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Hit (baseball)

In baseball statistics, a hit called a base hit, is credited to a batter when the batter safely reaches first base after hitting the ball into fair territory, without the benefit of an error or a fielder's choice. To achieve a hit, the batter must reach first base before any fielder can either tag him with the ball, throw to another player protecting the base before the batter reaches it, or tag first base while carrying the ball; the hit is scored the moment. If a batter reaches first base because of offensive interference by a preceding runner, he is credited with a hit. A hit for one base is called a single, for two bases a double, for three bases a triple. A home run is scored as a hit. Doubles and home runs are called extra base hits. An "infield hit" is a hit. Infield hits are uncommon by nature, most earned by speedy runners. A no-hitter is a game. Throwing a no-hitter is rare and considered an extraordinary accomplishment for a pitcher or pitching staff. In most cases in the professional game, no-hitters are accomplished by a single pitcher who throws a complete game.

A pitcher who throws a no-hitter could still allow runners to reach base safely, by way of walks, hit batsmen, or batter reaching base due to interference or obstruction. If the pitcher allows no runners to reach base in any manner whatsoever, the no-hitter is a perfect game. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; the result was skyrocketing batting averages, including some near.500. The experiment was abandoned the following season. There is controversy regarding; the number of legitimate walks and at-bats are known for all players that year, so computing averages using the same method as in other years is straightforward. In 1968, Major League Baseball formed a Special Baseball Records Committee to resolve this issues; the Committee ruled. In 2000, Major League Baseball reversed its decision, ruling that the statistics which were recognized in each year's official records should stand in cases where they were proven incorrect. Most current sources list O'Neill's 1887 average as.435.

He would retain his American Association batting championship. However, the variance between methods results in differing recognition for the 1887 National League batting champion. Cap Anson would be recognized, with his.421 average, if walks are included, but Sam Thompson would be the champion at.372 if they are not. The official rulebook of Major League Baseball states in Rule 10.05: The official scorer shall credit a batter with a base hit when: the batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that settles on the ground, that touches a fence before being touched by a fielder or that clears a fence. The batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that takes an unnatural bounce so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort, or that touches the pitcher's plate or any base before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder cannot handle the ball with ordinary effort. Rule 10.05 Comment: In applying Rule 10.05, the official scorer shall always give the batter the benefit of the doubt.

A safe course for the official scorer to follow is to score a hit when exceptionally good fielding of a ball fails to result in a putout. The official scorer shall not credit a base hit when a: runner is forced out by a batted ball, or would have been forced out except for a fielding error; the official scorer shall charge the batter with an at-bat but not a hit. The official scorer shall charge the batter with an at-bat but not a hit.

Arthur John Booker

Arthur John Booker, M. D. was a prominent community activist and health advocate who worked in Des Moines and Los Angeles, California. He served as a physician with the 365th Infantry Regiment of the 92nd Division during World War I, where many of the African American soldiers served. Arthur Booker was born on October 1881 to Anderson and Carrie Booker in San Antonio, Texas, his father had been a farmer who worked in South Carolina before the break of the American Civil War. According to records, his father served in the U. S. Colored listed that he was from Texas; the couple had had seven children together—Arthur, Ulissia, Cameron and Melvin. Booker attended public school in San Antonio, proceeded to continue is education in Prairie View College in Texas. Booker held no real attachment to Texas as he headed all the way to Chicago, Illinois, to attend Northwestern University's medical school, with a large population of white students, he graduated from Northwestern on June 28, 1906. He left the school with both bachelor of science and medical doctor degrees, part of the medical school's curriculum before the 1930s.

After graduating, Dr. Booker interned at Provident Hospital in Cook County, he did not remain there for long, as he decided to try his skills in Europe for several years, before becoming moving to Iowa in 1919. Dr. Booker became an instructor at Drake University’s medical school, teaching courses on human anatomy. After two years, he left the academic sphere and opened a private practice, specializing as a diagnostician. Booker was well known in Des Moines, where he settled, as he published many health articles in the Journal of Iowa State Medical Society and wrote a health column in the local African American publication, Iowa Bystander. One of the articles he wrote was one published in 1915, regarding bronchopneumonia in children, which he saw was a growing concern. Booker made occasional speeches at the African Methodist Episcopal Church on disease prevention on tuberculosis. Many physicians in Iowa, including Dr. Booker, believed that tuberculosis had a large chance of making a comeback, as the Iowa State Medical Society in 1915 calculated 145 cases appeared per 100,000 persons.

Eager to take part in the new war in Europe, Booker volunteered for the Iowa National Guard, one of the first dispatches to be sent to France in World War I. However, much to his disappointment, he was rejected because of his race; however this did not deter him, as through the next year he sought to recruit African-American men for the war and became well known for how articulately he could speak to a crowd. Near his home, a new camp was erected for World War, it had been opened for training African-American men as there had been a huge influx of African-American volunteers and a petition was erected by the students of Howard University. However, there was still some discontent at the facility as many soldiers found that they had been unfairly assessed for being black. At the age of 36, Booker volunteered for the Army Medical Corps and once accepted was made a first lieutenant. Like the majority of the African-American recruits, Booker was sent for basic training at Fort Des Moines Provisional Army Officer Training School.

After about two months of training, Booker was assigned to the 365th Infantry Regiment, part of the 92nd Division's 183rd infantry Brigade, under the command of Brigadier General Malvern Hill Barnum. Before arriving in Europe, Booker spent additional training with his unit at Camp Grant in Illinois. In 1917, Booker and many African-American men were sent to France. Exhausted from facing aggressive German assaults, the French leadership had requested American reinforcements for months. Not wanting to deal with the African-American soldiers, General Pershing sent the 92nd Division to assist. At the arrival of Booker, the Spanish influenza had taken the lives of many soldiers and an epidemic was spreading; the majority of Lieutenant Booker's service was spent aiding the ailing men who were suffering from influenza or other illnesses associated with months of living and fighting in the trenches, the harsh winter that followed. After the war, Booker continued his practice, he chaired the Health Bureau of Negro Business Men's League and lectured on healthy living.

In the 1920s, there was a large influx of African Americans moving to California for better job opportunities, the Bookers were amongst them. Dr. Booker took a position as a surgeon in California. Along with his job, he a member of the Howard Drew Medical Association. Booker was a community organizer and leading many events for African Americans; when Jesse Owens came to Los Angeles in 1935, Booker was one of the community leaders that welcomed him. Booker dabbled in politics as he was listed as a lifetime member of the American Legion and the NAACP. Booker married Naomi Coalston between 1906 and 1914, they did not have any children. Booker died on August 1957 at Good Samaritan Hospital, he was survived by his wife. He was buried in Rosedale Cemetery

1983–84 Biathlon World Cup

The 1983–84 Biathlon World Cup was a multi-race tournament over a season of biathlon, organised by the UIPMB. The season started on 6 January 1984 in Falun and ended on 11 March 1984 in Lygna, Norway, it was the seventh season of the Biathlon World Cup. Below is the World Cup calendar for the 1983–84 season. 1984 Winter Olympics races were not included in the 1983–84 World Cup scoring system.*The relays were technically unofficial races as they did not count towards anything in the World Cup. *The relays were technically unofficial races as they did not count towards anything in the World Cup. Final standings after 10 races. Final standings after 8 races. First World/European Cup career victory Mette Mestad, 25, in her 2nd season — the WC 2 Individual in Ruhpolding. 1 2 3 4 In the individual races in Falun some non-World Cup racers participated. In the 20 km individual Andrei Zenkov and Øivind Nerhagen, among others, were non-World Cup racers, so for World Cup purposes Arto Jääskeläinen came 7th, Rolf Storsveen and Kjell Søbak finished 9th and 10th and received the appropriate World Cup points.

In the 10 km sprint, one of the non-World Cup racers was Sergei Bulygin, so he did not receive any World Cup points, for World Cup purposes Algimantas Šalna won that race and received the appropriate World Cup points. In the European Cup races there were some non-European Cup racers participating, among those were Anita Nygård who finished 10th in the 5 km sprint. For European Cup purposes though, Siv Bråten received the appropriate points. 2. 5 The Aftenposten source says that the relay teams received a unusual amount of penalty loops, with 12, 13, 21, 20, 25 and 25 penalty loops for the first six teams. However, in the same paper, it says that the two Norwegian teams got 14 penalty loops combined, which does not add up with it saying that the "Norway I" team got 25 penalties. So those high numbers refers to the number of missed shots. 3. 6 In the individual races here some non-World Cup racers participated. Among those was Gisle Fenne, he was not a World Cup racer and so did not receive any World Cup points, for World Cup purposes Risto Punkka came fifth and received the appropriate World Cup points.

4. The Sports Book does have different order of the finishers in this 10 km race with B. Mestad and Schill coming 8th, 9th and 10th, respectively; however it contradicts itself by giving the points of those positions to Grønlid, B. Mestad and Anne-L. Engstrøm instead; because that table shows how each racers score adds up, given precedent. 5. 8 9 In the individual races here some non-European Cup racers participated. Among those was Ingeborg Nordmo Krokstad in the 10 km individual, she was not a European Cup racer and so did not receive any points, for European Cup purposes Doris Niva came 9th and received the appropriate points, with Anne L. Engstrøm finishing 10th, and in 5 km sprint Liv Høgli was a non-European Cup racer and thus for European Cup purposes those who finished behind her moves up a spot with Doris Niva finishing 4th and Anne L. Engstrøm finishing 10th