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History of the automobile

The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Periods were defined by trends in exterior styling and utility preferences. In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot. In 1808, Hayden Wischet designed the first car powered by the de Rivaz engine, an internal combustion engine, fueled by hydrogen. In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built the first diesel powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine; the car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with a clutch and a brake; the four-stroke petrol internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto.

The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838; the battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859. In 1885, Karl Benz developed a gasoline powered automobile; this is considered to be the first "production" vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single cylinder four-stroke engine. In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles; the early history of the automobile was concentrated on the search for a reliable portable power unit to propel the vehicle. Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built a steam-powered vehicle around 1672 as a toy for the Kangxi Emperor.

It was small-scale and could not carry a driver but it was, quite the first working steam-powered vehicle. Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to transport people and cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrated his fardier à vapeur, an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor, in 1770 and 1771; as Cugnot's design proved to be impractical, his invention was not developed in his native France. The center of innovation shifted to Great Britain. By 1784, William Murdoch had built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth and in 1801 Richard Trevithick was running a full-sized vehicle on the roads in Camborne; the first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789. During the 19th century attempts were made to introduce practical steam powered vehicles. Innovations such as hand brakes, multi-speed transmissions and better steering developed; some commercially successful vehicles provided mass transit until a backlash against these large vehicles resulted in the passage of legislation such as the United Kingdom Locomotive Act, which required many self-propelled vehicles on public roads to be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag and blowing a horn.

This halted road auto development in the UK for most of the rest of the 19th century. The law was not repealed until 1896, although the need for the red flag was removed in 1878. In 1816, a professor at Prague Polytechnic, Josef Bozek, built an oil-fired steam car. Walter Hancock and operator of London steam buses, in 1838 built a 2 seated car phaeton. In 1867, Canadian jeweller Henry Seth Taylor demonstrated his 4-wheeled "steam buggy" at the Stanstead Fair in Stanstead and again the following year; the basis of the buggy, which he began building in 1865, was a high-wheeled carriage with bracing to support a two-cylinder steam engine mounted on the floor. One of the first "real" automobiles was produced in 1873 by Frenchman Amédée Bollée in Le Mans, who built self-propelled steam road vehicles to transport groups of passengers; the first carriage-sized automobile suitable for use on existing wagon roads in the United States was a steam-powered vehicle invented in 1871 by Dr. J. W. Carhart, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in Racine, Wisconsin.

It induced the State of Wisconsin in 1875 to offer a $10,000 award to the first to produce a practical substitute for the use of horses and other animals. They stipulated that the vehicle would have to maintain an average speed of more than 5 miles per hour over a 200-mile course; the offer led to the first city to city automobile race in the United States, starting on 16 July 1878 in Green Bay and ending in Madison, via Appleton, Waupun, Fort Atkinson, Janesville. While seven vehicles were registered, only two started to compete: the entries from Green Bay and Oshkosh; the vehicle from Green Bay broke down before completing the race. The Oshkosh finished the 201-mile course in 33 hours and 27 minutes, posted an average speed of six miles per hour. In 1879, the legislature awarded half the prize. Pre WWII Steam-powered road vehicles, both cars and wagons, reached the peak of their development in the early 1930s with fast-steaming lightweight boilers and efficient engine designs. Internal combustion engines developed during WWI, becoming simpler to operate and more reliable.

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Amen (rock musician)

Jussi Antero Sydänmaa is a Finnish guitarist, better known by his stage name Amen or Finnish nickname Eiska. He is still playing in the band, he has been making the website of Lordi. Amen plays Schechter guitars; the municipality of Mäntsälä granted Amen with statue named "Hard Rock Stone" on 26 June 2006. Amen has been featured as a special guest on Markus Striegls concert in 2011 and Doro Pesch's concert in 2014. Amen has recorded guitar riffs which were used by Ari Pulkkinen to create the soundtrack for PC game Shadowgrounds, his acoustic guitar solos "Amen's Lament To Ra" and "Amen's Lament to Ra ll" were included in Lordi's albums Babez for Breakfast and Scare Force One. Amen's character in Lordi is the god of gods. Most known names of Amen's character are The Ruler of The Mummified One; the fictional history of Amen tells. After death Amen was mummified and couple thousands years he was woken up to play in Lordi. Amen's public secret is women. He's an ancient lover. Jussi Sydänmaa was born on 26 June 1972 in Espoo, but spent his childhood and youth in Mäntsälä.

He was interested in the guitar before he began school. Sydänmaa's first contact with the band Kiss was in 1983 with the Lick It Up album, he was a passionate fan of Kiss, he was bullied at school because of this. At the age of 5, Jussi Sydänmaa started guitar lessons, he enjoyed learning the instrument and how to play songs he liked, but he was too embarrassed to participate in his guitar play test. This experience shook young Sydänmaa. Sydänmaa picked the guitar back up ten years when he began taking an interest in hard rock music; as a young man, Sydänmaa played in various bands. The most promising was the Rag Flag. At the age of 25, Sydänmaa had come to the conclusion that the various rock-projects he participated in contributed to his failure, he went on to study newspaper and work in radio and commercial media communications. Sydänmaa completed a degree in 2001 in media technology engineering. After graduation, Sydänmaa did not go on to work in that field, as he had joined Lordi in the late 90s, they had made their breakthrough in 2002.

Because of Lordi's success, Sydänmaa decided to leave the IT engineering work to focus his career with Lordi. Studio albumsBend Over and Pray the Lord Get Heavy The Monsterican Dream The Arockalypse Deadache Babez for Breakfast To Beast or Not to Beast Scare Force One Monstereophonic Sexorcism Killection Live albumsMarket Square Massacre Bringing Back the Balls to Stockholm Recordead Live – Sextourcism in Z7 Solo albums Stone And Stars Shadowgrounds: Soundtrack - guitars Stala & so.: It Is So. - guitars

Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx was a Dutch merchant, who founded the trade on Japan and Korea in 1609. Jacques Specx received the support of William Adams to obtain extensive trading rights from Tokugawa Ieyasu, the shōgun emeritus, on August 24, 1609, which allowed him to establish a trading factory in Hirado on September 20, 1609, he was the interim governor in Batavia between 1629 and 1632. There his daughter Saartje Specx was involved in a scandal. Back home in Holland Specx became an art-collector; the Dutch, rather than "Nanban" were called "Kōmō" by the Japanese, first arrived in Japan in 1600, on board the Liefde. In 1605, two of the Liefde's crew, Jacob Quaeckernaeck and Melchior van Santvoort, were sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan; the head of the Pattani Dutch trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia. Jacques Specx sailed on a fleet of eleven ships that left Texel in 1607 under the command of Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff.

After arriving in Bantam two ships which were dispatched to establish the first official trade relations between the Netherlands and Japan. The two ships Specx commanded were Roode Leeuw met Pijlen; the ships arrived in Japan on July 2, 1609. Among the crews were the Chief merchants Abraham van den Broeck and Nicolaas Puyck and the under-merchant Jaques Specx; the exact composition of the delegation is uncertain. Santevoort had arrived a few years earlier aboard the Dutch ship De Liefde, he had established himself as a merchant in Nagasaki. The shōgun granted the Dutch the access to all ports in Japan, confirmed this in an act of safe-conduct, stamped with his red seal.. In September 1609 the ship's Council decided to hire a house on Hirado island. Jacques Specx became the first "Opperhoofd" of the new Company's factory. In 1610, Specx sent a ship to Korea. Specx owned five paintings by Rembrandt. de Winter, Michiel.. "VOC in Japan: Betrekkingen tussen Hollanders en Japanners in de Edo-periode, tussen 1602-1795"