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Gurkovo

Gurkovo is a small town in the Stara Zagora Province, South-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Gurkovo Municipality; as of December 2018, the town has a population of 2,723 inhabitants. It is located along the main route that links the important Bulgarian city of Veliko Tarnovo with the Thrace region of Bulgaria, notably Burgas on the Black Sea; the town is named after one of Russian commanders in Russo-Turkish War. As of December 2018, there are 2,723 inhabitants living in the town of Gurkovo. Bulgarians constitute 75 % of the population. There are a few Turks. Main religion is Orthodox Christianity

Theudebert II

Theudebert II, King of Austrasia, was the son and heir of Childebert II. He received the kingdom of Austrasia plus the cities of Poitiers, Tours, Le Puy-en-Velay, Châteaudun, as well as the Champagne, the Auvergne, Transjurane Alemannia, he succeeded his grandmother Brunhilda. In 599, Theudebert and his brother Theuderic II were at war. Theuderic defeated him at Sens, but allied against their cousin Chlothar II and defeated him at Dormelles, thereby laying their hands on a great portion of Neustria. At this point, the two brothers took up arms against each other. In 610, he extorted Alsace from his brother and Theuderic took up arms against him, yet again. Theudebert was defeated handily by Theuderic at Toul and at Zülpich in 612. Bishop Ludegast of Mainz is said to have beseeched his brother in a fable to spare his life, he was locked up in a monastery at the order of his grandmother, assassinated with his son Merovech. He was married to Bilichildis, his daughter Emma is sometimes thought to have married Eadbald of Kent.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Brunhilda". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press. P. 684. Murray, Alexander C.. "Theudebert II". In Nicholson, Oliver; the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity. Vol. I. Oxford University Press

Siege of Athens and Piraeus (87–86 BC)

The Siege of Athens and Piraeus was a siege of the First Mithridatic War that took place from Autumn of 87 BC to the Spring and Summer of 86 BC. The battle was fought between the forces of the Roman Republic, commanded by Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix on the one hand, the forces of the Kingdom of Pontus and the Athenian City-State on the other; the Greek Pontian forces were commanded by Archelaus. In the spring of 87 BC Sulla landed in Illyria. Asia was occupied by the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus under the command of Archelaus. Sulla’s first target was Athens, ruled by a Mithridatic puppet. Sulla moved southeast, picking up reinforcements as he went. Sulla’s chief of staff was Lucullus, who went ahead of him to scout the way and negotiate with Bruttius Sura, the existing Roman commander in Greece. After speaking with Lucullus, Sura handed over the command of his troops to Sulla. At Chaeronea, ambassadors from all the major cities of Greece met with Sulla, who impressed on them Rome's determination to drive Mithridates from Greece and Asia Province.

Sulla advanced on Athens. The invasion of Mithridates VI of Pontus, the king of the Kingdom of Pontus into the Kingdom of Bithynia, an ally of Rome, coupled with the assassination of Roman Citizens in the Asiatic Vespers, caused war between Rome and Pontus. Up to 80,000 Roman citizens were massacred. Before long, Mithridates VI had won over all the Greek city states, under Roman rule. After the arrival of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the majority of the Greek city states returned to the Roman banners. Athens was not amongst the cities that returned to Roman dominance as their tyrant Aristion, imposed by Mithridates VI was not disposed to capitulate to the invaders. Sulla marched upon his arrival he encountered his first problem; the main outer wall that had surrounded the city, connecting the main city with its port at Piraeus, was in ruins. As such, Sulla was forced to conduct two separate sieges, throwing up siege works surrounding both Athens and its port Piraeus. A force commanded by Archelaus defended Piraeus whilst another commanded by Aristion took up the main defense of Athens.

The sea defense was easier as a Pontic fleet dominated the nearby sea, facilitating reinforcement and replenishment whenever necessary. Furthermore, Piraeus had ample supplies from the onset while Athens did not. Sulla decided to first concentrate his attacks on Piraeus, seeing as without its port, there was no way that Athens could be resupplied, he sent Lucius Licinius Lucullus to raise a fleet from the remaining Roman allies in the eastern Mediterranean to deal with the Pontic navy. The first attack on the city was repulsed, so Sulla decided to build huge earthworks. Wood was needed, so he cut down everything, including the sacred groves of Greece, up to 100 miles from Athens main town; when more money was needed he "borrowed" from Sibyls alike. The currency minted from this treasure was to remain in circulation for centuries and prized for its quality. Siege works were built to facilitate the next attack, successful in taking the outer wall of Piraeus. Once the outer wall was taken, Sulla discovered.

Despite the complete encirclement of Athens and its port, several attempts by Archelaus to raise the siege, a stalemate seemed to have developed. Roman attention was temporarily shifted towards Athens. Athens by now was starving, grain was at famine levels in price. Inside the city, the population was reduced to eating shoe grass. A delegation from Athens was sent to treat with Sulla, but instead of serious negotiations they expounded on the glory of their city. Sulla sent them away saying: “I was sent to Athens, not to take lessons, but to reduce rebels to obedience.” Soon Sulla's camp was to fill with refugees from Rome, fleeing the massacres of Cinna. These included his wife and children, as well as those of the Optimate party who had not been killed. With his political enemies having taken power in Rome, Sulla realized that the money and reinforcements he believed were coming to bolster his forces were no longer something to be counted on. For this reason, Sulla ordered the sacking of religious site in the vicinity.

The chronicles state that one of the people sent on such a sacking mission became afraid due to ominous voices having been heard upon entering the temple. Deciding not to continue sacking the temple, the soldier returned to Sulla who ordered him back stating that he had heard laughter because the gods would be pleased with his victory. With Athens on the verge of starvation, Aristion grew less popular by the day. Greek deserters informed Sulla. Sulla sent sappers to undermine the wall. Nine hundred feet of wall was brought down between the Sacred and Piraeic gates on the southwest side of the city. On 1 March 86 BC, after five months under siege, a midnight sack of Athens began. After the taunts of Aristion, Sulla was not in a mood to be magnanimous. Blood was said to have flowed in the streets, it was only after the entreaties of a couple of his Greek friends and the pleas of the Roman Senators in his camp that Sulla decided enough was enough. After setting fire to large portions of the city and his forces fled to the Acropolis where they had gathered a store of supplies over the preceding few weeks.

At the same time, Archelaus abandoned the city of Piraeus and concentrated his forces in the citadel of the city. In a bid to stop an escape by Archelaus who would join his reinforcement army sent by Mithridates V

Ricciotti Garibaldi

Ricciotti Garibaldi was an Italian soldier, the fourth son of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Anita Garibaldi. Born in Montevideo, he was named in honour of Nicola Ricciotti, executed during the failed expedition of the Bandiera Brothers against the Kingdom of Naples, he spent much of his youth in Nice and England. In 1866, alongside his father, he took part in the Battle of Mentana. After a failed attempt to create market enterprises in America and Australia, he was a deputy in the Italian Parliament from 1887 to 1890. In the Turkish-Greek War in 1897, he fought with the Greek Army against the Ottomans with other Garibaldines. Of his six sons, five including Peppino and Ezio Garibaldi were soldiers in World War I, he had a daughter, who died in 1962. He died in Rome in 1924. Garibaldi family Newspaper clippings about Ricciotti Garibaldi in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

Andy Quan

Andy Quan, is a Chinese-Canadian author who now lives in Sydney, Australia. In his writing, he explores the ways in which sexual identity and cultural identity interact. Quan is gay. Quan was born in British Columbia, Canada. In addition to his writing, Quan is a community activist, he was the first full-time paid employee of ILGA and has worked as a policy writer and project manager on issues related to the global HIV epidemic. He now works as an copywriter. Ed. by Andy Quan & Jim Wong-Chu. Swallowing Clouds: An Anthology of Chinese-Canadian Poetry, Arsenal Pulp Press, ISBN 1-55152-073-7CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Andy Quan. Calendar Boy, New Star Books, ISBN 0-921586-82-5 Andy Quan. Slant, Nightwood Editions, ISBN 0-88971-179-8 Andy Quan. Six Positions: Sex Writing by Andy Quan, Green Candy Press, ISBN 1-931160-36-8 Andy Quan. Bowling Pin Fire, Signature Editions, ISBN 1-897109-22-9 ed, Andy Quan. Corpus: An HIV Prevention Publication, Vol. 6, No. 1, AIDS Project Los Angeles, ISBN 1-897109-22-9CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Andy Quan website