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History of the graphical user interface

The history of the graphical user interface, understood as the use of graphic icons and a pointing device to control a computer, covers a five-decade span of incremental refinements, built on some constant core principles. Several vendors have created their own windowing systems based on independent code, but with basic elements in common that define the WIMP "window, icon and pointing device" paradigm. There have been important technological achievements, enhancements to the general interaction in small steps over previous systems. There have been a few significant breakthroughs in terms of use, but the same organizational metaphors and interaction idioms are still in use. Desktop computers are controlled by computer mice and/or keyboards while laptops have a pointing stick or touchpad, smartphones and tablet computers have a touchscreen; the influence of game computers and joystick operation has been omitted. Early dynamic information devices such as radar displays, where input devices were used for direct control of computer-created data, set the basis for improvements of graphical interfaces.

Some early cathode-ray-tube screens used a light pen, rather than a mouse, as the pointing device. The concept of a multi-panel windowing system was introduced by the first real-time graphic display systems for computers: the SAGE Project and Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad. In the 1960s, Douglas Engelbart's Augmentation of Human Intellect project at the Augmentation Research Center at SRI International in Menlo Park, California developed the oN-Line System; this computer incorporated multiple windows used to work on hypertext. Engelbart had been inspired, in part, by the memex desk-based information machine suggested by Vannevar Bush in 1945. Much of the early research was based on. So, the design was based on the childlike primitives of eye-hand coordination, rather than use of command languages, user-defined macro procedures, or automated transformations of data as used by adult professionals. Engelbart's work directly led to the advances at Xerox PARC. Several people went from SRI to Xerox PARC in the early 1970s.

In 1973, Xerox PARC developed the Alto personal computer. It had a bitmapped screen, was the first computer to demonstrate the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface, it was not a commercial product, but several thousand units were built and were used at PARC, as well as other XEROX offices, at several universities for many years. The Alto influenced the design of personal computers during the late 1970s and early 1980s, notably the Three Rivers PERQ, the Apple Lisa and Macintosh, the first Sun workstations; the GUI was first developed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Larry Tesler, Dan Ingalls, David Smith, Clarence Ellis and a number of other researchers. It used windows and menus to support commands such as opening files, deleting files, moving files, etc. In 1974, work began at PARC on Gypsy, the first bitmap What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get cut & paste editor. In 1975, Xerox engineers demonstrated a Graphical User Interface "including icons and the first use of pop-up menus". In 1981 Xerox introduced a pioneering product, Star, a workstation incorporating many of PARC's innovations.

Although not commercially successful, Star influenced future developments, for example at Apple and Sun Microsystems. The Blit, a graphics terminal, was developed at Bell Labs in 1982. Lisp machines developed at MIT and commercialized by Symbolics and other manufacturers, were early high-end single user computer workstations with advanced graphical user interfaces and mouse as an input device. First workstations from Symbolics came to market in 1981, with more advanced designs in the subsequent years. Beginning in 1979, started by Steve Jobs and led by Jef Raskin, the Apple Lisa and Macintosh teams at Apple Computer continued to develop such ideas; the Lisa, released in 1983, featured a high-resolution stationery-based graphical interface atop an advanced hard disk based OS that featured such things as preemptive multitasking and graphically oriented inter-process communication. The comparatively simplified Macintosh, released in 1984 and designed to be lower in cost, was the first commercially successful product to use a multi-panel window interface.

A desktop metaphor was used, in. File directories looked like file folders. There were a set of desk accessories like a calculator and alarm clock that the user could place around the screen as desired; the Macintosh, in contrast to the Lisa, used a program-centric rather than document-centric design. Apple revisited the document-centric design, in a limited manner, much with OpenDoc. There is still some controversy over the amount of influence that Xerox's PARC work, as opposed to previous academic research, had on the GUIs of the Apple Lisa and Macintosh, but it is clear that the influence was extensive, because first versions of Lisa GUIs lacked icons; these prototype GUIs are at least mouse-driven, but ignored the WIMP concept. Screenshots of first GUIs of Apple Lisa prototypes show the early designs. Apple engineers visited the PARC facilities and a number of PARC employees subsequently moved to Apple to work on the Lisa and Macintosh GUI. However, the Apple work extended PARC's adding manipulatable icons, drag and

Felicity Ann

Felicity Ann is the 23-foot wooden sloop sailed in 1952–1953 by Ann Davison in the first singlehanded transatlantic crossing by a woman. The vessel was designed and built by Mashfords Brothers Ltd at the Cremyll Shipyard in Cornwall, England; when construction commenced in 1939 the boat was built under the name Peter Piper, delayed by World War II, it was launched in 1949 as Felicity Ann. It was purchased by Ann Davison in 1952, using funds from her book detailing the sailing misadventure that resulted in her husband's death, Last Voyage. In 1956 her story of the 254-day transatlantic crossing in Felicity Ann was published as My Ship is So Small. In 2007 Felicity Ann was in private possession in Haines, it underwent some restoration. Felicity Ann left Alaska in 2009 and is now in the hands of the Northwest School of Wooden Boatbuilding at Port Hadlock, where she was restored and launched in May 2018. Davison, Ann, My Ship Is So Small, Peter Davies Press

Slavery in Mali

Slavery in Mali exists today, with as many as 200,000 people held in direct servitude to a master. Since 2006, a movement called Temedt has been active in Mali struggling against the persistence of slavery and the discrimination associated with ex-slaves. There were reports that in the Tuareg Rebellion of 2012, ex-slaves were recaptured by their former masters. Slavery in Mali existed across different ethnic groups of Pre-Imperial Mali before the Muslim conquest. Slavery increased in importance with the Arab slave trade across the Sahara during the Middle Ages. Following the collapse of the Mali Empire, slave raiding increased and the slave trade became a key part of the economy in the Tuareg, Mandé, Fula communities which would be the major ethnic groups in the country of Mali; when the area came under French colonial control in 1898, as French Sudan, the French authorities formally abolished slavery in 1905. Despite this declaration, traditional patterns of servitude persisted. Although some slaves left their positions of servitude following the declaration of 1905, many remained and in much of the country, slavery continued more or less unimpeded.

With the political opening of the creation of the French Fourth Republic in 1946, large number of slaves left their positions and the slavery issue became a key political issue for the Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally party. When the Republic of Mali achieved independence in 1960, the government tried to further undermine the institution of slavery but efforts were stalled when the military dictatorship of Moussa Traoré took over the country from 1968 until 1991. Inside the borders of present-day Mali, slavery existed for many centuries in the Mali Empire and the surrounding communities and kingdoms. Slavery continued to exist after the fall of the Mali Empire being a significant part of the economies of Tuareg, Mandé, Fula communities. With the chaos at the fall of the Mali Empire, slave raiding and the slave trade increased throughout the region; the sale and trade of slaves in the 19th century was regulated by Islamic legal codes allowing trade between different communities in the area.

Slavery was not practiced in a uniform way and a variety of forms of servitude existed with distinctions made between different types of slaves: for example between people bought or captured and those born into a household and a distinction between those who tended herds and those who dealt with household tasks. Slavery was not as important in some communities with some in the southern part of present-day Mali having few or no slaves. However, in many parts of present-day Mali, slave labor was a key pillar of the economic system and relied on extensively; this reliance on slave labor was noted by early French administrators of the territory when the French were taking control of the area in the 1890s as a critical issue. The French took control over the region in the 1890s and established a limited administration as part of French West Africa; the area would be organized and called the French Sudan colony, but administration was linked to other colonies in the region for much of the early 1900s.

In 1903, French administrators were instructed to not use slave as an administrative category anymore: functionally, slave status could not be used anymore to decide legal or property issues. This was followed in 1905 when the French issued a formal decree ending slavery throughout French West Africa, including the area to become the country of Mali. Throughout French West Africa a million slaves responded to this by moving away from their masters and settling elsewhere, with the French supporting this effort by creating settlements around the Niger River and digging wells for communities elsewhere to engage in agriculture away from their former masters; this process had an impact or effect on the Southern and Western parts of present-day Mali most but in the Northern and Eastern parts of the colony large numbers of slaves remained in relationships of servitude to their masters. Throughout the area of present-day Mali, rough estimates say that about one-third moved away and ended the slavery relationship while two-thirds remained with their masters.

In the 1920s, most Tuareg households still had slaves who tended to animals. Although slavery persisted, some aspects of the relationship changed with the French administration. Slaves who escaped their masters could find official protection by French authorities in the cities for limited amounts of time. Slaves were sometimes able to renegotiate the terms of their servitude in the changed political situation; some were willing to agree to maintain servitude status if they received control over their family life and were given some land to pass to their children. In addition, the French administration worked to end slave raiding and the most clear manifestations of the slave trade reducing those means of acquiring slaves; the efforts of the French administration on slave issues was connected to policies regarding the Tuareg areas. The Tuareg people had resisted French rule in the area until 1903 and were the cause of frequent revolts for many of the early decades of the 1900s. French administration sought to replace the political power of Tuareg society by undermining what they saw as a rigid hierarchy and caste system.

The French saw Tuareg society divided into groups of nobles and slaves and decided to support the vassals in order to undermine the power of the nobles. In this effort, slaves were not considered a crucial aspect; the caste system was imputed to have a racial dimension with vassals and nobles being defined as white and slaves defined as black. As a result of

Parada (Lindberg)

Parada is an orchestral composition by the Finnish composer Magnus Lindberg. The piece was composed for the music festival Related Rocks which celebrates the works of Lindberg and related composers, its world premiere was given at The Anvil, Basingstoke on February 6, 2002 by the Philharmonia Orchestra under the direction of Esa-Pekka Salonen, to whom the work is dedicated. Parada is composed in a single slow movement and has a duration of 13 minutes; the work is scored for a large orchestra consisting of two flutes, two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani, two percussionists, harp and strings. Parada has been praised by music critics. Reviewing the world premiere, Fiona Maddocks of The Observer opined, "Parada, part of the Related Rocks festival, is an expansive slow single movement, it opens with lush, dream-like massed strings and using vibrato. Within this slow trajectory, moments of rapid action and clarity - brass explosions and woodwind ripples - unsettle the hazy stillness, dying away with simple cello pizzicatos.

Lindberg achieves luminous orchestral effects, holding the sounds poised as if centrifugally. The Philharmonia, now well groomed in his style, made masterly work of its subtleties." Reviewing the United States premiere by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Mark Swed of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "Magnus Lindberg's Parada begins with a slow parade of chords. They are colorful, they move like ghostly visions floating through a fog. And when you have resonant chords like these--complex and new, yet somehow familiar-sounding, cloaked in beautiful sonorities, awash in mystery--you have a pretty good sense that something special is about to follow in their wake." He added, "It is a weighty slow movement, with lots of fast things happening on the surface and distant hints of Sibelius." Anne Midgette of The Washington Post called it "an attractive braid of music created by winding two disparate ideas - a fast scherzo and the slow shimmer of strings - into a single whole, now full, now slender, set off with gleaming beads of percussion, tapering at the end to something gentle and warm."

She added, "It took a big orchestra, including a full complement of percussion, but felt light."However, reviewing a recording of the piece alongside other Lindberg works, the magazine Gramophone was somewhat critical of the piece, remarking, "Parada‚ the slowestmoving of these scores‚ is the most frankly Sibelian‚ full of gestures and textures redolent of the inescapable Finnish master. While its ravishing invention is easy to enjoy‚ I wasn't sure how it was meant to hold together‚ so this may or may not be the place to start for the uninitiated." A commercial recording of Parada, performed by the Philharmonia Orchestra under Salonen, was released through Sony Classical Records in 2002. The album features Lindberg's Cantigas, Cello Concerto No. 1, Fresco

Castrovalva (Doctor Who)

Castrovalva is the first serial of the 19th season of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, first broadcast in four twice-weekly parts on BBC1 from 4 to 12 January 1982. It was the first full serial to feature Peter Davison as the Fifth Doctor; the title is a reference to the lithograph Castrovalva by M. C. Escher, which depicts the town Castrovalva in the Abruzzo region, Italy. In the serial, the alien time traveller the Doctor is led into a trap when his arch-enemy the Master uses the mathematical abilities of the Doctor's travelling companion Adric to create Castrovalva, a town whose dimensions fold in on itself. After his regeneration at the end of Logopolis, the Fifth Doctor is still weak, his companions, Adric and Tegan take him to his TARDIS. Inside, the Doctor is delirious but asks to be taken to the "Zero Room" that contains Time Lord healing technology to allow him to recover. Tegan and Nyssa discover a terminal on the TARDIS, they attempt to pilot the TARDIS but find they are travelling to a preset time and destination, "Event One", the Big Bang, a trap set by the Master.

After they are unable to find Adric, the women manage to bring the Doctor to the console room in time for him to jettison a quarter of the TARDIS' mass to propel them back to conventional time. They soon discover that the Zero Room was part of the jettisoned mass, so with the help of Nyssa the Doctor builds a temporary coffin-shaped zero cabinet from the zero room's doors. Tegan discovers information on the town of Castrovalva, an ideal place for the Doctor to recover, directs the TARDIS there. In the forest and Tegan have difficulties in transporting the Doctor, become separated from him; the Doctor is cared for by Shardovan, a librarian, the elderly Portreeve, before Nyssa and Tegan arrive. After a night's sleep, they discover strange aspects of Castrovalva; the Doctor understands that they are trapped in a "recursive occlusion", Castrovalva is fake. The Portreeve reveals himself as the Master, shows them the trapped Adric; the Master has been able to use Adric's mathematical genius to create Castrovalva as well as alter the TARDIS, creating the terminal on the console that led them here.

Realising the true nature of Castrovalva's reality, Shardovan swings from a chandelier into the web and destroys it, freeing Adric and causing Castrovalva to fall apart. Seeing all is lost, the Master flees to his TARDIS; the Doctor and his companions flee from the town. The Master is unable to escape as the town collapses in on itself; as the time travellers return to the TARDIS, the Doctor indicates that he has recovered from his regeneration ordeal. While he is still disoriented, the Doctor addresses Adric as "Brigadier" and "Jamie", Tegan as "Vicki" and "Jo", mentioning the Ice Warriors and K-9 as if they were in the vicinity, as well as adopting mannerisms or figures of speech characteristic of his four previous incarnations; the working title for this story was The Visitor. This story was the first story aired. However, it was the fourth story to be recorded as the original planned debut story, Project Zeta Sigma by John Flanagan and Andrew McCulloch, proved unworkable and a replacement had to be commissioned.

John Nathan-Turner took advantage of this to give Davison the chance to have a firm idea of how he wanted to play the role before recording the regeneration story. Part 1 of this story is notable for being the first episode in Doctor Who history to credit the title character as "The Doctor", rather than "Doctor Who"; the credit would remain as "The Doctor" until the series' cancellation in 1989, at the end of Season 26. In the 1996 TV film, no credit was given for the Eighth Doctor. For the first season of the 2005 revival, the credit reverted to "Doctor Who"; the title became "The Doctor" again in "The Christmas Invasion" at the request of new star David Tennant. For the final scene, the script called for Adric to look "pallid" as he was still recovering from the effects of imprisonment by the Master. According to the commentary on the DVD, this was accidentally achieved by Matthew Waterhouse, who had a hangover from the night before from drinking too much Campari. Whilst the cameras were filming the Doctor and Tegan in conversation about who landed the TARDIS, Waterhouse was vomiting behind a tree.

The other actors continued acting despite it. For this story, the series was shifted from its traditional Saturday early evening transmission to a twice-weekly slot. In order to keep the Master's disguise hidden, in part 3 the role of the Portreeve was credited to "Neil Toynay", an anagram of "Tony Ainley". Director Fiona Cumming's husband Ian Fraser a production manager on Doctor Who, came up with the idea. Michael Sheard had appeared in The Ark, The Mind of Evil, Pyramids of Mars and The Invisible Enemy, would subsequently appear in Remembrance of the Daleks. Castrovalva is the name of an early lithograph by the Dutch graphic artist M. C. Escher, the design of the town in this serial reflects the impossible nature of many of Escher's works; the story centres on the mathematical principle of recursion, a concept portrayed in much of Escher's artwork. Escher's lit

Gilberto Macena

Gilberto Macedo da Macena or Gilberto Macena is a Brazilian football forward for Danish 2nd Division club Holbæk B&I. Gilberto Macena arrived in Denmark in 2005, when he signed for the minor league club Holbæk B&I. After one successful season in Holbæk, he moved to the Danish Superliga team AC Horsens where he was the club top goalscorer on several occasions. After spending seven years in Denmark, Macena moved to Chinese Super League side Shandong Luneng on 16 February 2012 for an undisclosed fee. On 11 January 2014, Macena transferred to Chinese Super League side Hangzhou Greentown. In January 2015, he was played to Thai Premier League club Buriram United. After his contract with Chiangrai United expired at the end of 2018, Macena returned to Denmark, chasing a contract. On 23 August 2019 it was confirmed, that Macena had signed with his former club, Holbæk B&I. Danish 1st Division:2009–10 Thai Premier League:2015 Thai FA Cup:2015 Thai League Cup: 2015 Kor Royal Cup:2015 Mekong Club Championship:2015 Thailand Champions Cup: 2018 Danish 1st Division Top Scorer: 2009–10 Gilberto Macena at FootballDatabase.eu Career statistics at Danmarks Radio CBF BID Futebol The Brazilian Way of Life Gilberto Macena at Soccerway