The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland was home to the most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was a principal center of Jewish culture, thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy which ended with the Partitions of Poland in the 18th century. During World War II there was a nearly complete genocidal destruction of the Polish Jewish community by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, during the 1939–1945 German occupation of Poland and the ensuing Holocaust. Since the fall of communism in Poland, there has been a renewed interest in Jewish culture, featuring an annual Jewish Culture Festival, new study programs at Polish secondary schools and universities, Warsaw's Museum of the History of Polish Jews. From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in 1025 through to the early years of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth created in 1569, Poland was the most tolerant country in Europe. Historians have used the label paradisus iudaeorum.
The country became a shelter for persecuted and expelled European Jewish communities and the home to the world's largest Jewish community of the time. According to some sources, about three-quarters of the world's Jews lived in Poland by the middle of the 16th century. With the weakening of the Commonwealth and growing religious strife, Poland's traditional tolerance began to wane from the 17th century onward. After the Partitions of Poland in 1795 and the destruction of Poland as a sovereign state, Polish Jews were subject to the laws of the partitioning powers, the antisemitic Russian Empire, as well as Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Prussia. Still, as Poland regained independence in the aftermath of World War I, it was the center of the European Jewish world with one of the world's largest Jewish communities of over 3 million. Antisemitism was a growing problem throughout Europe in those years, from both the political establishment and the general population. In 1939 at the start of World War II, Poland was partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
One-fifth of the Polish population perished during World War II. Although the Holocaust occurred in German-occupied Poland, there was little collaboration with the Nazis by its citizens. Collaboration by individual Poles has been described as smaller than in other occupied countries. Examples of Polish attitudes to German atrocities varied from risking death in order to save Jewish lives, passive refusal to inform on them, to indifference, in extreme cases, participation in pogroms such as the Jedwabne pogrom. Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the largest number of people listed as Righteous Among the Nations. In the post-war period, many of the 200,000 Jewish survivors registered at Central Committee of Polish Jews or CKŻP left the Polish People’s Republic for the nascent State of Israel, North America or South America, their departure was hastened by the destruction of Jewish institutions, post-war violence and the hostility of the Communist Party to both religion and private enterprise, but because in 1946–1947 Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah to Israel, without visas or exit permits.
Most of the remaining Jews left Poland in late 1968 as the result of the "anti-Zionist" campaign. After the fall of the Communist regime in 1989, the situation of Polish Jews became normalized and those who were Polish citizens before World War II were allowed to renew Polish citizenship; the contemporary Polish Jewish community is estimated to have between 20,000 members. The number of people with Jewish heritage of any sort may be several times larger. First Jews visiting Polish territory were traders seeking slaves, sold to Muslim countries, while permanent settlement begins during the Crusades. Travelling along trade routes leading east to Kiev and Bukhara, Jewish merchants, known as Radhanites, crossed Silesia. One of them, a diplomat and merchant from the Moorish town of Tortosa in Spanish Al-Andalus, known by his Arabic name, Ibrahim ibn Yaqub, was the first chronicler to mention the Polish state ruled by Prince Mieszko I. In the summer of 965 or 966 Jacob made a trade and diplomatic journey from his native Toledo in Muslim Spain to the Holy Roman Empire and to Slavic countries.
The first actual mention of Jews in Polish chronicles occurs in the 11th century. It appears that Jews were living in Gniezno, at that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty. Among the first Jews to arrive in Poland were those banished from Prague; the first permanent Jewish community is mentioned in 1085 by a Jewish scholar Jehuda ha-Kohen in the city of Przemyśl. As elsewhere in Central and Eastern Europe, the principal activity of Jews in medieval Poland was commerce and trade, including export and import of goods such as cloth, furs, wax, metal objects, slaves; the first extensive Jewish emigration from Western Europe to Poland occurred at the time of the First Crusade in 1098. Under Bolesław III, the Jews, encouraged by the tolerant regime of this ruler, settled throughout Poland, including over the border in Lithuanian territory as far as Kiev. Bolesław III recognized the utility of Jews in the development of the commercial interests of his country. Jews came to form the backbone of the Polish economy.
Mieszko III employed Jews in his mint as engravers and technical su
The first Woman's World's Fair was held in Chicago in 1925. The idea of the women-run fair was to display the progress of ideas and products of twentieth-century women; the first Women's World's Fair was held April 18–25 of 1925 in Chicago at the American Furniture Mart Building and opened by First Lady Grace Coolidge. The eight-day fair was the idea of Ruth Hanna McCormick, it was run by women and consisted of 280 booths representing some seventy women occupations. The fair drew about 200,000 visitors, earning a net of some $50,000; the fair's purpose was to display women's ideas and products for the twentieth century. At the 1876 Centennial Exposition there had been a Women's Pavilion funded and organized by women and in particular Elizabeth Duane Gillespie; the building was over 200 square feet and it was in the shape of a Maltese cross. The Chicago World's Fair of 1893 demonstrated some women's handicrafts in a sewing exhibit, but this fair was to show the progress women had made in seventy industries since then.
A side benefit of the fair was. The exhibits showed women's accomplishments in the arts, literature and industry; these exhibits were an inspiration to young women in their new careers. One of the exhibitors was Illinois Bell Telephone Company. Others were newspapers, hospitals and retail stores. Many local enterprises had employment opportunities. Women lawyers and artists had booths demonstrating women's contributions in these fields; as an example, American sculptor Harriet Whitney Frishmuth was represented by her 1920 bronze work Joy of the Waters. Women's organizations were represented by the Women's Trade Union League and Professional Women's Club, the Visiting Nurse Association, the YWCA, Hull House, the Illinois Club for Catholic Women, the Auxiliary House of the Good Shepherd. A group of about one thousand women from Sycamore, Illinois, on April 23 had breakfast with famous women. An all woman's orchestra furnished music; the speakers were women of notoriety which included women authors, business women, various women artisans.
The speeches were limited to five minutes. The main speaker was Nellie Tayloe Ross, the only state governor there. Another speaker was the collector of internal revenue of Chicago. Another was the secretary of the Cabinet Department of Commerce for President Herbert Hoover; the medical profession was represented by Dr. Alice Hamilton of Harvard University; the legal profession was represented by Judge Kathryn Sellers of Washington, D. C. Whiting Hall was visited by the women after the speeches; the booths where artistically decorated showing some of a hundred or so different occupations in which women were employed. Some of these were antique needlework, silver fox farming, goat breeding. Examples that received special attention were nurses and welfare workers. A key note was emphasis on earnestness and thoroughness in whatever line of work was undertaken. A unique feature of the first Woman's World's Fair was a daily program. There was a particular topic for each day. Besides being instructive it was entertaining.
Music and dancing were emphasized each day. Bennett was the general director of the fair; the woman's fair was a success and held for three additional years. Ganz, Cheryl R.. The 1933 Chicago World's Fair: A Century of Progress. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07852-1. Gerdts, Abigail Booth. An American Collection: Paintings and Sculpture from the National Academy of Design; the Academy. Kane, Joseph Nathan. Famous First Facts, Fifth Edition; the H. W. Wilson Company. ISBN 0-8242-0930-3; the first Woman's World Fair was held in Chicago, IL, April 18–25, 1925, to demonstrate women's progress in 70 industries. At the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, women's handicrafts had been featured only at the sewing exhibit; the Woman's World Fair was opened by Grace Coolidge, the wife of President Calvin Coolidge. Woman's World Fair Souvenir Program - Chicago Historical Society
On the Rise is the fourth album released by the R&B band The S. O. S. Band on the Tabu label in July 1983, it was produced by Terry Lewis and Gene Dozier. The album peaked at #7 on the R&B albums chart, it reached #47 on the Billboard 200. The album yielded two Billboard R&B Top Ten singles, "Just Be Good to Me" and "Tell Me If You Still Care", each peaking at #2 and #5 respectively. Both singles charted on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching #55 and #65 respectively. "Just Be Good to Me" peaked at #3 on the Hot Dance Club Play chart and #13 on the UK Singles Chart. The third single, "For Your Love" charted on the R&B chart, reaching #34; the album includes a cover of Johnnie Taylor's 1968 hit song, "Who's Making Love". The album was digitally remastered and reissued on CD with bonus tracks in 2013 by Demon Music Group; the S. O. S. Band Jason Bryant – keyboards, vocals Mary Davis – lead vocals Billy Ellis – saxophone Willie "Sonny" Killebrew – saxophone, flute Abdul Ra'oof – trumpet, percussion, lead vocals John A. Simpson III – bass Bruno Speight – guitar Jerome "J.
T." Thomas – drums, percussion Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Gene Dozier, The S. O. S. Band – producers, arrangers Clarence Avant – executive producer Tina Stephans – A&R coordinator Ron Cristopher, Bob Brown, Sabrina Buchanek, Judy Clapp, Taavi Mote – engineers Steve Hodge – engineer, mixing engineer Brian Gardner – mastering Bunnie Jackson Ransom – management Ezra Tucker – cover illustration Ford Smith – back cover photo Singles On the Rise at Discogs