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History of the Teller–Ulam design

This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons known as hydrogen bombs. This design, the details of which are military secrets known to only a handful of major nations, is believed to be used in all modern nuclear weapons which make up the arsenals of the major nuclear powers; the idea of using the energy from a fission device to begin a fusion reaction was first proposed by the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi to his colleague Edward Teller in the fall of 1941 during what would soon become the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort by the United States and United Kingdom to develop the first nuclear weapons. Teller soon was a participant at Robert Oppenheimer's summer conference on the development of a fission bomb held at the University of California, where he guided discussion towards the idea of creating his "Super" bomb, which would hypothetically be many times more powerful than the yet-undeveloped fission weapon.

Teller assumed creating the fission bomb would be nothing more than an engineering problem, that the "Super" provided a much more interesting theoretical challenge. For the remainder of the war, the effort was focused on first developing fission weapons. Teller continued to pursue the "Super", to the point of neglecting work assigned to him for the fission weapon at the secret Los Alamos lab where he worked. Teller was given some resources with which to study the "Super", contacted his friend Maria Göppert-Mayer to help with laborious calculations relating to opacity; the "Super", proved elusive, the calculations were difficult to perform since there was no existing way to run small-scale tests of the principles involved. After the atomic bombings of Japan, many scientists at Los Alamos rebelled against the notion of creating a weapon thousands of times more powerful than the first atomic bombs. For the scientists the question was in part technical — the weapon design was still quite uncertain and unworkable — and in part moral: such a weapon, they argued, could only be used against large civilian populations, could thus only be used as a weapon of genocide.

Many scientists, such as Teller's colleague Hans Bethe, urged that the United States should not develop such weapons and set an example towards the Soviet Union. Promoters of the weapon, including Teller and Berkeley physicists Ernest Lawrence and Luis Alvarez, argued that such a development was inevitable, to deny such protection to the people of the United States — when the Soviet Union was to create such a weapon itself — was itself an immoral and unwise act. Still others, such as Oppenheimer thought that the existing stockpile of fissile material was better spent in attempting to develop a large arsenal of tactical atomic weapons rather than squandered on the development of a few massive "Supers"; when the Soviet Union exploded their own atomic bomb in 1949, it caught Western analysts off guard, in early 1950 President Harry S. Truman ordered a program to develop a hydrogen bomb. Many scientists returned to Los Alamos to work on the "Super" program, but the initial attempts still seemed unworkable.

In the "classical Super", it was thought that the heat alone from the fission bomb would be used to ignite the fusion material, but this proved to be impossible. For a while, many scientists thought; the exact history of the Teller–Ulam breakthrough is not known, due in part to numerous conflicting personal accounts and continued classification of documents which would reveal, closer to the truth. Previous models of the "Super" had placed the fusion fuel either surrounding the fission "trigger" or at the heart of it in the hopes that the closer the fuel was to the fission explosion, the higher the chance it would ignite the fusion fuel by the sheer force of the heat generated. In 1951, after still many years of fruitless labor on the "Super", a breakthrough idea from the Polish émigré mathematician Stanislaw Ulam was seized upon by Teller and developed into the first workable design for a megaton-range hydrogen bomb; this concept, now called "staged implosion" was first proposed in a classified scientific paper, On Heterocatalytic Detonations I.

Hydrodynamic Lenses and Radiation Mirrors by Teller and Ulam on March 9, 1951. The exact amount of contribution provided from Ulam and Teller to what became known as the "Teller–Ulam design" is not definitively known in the public domain—the degree of credit assigned to Teller by his contemporaries is exactly commensurate with how well they thought of Teller in general. In an interview with Scientific American from 1999, Teller told the reporter: I contributed. I'm sorry. Ulam was rightly dissatisfied with an old approach, he came to me with a part of an idea which I had worked out and difficulty getting people to listen to. He was willing to sign a paper; when it came to defending that paper and putting work into it, he refused. He said, "I don't believe in it." The issue is controversial. Bethe in his “Memorandum on the History of the Thermonuclear Program” cited Teller as the discoverer of an

Wheatstone Corporation

Wheatstone Corporation is an American company that produces digital and analog professional audio equipment for broadcast radio and new media. Products include audio consoles, AoIP audio networking, audio processing, audio recording and editing, custom furniture; the corporation does business under the brand names Audioarts Engineering, Pacific Research & Engineering, VoxPro. Gary Snow’s interest in audio came early: “By age 12, I was running a neighborhood radio and TV repair shop. I built my first stereo system at 15 and moved on to guitar amps and loudspeaker enclosures,” Snow said. After high school, Gary took a job repairing amplifiers and special effects devices while attending Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, New York, where he majored in electrical engineering. Snow’s career progressed to larger companies, where he engaged in more sophisticated high fidelity repair and installations. Gary explained, “I was sent to KLH, McIntosh Laboratories, the Allen Organ Company for further technical training.

In 1971, I was offered employment at Theatre Sound Inc. in New Haven, where I expanded into electronic circuit design, large system design and installation.”After some encouragement by friends, he produced a "for sale" product in 1974. Snow chose the name "Audioarts" for his nascent company. Snow is the recipient of three Industry Innovator awards announced by trade publications in 2017. Wheatstone Corporation was founded as Audioarts Engineering in 1974. and was incorporated under its current name in 1981. Founded in Bethany, the company moved twice, first to Syracuse, New York in 1986 to its present location just outside New Bern, North Carolina in 1998; the company's first product was a simple disco mixer designed by the founder. In the years that followed, Audioarts designed and sold outboard equipment for the recording industry, including one of the earliest parametric equalizers. In 1976 its first console, the Audioarts 2000, was introduced. In 1981, working under the internal project name "Wheatstone," Audioarts developed a full-featured sound reinforcement console.

Due to the success of this console, the company subsequently incorporated as Wheatstone Corporation. In addition to Wheatstone, the corporation markets products under the following brand names: Audioarts Engineering is Wheatstone's brand of standalone analog radio consoles. Audioarts was the original name of the corporation. Pacific Research & Engineering is a brand of digital audio consoles for radio; the brand was acquired in February 2017 from GatesAir, the brand has been marketed by Harris Corporation. VoxPro is Wheatstone's digital audio recording and editing system; the brand was acquired in 2015. WheatNet-IP is an Audio over IP network with applications in broadcast radio and other applications, it provides distribution of audio and logic. VoxPro is a used digital recording and editing system optimized for live radio use, it allows simple and rapid editing of telephone calls and other content. Wheatstone Processing is a line of processing equipment designed to optimize the on-air sound of broadcast and streaming radio.

Wheatstone manufactures equipment for processing of individual microphones and external feeds. Networked Control Surfaces include consoles connected to the audio network via Ethernet. Wheatstone markets a range of these for both television audio use. Wheatstone Corporation Web Site

Cupid (Daniel Powter song)

"Cupid" is a song by Canadian recording artist Daniel Powter from his fourth studio album Turn on the Lights. It was released as a digital download on 10 April 2012; the song charted at number 38 on the Billboard Adult Pop Songs chart. Powter stated the inspiration and meaning for writing the song "Cupid" was when he was walking with his dog in a park one day and saw an elderly couple hugging and dancing with each other, he added: "I thought to myself "Oh my god. That is so amazing." So I went home and started writing all of these lyrics about: It doesn't matter if you're yin, doesn't matter if you're the yang. It's just the only thing that matters is that you love each other. So Cupid is trying to capture that moment where we're different but we still love each other." Digital DownloadCupid - 3:44UK Promo CDCupid - 3:44 A music video to accompany the release of "Cupid" was first released onto YouTube on 29 May 2012 at a total length of three minutes and fifty-three seconds. The video was directed by Neil Tardio and depicts the story of a couple, a man and a woman, the stages in the life of their relationship.

Powter appears singing on the beach, outside their house and near the end of the video where he'gives away' the woman at the renewing of her wedding vows with the man. The video ends with the lovers walking on the beach with their many family relatives. Powter's single "Cupid" in a Christmas themed version

Sunil Pandey

Narendra kumar Pandey is an Indian politician of Bihar. He was first elected in 2000 in the Piro constituency for the Samta Party, he was re-elected three times. In the assembly election of 2005 February he won by a margin of 35679; because of all the party failed to form government, President's rule was imposed in the State and after a few months Bihar's state assembly was dissolved, elections were held again in October month in which NDA came to power with Nitish Kumar as the Chief Minister and in the same year he went in JD before election and lodged his victory again. Pandey was nominated as the Chairman of Agriculture and Industrial Development committee of Bihar. before the state assembly election of 2015 he resigned JD on 25/9/2015 after completing his successful 4 elections. He joined LJP as a spokesman

Army of the Republic of Vietnam

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam, were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in April 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War; the ARVN began as a post-colonial army trained and affiliated with the United States and had engaged in conflict since its inception. Several dramatic changes occurred throughout its lifetime from a'blocking-force' to a more modern conventional force using helicopter deployment in combat. During the U. S. intervention, the role of the ARVN was marginalised to a defensive role with an incomplete modernisation, transformed again most notably following Vietnamization as it was up-geared and reconstructed to fulfill the role of the departing U. S. forces. By 1974, it had become much more effective with foremost counterinsurgency expert and Nixon adviser Robert Thompson noting that Regular Forces were well-trained and second only to U. S. and IDF forces in the free world and with General Creighton Abrams remarking that 70% of units were on par with the U.

S. Army. However, the withdrawal of American forces through Vietnamization meant the armed forces could not fulfill all the aims of the program and had become dependent on U. S. equipment, given it was meant to fulfill the departing role of the United States. At its peak, an estimated 1 in 9 citizens of South Vietnam were enlisted and it had become the fourth-largest army in the world composed of Regular Forces and more voluntary Regional and Village-level militias. Unique in serving a dual military-civilian administrative purpose in direct competition with the Viet Cong, the ARVN had, in addition, become a component of political power and suffered from continual issues of political loyalty appointments, corruption in leadership, factional in-fighting and occasional open internal conflict. After the fall of Saigon to the North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam, the ARVN was dissolved. While some high-ranking officers had fled the country to the United States or elsewhere, thousands of former ARVN officers were sent to reeducation camps by the communist government of the new, unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Five ARVN generals committed suicide to avoid capture by the PAVN/VC. On 8 March 1949, after the Élysée Accords, the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by the Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại, the Vietnamese National Army was soon created; the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA became a modern army modeled after the Expeditionary Corps, it included infantry, signals, armored cavalry, airforce, navy and a national military academy. By 1953 troopers as well as officers were all Vietnamese, the latter having been trained in Ecoles des Cadres such as Da Lat, including Chief of Staff General Nguyễn Văn Hinh, a French Union airforce veteran. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam and Cambodia.

In 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On 26 October 1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who formally established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on 30 December 1955; the air force was established as a separate service known as the Republic of Vietnam Air Force. Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Viet Cong, formed to oppose the Diệm administration; the United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid the ARVN in combating the insurgents. A major campaign, developed by Ngô Đình Nhu and resurrected under another name was the "Strategic Hamlet Program", regarded as unsuccessful by Western media because it was "inhumane" to move villagers from the countryside to fortified villages. ARVN leaders and President Diệm were criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush armed anti-government religious groups like the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which according to Diệm, were harboring VC guerrillas.

The most notorious of these attacks occurred on the night of August 21, 1963, during the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids conducted by the Special Forces, which caused a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds. In 1963 Diệm was killed in a coup d'état carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, but he was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam. During these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the VC and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant, they were plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was critical of the ARVN, it continued to be US-armed and funded. Although the American news media has portrayed the Vietnam War as a American and North Vietnamese conflict, the ARVN carried the brunt of the fight before and after large-scale American involvement, participated in many major operations with American troops.

ARVN troops pioneered the use of the M113 armored personnel carrier as an infantry fighting vehicle

State of Bahrain

The State of Bahrain was the name of Bahrain from 1971 to 2002. On 15 August 1971, Bahrain declared independence and signed a new treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom. Bahrain joined the United Nations and the Arab League in the year; the oil boom of the 1970s benefited Bahrain although the subsequent downturn hurt the economy. The country had begun diversification of its economy and benefited further from Lebanese Civil War in the 1970s and 1980s, when Bahrain replaced Beirut as the Middle East's financial hub after Lebanon's large banking sector was driven out of the country by the war. Following the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, in 1981 Bahraini Shī'a fundamentalists orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organisation, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain; the coup would have installed a Shī'a cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government. In December 1994, a group of youths threw stones at female runners during an international marathon for running bare-legged.

The resulting clash with police soon grew into civil unrest. A popular uprising occurred between 1994 and 2000 in which leftists and Islamists joined forces; the event resulted in forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999. A referendum on 14–15 February 2001 massively supported the National Action Charter, he instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, released all political prisoners. As part of the adoption of the National Action Charter on 14 February 2002, Bahrain changed its formal name from the State of Bahrain to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Based on its new constitution, Bahraini men elected its first National Assembly in 1973. Although the Assembly and the emir Isa ibn Salman al-Khalifa quarreled over a number of issues: foreign policy. S. naval presence, the budget, the biggest clash came over the State Security Law. The Assembly refused to ratify the government-sponsored law, which allowed, among other things, the arrest and detention of people for up to three years, without a trial.

The legislative stalemate over this act created a public crisis, on 25 August 1975, the emir dissolved the Assembly. The emir ratified the State Security Law by decree, suspended those articles in the constitution dealing with the legislative powers of the Assembly. In that same year, the emir established the State Security Court, whose judgments were not subject to appeal. Full text of the 1973 constitutionThe constitution of 1973 was written shortly after Bahrain's independence from Britain in 1971. In 1972, the ruler Shaikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa issued a decree providing for the election of a Constituent Assembly that would be responsible for drafting and ratifying the constitution; the electorate of the constituent assembly was native-born male citizens aged older. The constituent assembly consisted of twenty-two elected delegates, plus the twelve members of the Council of Ministers and eight members directly appointed by the emir Shaikh Isa; the constitution drawn up provided for a unicameral legislature consisting of 30 members elected through "universal suffrage", plus fourteen royally-appointed government ministers who are ex officio members.

The constitution was enacted by amiri decree in December 1973. Only one parliamentary election was held under the 1973 Constitution before it was abrogated by the emir Shaikh Isa in 1975; the country was governed under emergency laws from 1975 to 2002