats drew on a meeting with her sister Kathleen Pilcher; the poem is composed of three stanzas of heroic couplets. Some of the rhymes are full and some are only partial. Ostensibly collaborating with one another, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd stanzas are linked by an informal slant-rhyme scheme. A quasi-sonnet appears with the 1st stanza, an allusion/homage to the “precedents out of beautiful old books” and the formalism of the eras preceding Yeats. Of its fourteen lines, the first thirteen are unbroken. These, in turn, are fulfilled through bleed into the first line of the 2nd stanza; the 2nd stanza shares its first line with the last of the 1st stanza and maintains a similar form of non-repeating couplets.

Its final line lies coupled with the first line of the 3rd stanza. The 3rd and final stanza differs from its predecessors in its length. Constructed from eleven lines, the 3rd is shorter than the others. Yeats serves as arbiter for his profession. Rather, he supports the idea. Pitting himself with the "martyrs," the poet speaks through a victim's perspective and provides evidence to support his claim. Yeats' poem, though at times mock-serious, makes a subtle plea for greater understanding of the creative process and those that make it their "trade." 1903 in poetry Full text of poem, with preface by Robert Pinsky

O TĂș o Ninguna

"O Tú o Ninguna" is a song written by Juan Carlos Calderón and produced and performed by Mexican singer Luis Miguel. The song is a bolero in which the protagonist cannot envision his life without anyone else besides his love interest, it was released as the second single from the album Amarte Es un Placer on 6 September 1999. The track reached the top of the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States and peaked at number seven on the Brazilian Singles Chart. "O Tú o Ninguna" received positive reviews from music critics. It received a Latin Grammy nomination for Song of the Year in 2000. Calderón received an ASCAP Latin Award for the song in the same year. A music video for the track was filmed in San Francisco and directed by Rebecca Blake. In the video, Miguel searches for his love interest amidst a large crowd in the city. In 1997, Luis Miguel released his twelfth studio album Romances, the third record in his Romance series on which he covers classic Latin American boleros, it sold over 4.5 million copies and won the Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Performance in 1998.

To promote Romances, he embarked on a tour of the United States, Latin America, Spain lasting over a year. By 1998, Miguel was considered the most popular Latin artist internationally and his albums had sold over 35 million copies worldwide. Miguel began a relationship with American singer Mariah Carey the following year. After an absence of two years on the music scene, Miguel announced on 19 July 1999 that he would release a new album by September, he said the upcoming album would be a return to pop recordings as opposed to the bolero cover versions he had recorded on the Romance series. He denied rumors; the album's final title, Amarte Es un Placer was announced on 17 August 1999. Miguel confirmed. In addition to Miguel co-writing several of the record's tracks, he was assisted by other composers including Armando Manzanero, Juan Carlos Calderón, Arturo Perez. Recording took place at the A&M Studios, Cello Studios, Ocean Way Recording and the Record Plant in Hollywood, California with Miguel handling the productions himself.

"O Tú o Ninguna" is a bolero composed by Calderón. In the lyrics, the protagonist cannot imagine being with anyone else besides his love interest, it was released as the second single from Amarte Es un Placer on 6 September 1999. A live version was included on the album Vivo, the original recording was included on the compilation album Grandes Éxitos. Fred Shuster of the Los Angeles Daily News called "O Tú o Ninguna" a "radio staple"; the Orange County Register editor Daniel Chang regarded the song as a "tender bolero that defines Miguel's signature style of heart-melting charm and warmth." The Houston Chronicle critic Joey Guerra regarded the track as an "effective love ballad". At the inaugural Latin Grammy Awards ceremony in 2000, "O Tú o Ninguna" received a nomination for Song of the Year, but lost to "Dímelo" by Marc Anthony; the track was recognized as one of the best performing Latin songs of 1999 at the ASCAP Latin awards in 2000. In the United States, "O Tú o Ninguna" debuted at number 13 on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart on the week of 9 October 1999.

It reached the top of the chart four weeks replacing "Dímelo" by Marc Anthony. It was succeeded by Jaci Velasquez's song "Llegar a Ti" the following week; the track reached the top of the Latin Pop Songs chart where it spent two weeks in this position. The song peaked at number seven on the Brazilian Singles Chart; the music video for "O Tú o Ninguna" was filmed at San Francisco and directed by Rebecca Blake. Filming took place at the end of August 1999 and was released on 13 September 1999 to coincide with the launch of the album. In the video, Miguel reads a letter left behind by his love interest and goes on to search for her among the large crowd in the city. Credits adapted from the Amarte Es un Placer liner notes. Luis Miguel – producer, vocals Juan Carlos Calderónsongwriter, arranger List of number-one Billboard Hot Latin Pop Airplay of 1999 List of number-one Billboard Hot Latin Tracks of 1999