SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hit by pitch

In baseball, hit by pitch is an event in which a batter or his clothing or equipment is struck directly by a pitch from the pitcher. A hit batsman is awarded first base, provided that he made an honest effort to avoid the pitch, although failure to do so is called by an umpire. Being hit by a pitch is caused by a batter standing too close to, or "crowding", home plate. Per baseball official rule 5.05, a batter becomes a baserunner and is awarded first base when he or his equipment: is touched by a pitched ball outside the strike zone, he attempts to avoid it, he did not swing at the pitch. If all these conditions are met, the ball is dead, other baserunners advance if they are forced to vacate their base by the batter taking first. Rule 5.09 further clarifies that a hit by pitch is called when a pitch touches a batter's clothing. In the case where a batter swings and the pitch hits him anyway, the ball is dead and a strike is called. If the batter does not attempt to avoid the pitch, he is not awarded first base, the pitch is ruled either a strike if in the strike zone or a ball if out of the strike zone.

Umpires make this call. A famous instance of a non-hit by pitch was on May 31, 1968, when Don Drysdale hit Dick Dietz with a pitch that would have forced in a run and ended Drysdale's scoreless innings streak at 44. Umpire Harry Wendelstedt ruled. A hit-by-pitch can be called on a pitch that has first touched the ground before hitting the batter; such a bouncing pitch is like any other, if a batter is hit by such a pitch, he will be awarded first unless he made no attempt to avoid it. A batter hit by a pitch is not credited with a hit or at bat, but is credited with a time on base and a plate appearance. A batter hit by a pitch with the bases loaded is credited with an RBI per MLB rule 10.04. A pitch ruled a hit by pitch is recorded as a ball in the pitcher's pitch count, since by definition the ball must be outside the strike zone and not have been swung at; the rule awarding first base to a batter hit by a pitch was instituted in 1887. Inside pitching is a common and legal tactic in baseball, many players make use of brushback pitches, or pitches aimed underneath the chin referred to as "chin music", to keep players away from the plate.

"Headhunter" is a common term for pitchers who have a reputation for throwing these kinds of pitches. However, throwing at a batter intentionally is illegal, can be dangerous; when an umpire suspects that a pitcher has thrown at a batter intentionally, but is not certain, a warning is issued to the pitcher and the managers of both teams. From that point on, any pitch thrown at a batter can cause the pitcher and the manager of the offending team to be ejected from the game. Serious offenses such as a ball thrown at the head can result in the immediate ejection of the pitcher, the manager if he ordered the beanball without a warning. If the umpire is certain that the pitcher intentionally hit the batter with the pitch, the pitcher is ejected from the game with no warning. If a player is acting rude or unsportsmanlike, or having an extraordinarily good day, the pitcher may intentionally hit the batter, disguising it as a pitch that accidentally slipped his control. Managers may order a pitcher to throw such a pitch.

These pitches are aimed at the lower back and slower than normal, designed to send a message more than anything else. The opposing team hits a batter in retaliation for this act; the plunkings end there because of umpire warnings, but in some cases things can get out of hand, sometimes they lead to the batter charging the mound, bench-clearing brawls, several ejections. The strategy in these games can vary by the circumstances the teams are playing in within major league games, as American League pitchers are prevented from facing the opposing pitcher in intra-league games due to the designated hitter rule outside rare circumstances. In National League games and interleague games at National League home parks, pitchers must always bat for themselves and open themselves up to direct retaliation, though one of baseball's unspoken rules makes hitting a fellow pitcher a serious breach of baseball etiquette; the all-time record for a player being hit by a pitch is held by Hughie Jennings, hit by 287 pitches between 1891 and 1903.

The modern-era record is held by Craig Biggio of the Houston Astros, who had 285 as of the end of the 2007 season when he retired. Prior to Biggio, the modern-era record belonged to Don Baylor, hit 267 times; the all-time single-season record belongs to Jennings, hit 51 times during the 1896 season. Ron Hunt of the 1971 Montreal Expos was hit 50 times during the modern-era record; the single-game record is three, held by numerous players. The all-time record for pitchers is held by Gus Weyhing with 277; the modern-era career pitching record for most hit batsmen is 205 by Hall-of-Famer Walter Johnson. The season record is 54 by Phil Knell in 1891, the game record is six, held by Ed Knouff and John Grimes. Brady Anderson was the first player to be hit by a pitch two times in the same inning in an American League game. On April 25, 2014, Brandon Moss became the second when he was hit twice in

Ringen

Ringen is the German language term for grappling. In the context of the German school of historical European martial arts during the Late Middle Ages and the German Renaissance, ringen refers to unarmed combat in general, including grappling techniques used as part of swordsmanship; the German tradition has records of a number of master-Ringer of the 15th to 16th centuries specializing in unarmed combat, such as Ott Jud. Medieval and early Renaissance wrestling treatises present both sport and combat techniques together as one art; the distinction is made more by modern practitioners than is present in historical sources, but in a select few examples the terms for sportive grappling or geselliges ringen and earnest unarmed combat or kampfringen were used to describe specific techniques which were only suitable for one scenario or the other. There are no known sources describing medieval rulesets for Ringen competition. However, many living folk wrestling styles in Europe are fought; the lack of detailed ground wrestling in the medieval wrestling treatises supports the theory that in both competition and combat the throw was more important than extended ground wrestling.

While sportive grappling had fixed rules that prohibited dangerous techniques starting in grappling hold and ending with a throw or submission, kampfringen can be considered a system of unarmed self-defense including punches, joint-locks, elbow strikes, chokeholds and kicks. The German tradition of ringen was eclipsed during the 17th century as the modern Baroque understanding of nobility precluded the participation of the higher classes in wrestling matches. Wrestling continued to be practiced among the lower classes, giving rise to the various traditional styles of folk wrestling. One of the primary men to have shaped Ringen at the dawning of the Renaissance appears to have been Austrian master Ott Jud. Ott was a master of the early 15th century, he is credited in multiple medieval combat treatises with a series of wrestling techniques, including joint breaks, arm locks and throws. No treatise from Ott's own hand has survived, but his system is taught by several fencing masters of the 15th century, including Hans Talhoffer, Peter von Danzig and Jud Lew.

Paulus Kal counts him among the "society of Liechtenauer", saying that he was wrestling teacher to the "lords of Austria". According to both Talhoffer and Lew, Ott was a baptized Jew. Other treatises that contain material both on ringen and on swordsmanship include those of Fiore dei Liberi, Fabian von Auerswald, Pietro Monte, Hans Wurm. Wrestling fell out of fashion among the upper classes with the beginning Baroque period. A late treatise on ringen is that by Johann Georg Passchen, published in 1659. Maybe the last book which deals with Ringen as a deadly martial art, is "Leib-beschirmende und Feinden Trotz-bietende Fecht-Kunst" from Johann Andreas Schmidt, published in Weigel, Nürnberg in 1713. Many manuals combine fencing and wrestling into a specialized branch of kampfringen called ringen am schwert, designed to be used during armed combat; this included closing techniques, weapon-seizures, pommel-strikes, weapon-aided joint-locks. Grappling techniques are central to the discipline of armoured fighting.

Several manuscripts detail grappling techniques for mounted rossfechten. Historical European Martial Arts German school of fencing Academic fencing History of wrestling Grappling Hand-to-hand combat Rainer Welle, "--und wisse das alle hobischeit kompt von deme ringen": Der Ringkampf als adelige Kunst im 15. Und 16. Jahrhundert, 1993, ISBN 3-89085-755-8

Alchemilla diademata

Alchemilla diademata known as the diadem lady's mantle, is a species of the genus Alchemilla endemic to Lebanon. The plant has been used in folk medicine in Lebanon and its promising bioactive properties have been subject to a number of studies. Alchemilla diademata has an erect 10 to 15 cm high stem; the stem is pubescent at the base, the trichomes become less dense at the tips. The leaves are measure 3 to 4 cm wide and 2 to 3 cm wide; the teeth end with bristles and are connivent. The leaf underside is hispid and its sinus is cordate; the plant has long and brownish stipules. The ovoid flowers appear from May to July, they produce urn-shaped fruits; the plant is only found on the slopes of Mount Sannine in the Mount Lebanon range. A 2004 screening of Lebanese indigenous plants that have been used in folk-medicine conducted in the American University of Beirut Nature Conservation Center laboratories showed that A. diademata extract had an antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Studies showed that the plant has anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans.

A 2014 study investigating the biological activity of Lebanese indigenous medicinal plants showed that whole plant extracts of A. diademata has a significant repellent effect against the adult silverleaf whitefly, an important invasive agricultural pest