History of the Maldives

The history of the Maldives is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia and Indian Ocean. The Maldives had a strategic importance because of its location on the major marine routes of the Indian Ocean; the Maldives' nearest neighbours are Sri Lanka and India, both of which have had cultural and economic ties with Maldives for centuries. The Maldives provided the main source of cowrie shells used as a currency throughout Asia and parts of the East African coast. Most Maldives were influenced by Kalingas of ancient India who were earliest sea traders to Sri Lanka and Maldives from India and were responsible for the spread of Buddhism. Hence ancient Hindu culture has an indelible impact on Maldives' local culture. After the 16th century, when colonial powers took over much of the trade in the Indian Ocean, first the Portuguese the Dutch, the French meddled in local politics. However, this interference ended when the Maldives became a British Protectorate in the 19th century and the Maldivian monarchs were granted a good measure of self-governance.

The Maldives gained total independence from the British on 26 July 1965. However, the British continued to maintain an air base on the island of Gan in the southernmost atoll until 1976; the British departure in 1976 at the height of the Cold War immediately triggered foreign speculation about the future of the air base. The Soviet Union made a move to request the use of the base, but the Maldives refused; the greatest challenge facing the republic in the early 1990s was the need for rapid economic development and modernisation, given the country's limited resource base in fishing and tourism. Concern was evident over a projected long-term sea level rise, which would prove disastrous to the low-lying coral islands; these first Maldivians did not leave any archaeological remains. Their buildings were built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds.

Comparative studies of Maldivian oral and cultural traditions and customs indicate that one of the earliest settlers were descendants of Tamils from ancient Tamilakam in the Sangam period, most fishermen from the southwest coasts of present India and the northwestern shores of Sri Lanka. One such community are the Giraavaru people, they are mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé. Depictions of these early societies see, according to some, a matriarchal society with each atoll ruled by a chief queen according to some accounts or by others, several theocratic societies ruled by priests known as Sawamias of heliolatric and astrolatric religions. Several foreign travellers Arabs, had written about a kingdom of the Maldives ruled over by a queen. Al-Idrisi, referring to earlier writers, mentions the name of one of the queens, a member of the Aadeetta dynasty. A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry and religious beliefs.

Malabari seafaring culture led to Malayali settling of the Laccadives, the Maldives were evidently viewed as an extension of that archipelago. Some argue that Sindhis accounted for an early layer of migration. Seafaring from Debal began during the Indus valley civilisation; the Jatakas and Puranas show abundant evidence of this maritime trade. There are minor signs of Southeast Asian settlers some adrift from the main group of Austronesian reed boat migrants that settled Madagascar; the earliest written history of the Maldives is marked by the arrival of Sinhalese people, who were descended from the exiled Magadha Prince Vijaya from the ancient city known as Sinhapura in North East India. He and his party of several hundred landed in Sri Lanka, some in the Maldives circa 543 to 483 BC. According to the Mahavansa, one of the ships that sailed with Prince Vijaya, who went to Sri Lanka around 500 BC, went adrift and arrived at an island called Mahiladvipika, being identified with the Maldives, it is said that at that time, the people from Mahiladvipika used to travel to Sri Lanka.

Their settlement in Sri Lanka and the Maldives marks a significant change in demographics and the development of the Indo-Aryan language Dhivehi, most similar in grammar and structure to Sinhala, to the more ancient Elu Prakrit, which has less Pali. Alternatively, it is believed that Vijaya and his clan came from western India – a claim supported by linguistic and cultural features, specific descriptions in the epics themselves, e.g. that Vijaya visited Bharukaccha in his ship on the voyage down south. Philostorgius, a Greek historian of Late Antiquity, wrote of a hostage among the Romans, from the island called Diva, presumed to be the Maldives, baptised Theophilus. Theophilus was sent in the 350s to convert the Himyarites to Christianity, went to his homeland from Arabia. Des

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state. The Constitution came into effect on May 3, 1947, following World War II. In its text, the state formally renounces the sovereign right of belligerency and aims at an international peace based on justice and order; the article states that, to accomplish these aims, armed forces with war potential will not be maintained. The Constitution was imposed by the United States in the post-World War II period. However, Japan maintains de facto armed forces, referred to as the Japan Self-Defense Forces, which may have been thought of as something akin to what Mahatma Gandhi called the Shanti Sena or a collective security police force operating under the United Nations. In July 2014, instead of using Article 96 of the Japanese Constitution to amend the Constitution itself, the Japanese government approved a reinterpretation which gave more powers to the Japan Self-Defense Forces, allowing them to defend other allies in case of war being declared upon them, despite concerns and disapproval from China, South Korea and North Korea, whereas the United States supported the move.

This change is considered illegitimate by some Japanese political parties and citizens, since the Prime Minister circumvented Japan's constitutional amendment procedure. In September 2015, the Japanese National Diet made the reinterpretation official by enacting a series of laws allowing the Japan Self-Defense Forces to provide material support to allies engaged in combat internationally; the stated justification was that failing to defend or support an ally would weaken alliances and endanger Japan. The full text of the article in Japanese: The official English translation of the article is: ARTICLE 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained; the right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

The failure of the collective security of the League of Nations led to the realization that a universal system of security could only be effective if nations agreed to some limitation of their national sovereignty with regard to their right to belligerency, if the Security Council, a "closed shop" during League of Nations times, would open itself up to UN Members who would cede constitutional powers in favor of collective security. Like the German Article 24, incorporated in the post-war German Constitution, which provides for delegating or limiting sovereign powers in favor of collective security, Article 9 was added to the Constitution of Japan during the occupation following World War II; the source of the pacifist clause is disputed. According to the Allied Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur, the provision was suggested by Prime Minister Kijūrō Shidehara, who "wanted it to prohibit any military establishment for Japan—any military establishment whatsoever". Shidehara's perspective was that retention of arms would be "meaningless" for the Japanese in the post-war era, because any substandard post-war military would no longer gain the respect of the people, would cause people to obsess with the subject of rearming Japan.

Shidehara admitted to his authorship in his memoirs Gaikō Gojū-Nen, published in 1951, where he described how the idea came to him on a train journey to Tokyo. However, according to some interpretations, he denied having done so, the inclusion of Article 9 was brought about by the members of the Government Section of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers Charles Kades, one of Douglas MacArthur's closest associates. There is, another theory by constitutional scholar Toshiyoshi Miyazawa that the idea came from MacArthur himself and that Shidehara was a pawn in his plans; the article was endorsed by the Diet of Japan on November 3, 1946. Kades rejected the proposed language that prohibited Japan's use of force "for its own security", believing that self-preservation was the right of every nation. Soon after the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947, the Chinese Civil War ended in victory for the Communist Party of China in 1949 and the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

As a consequence, the United States was left without the Republic of China on Taiwan as a military ally against communism in the Pacific. There was a desire on the part of the United States occupation forces for Japan to take a more active military role in the struggle against communism during the Cold War. If Article 9 is looked upon as a motion to abolish war as an institution—as envisaged in the 1961 McCloy–Zorin Accords—then the Korean crisis was the first opportunity for another country to second the Japanese motion and embark on the transition toward a true system of collective security under the United Nations. In fact, however, in 1950, following the outbreak of the Korean War, the U. S. 24th Infantry Division was pulled out of Japan and sent to fight on the front lines in Korea, so Japan was left without any armed protection. MacArthur ordered the creation of a 75,000-strong National Police Reserve to maintain order in Japan and repel any possible invasion from outside; the NPR was organized by United States Army Col. Frank Kowalski using Army surplus equipment.

To avoid possible const

Human rights education

Human rights education is defined as the learning process that builds up the required knowledge and proficiency of human rights of which the objective is to develop an acceptable human rights culture. This type of learning teaches students to examine their experiences from the human rights point of view enabling them to integrate these concepts into their values and decision-making. According to Amnesty International, human rights education is a way to empower people so that they can create skills and behavior that would promote dignity and equality within the community and all over the world; the National Economics and Social Rights Initiative stated the importance of Non-Discrimination in Human Rights Education. Governments must see to it that it must be exercised without bias to race, color, language, national or social origin, political or personal opinion, birth, or any status. All students and communities possess the right to take part in decisions affecting their respective schools and the right to education.

The OHCHR promotes Human Rights Education by supporting national and local initiatives for HRE within the context of its Technical Cooperation Programs and through the ACT Project which subsidizes the grassroots projects. The ACT or Assisting Communities Together Project is the collaboration between the OHCHR and the United Nations Development Program to make grants available for civil society organizations in implementing human rights activities in local communities; the OHCHR develops preferred Human Rights Education training materials and resource tools such as the Database on Human Rights Education and Training, Resource Collection on Human Rights Education and Training, web section on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It takes care of coordinating the World Program for Human Rights Education; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is acknowledged as a landmark document in human rights history. It was drafted by representatives from various countries and regions with varying legal and cultural experiences.

The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed this declaration in Paris, France on December 10, 1948. This Declaration states, it was translated into more than 500 languages worldwide. The demand for human rights education continues to grow globally. Academic institutions are in the position to train students as future business leaders capable of managing human rights impact on their respective corporate organizations; the United Nations Global Compact in cooperation with the Principles for Responsible Management Education invites different corporations to incorporate business along with human rights topics to their curricula. The Asia-Pacific Center for Education for International Understanding and the United Nations Academic Impact mutually organized the 2018 United Nations Global Citizenship Education Seminar at the UN Headquarters in New York City; these seminars are useful in the formulation of new ideas and concepts related to HRE. Human Rights Education is crucial because it is one of the keys to making governments and political leaders accountable.

It imparts and spreads out the human rights vocabulary and provides a critical approach towards human rights. The United Nations High Commissioner for the Promotion and Protection of all Human Rights functions as coordinator of the UN Education and Public Information Programs in the area of human rights; the United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed it as central to the achievement of the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 26.2 of the UDHR states the role of educators in achieving the social order called for by the declaration: Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child requires states to ensure that children are enabled to develop a respect for their own cultural identity and values and for the culture and values of others. The importance of human rights was reaffirmed by the United Nations in the 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action: As a result of the Vienna Declaration the decade from 1995 to 2004 was declared the UN Decade of Human Rights Education.

UNESCO has a responsibility to promote human rights education, was a key organiser of the UN's Decade for Human Rights Education. UNESCO attempts to promote human rights education through: Development of national and local capacities for human rights education, through its co-operation in development projects and programmes at national and sub-regional levels. Elaboration of learning materials and publications and their translation and adaptation in national and local languages. Advocacy and Networking Activities. Following the Decade of Human Rights Education, on 10 December 2004, the General Assembly proclaimed the World Programme for Human Rights Education, ongoing project to advance the implementation of human rights education programmes in all sectors: The emphasis on Human Rights Education began in 1995 with the beginning of the UN Decade for Human Rights Education, though addressed in 1953 with the UNESCO Associated Schools Program, which served as an “initial attempt to teach human rights in formal school settings”.

The first formal request for the need to educate students about human rights came about in UNESCO’s 1974 article Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding and Peace, Education Relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The participants of the International Congress on the Teaching of Humans Rights met in 1978 to form a specific definition of what would be required application of the education in formal curricula; the aims at which the Congress agreed upon including the encouragement of tolerant attitudes with focus on respect, providing knowledge o