A coin is a small, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government, Coins are usually metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. Coins made of metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in transactions, circulating alongside banknotes. Usually the highest value coin in circulation is less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain. Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value occur for some bullion coins made of copper, silver, or gold, while the Eagle, Maple Leaf, and Sovereign coins have nominal face values, the Krugerrand does not. The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.
Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire, important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the Middle Ages, the penny was minted as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first circulating United States coins were cents, produced in 1793, Coins were an evolution of currency systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made and these were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese currency, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell. According to Aristotle and Pollux, the first issuer of coins was Hermodike of Kyme The earliest coins are associated with Iron Age Anatolia. Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.
The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver, most of the early Lydian coins include no writing, only an image of a symbolic animal. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν, whose symbol was the stag, a small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend
Priam’s Treasure is a cache of gold and other artifacts discovered by classical archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. The majority of the artifacts are currently in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, Schliemann claimed the site to be that of ancient Troy, and assigned the artifacts to the Homeric king Priam. This assignment is now thought to be a result of Schliemanns zeal to find sites, at the time the stratigraphy at Troy had not been solidified, which was done subsequently by the archaeologist Carl Blegen. The layer in which Priams Treasure was alleged to have found was assigned to Troy II, whereas Priam would have been king of Troy VI or VII. With the rise of critical history and the Trojan War were consigned to the realms of legend. In 1871-73 and 1878–79, Schliemann excavated a hill called Hissarlik in the Ottoman Empire, near the town of Chanak in north-western Anatolia, here he discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities, dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period. Schliemann declared one of these cities—at first Troy I, Troy II—to be the city of Troy, … In order to withdraw the treasure from the greed of my workmen, and to save it for archaeology, … I immediately had “paidos” called.
… While the men were eating and resting, I cut out the Treasure with a large knife…, Schliemanns oft-repeated story of the treasure being carried by his wife, Sophie, in her shawl was untrue. Schliemann admitted making it up, saying that at the time of the discovery Sophie was in fact with her family in Athens, the officials were informed when his wife, wore the jewels for the public. The Ottoman official assigned to watch the excavation, Amin Effendi, the Ottoman government revoked Schliemanns permission to dig and sued him for its share of the gold. There, the Greek Archaeological Society sent an agent to monitor him, Schliemann traded some treasure to the government of the Ottoman Empire in exchange for permission to dig at Troy again. It is located in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, the rest was acquired in 1881 by the Royal Museums of Berlin, in whose hands it remained until 1945, when it disappeared from a protective bunker beneath the Berlin Zoo. In fact, the treasure had been removed to the Soviet Union by the Red Army.
During the Cold War, the government of the Soviet Union denied any knowledge of the fate of Priam’s Treasure, however, in September 1993 the treasure turned up at the Pushkin Museum in Moscow. The return of items taken from museums has been arranged in a treaty with Germany but and they are keeping the looted art, they say, as compensation for the destruction of Russian cities and looting of Russian museums by Nazi Germany in World War II. There have always been doubts about the authenticity of the treasure, within the last few decades these doubts have found fuller expression in articles and books. The treasures are actually a thousand years older than Homers King Priam of Troy, between Past and Present, Archaeology and Nationalism in the Modern Middle East, Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-41610-5. Heinrich Schliemann and Its Remains, A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries Made on the Site of Ilium, a catalog of artifacts from Schliemanns excavations at Troy, with photographs
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
The Mildenhall Treasure is a large hoard of masterpieces of Roman silver tableware from the 4th century AD, and by far the most valuable Roman objects artistically and by weight of bullion in Britain. It was found at West Row, near Mildenhall, Suffolk and it consists of over thirty items and includes the Great Dish weighing over 8kg alone. The collection is on view in the British Museum because of its importance and value. The hoard was discovered while ploughing in January 1942 by Gordon Butcher, many details of the discovery remained uncertain, not least because it took place in wartime. Apparently they did not at first recognise the objects for what they were, Ford cleaned the pieces and displayed them in his house, using some of them as daily utensils and some, such as the Great Dish, on special occasions with the family. Ford declared the hoard to the authorities in 1946 after a friend had seen them in his home. An inquest was held in the summer of year, when the find was legally declared treasure trove.
The numerous well documented discoveries of high-quality Roman material in recent decades, more recently, Richard Hobbs drew the attention of the academic world to the importance of the part-fictional account by Roald Dahl, and has addressed the issues surrounding the actual finding. In Dahls version of events, subsequently confirmed by Fords grandson, Ford was fully aware of the significance of the find, but could not bear to part with the treasure. He kept it and restored it in secret, but two of the left out on display were seen by an unexpected visitor, Dr. Hugh Fawcett. Ford and Butcher were awarded each as finders, although not necessarily the full ex gratia reward since the find had not been correctly reported. John W. Brailsford promptly published the first brief, summary catalogue of the find, a somewhat fuller, though still brief, study by Kenneth S. Painter came out in 1977. The most striking object in the treasure, the Great Dish has been illustrated and mentioned in countless publications, the treasure still awaits full and detailed scholarly publication.
The treasure consists of silver tableware of types current in the 4th century, most of the objects are comparatively large, and all are of very high-quality workmanship. The decoration, which was worked by chasing from the front, is in three concentric zones. In the centre, the head of a deity, probably Oceanus. More specifically, the triumph of Bacchus over Hercules is depicted, Hercules is shown staggering drunkenly and supported by two helpful satyrs. The god Pan appears in the composition and brandishing his pan-pipes, as do several dancing Maenads, the devotees of Bacchus
A metal is a material that is typically hard, opaque and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable—that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible and ductile, about 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals, the others are nonmetals or metalloids. Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms, astrophysicists use the term metal to collectively describe all elements other than hydrogen and helium, the simplest two, in a star. The star fuses smaller atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, to larger ones over its lifetime. In that sense, the metallicity of an object is the proportion of its matter made up of all chemical elements. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures, the atoms of metallic substances are typically arranged in one of three common crystal structures, namely body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, and hexagonal close-packed.
In bcc, each atom is positioned at the center of a cube of eight others, in fcc and hcp, each atom is surrounded by twelve others, but the stacking of the layers differs. Some metals adopt different structures depending on the temperature, atoms of metals readily lose their outer shell electrons, resulting in a free flowing cloud of electrons within their otherwise solid arrangement. This provides the ability of metallic substances to easily transmit heat, while this flow of electrons occurs, the solid characteristic of the metal is produced by electrostatic interactions between each atom and the electron cloud. This type of bond is called a metallic bond, Metals are usually inclined to form cations through electron loss, reacting with oxygen in the air to form oxides over various timescales. Examples,4 Na + O2 →2 Na2O2 Ca + O2 →2 CaO4 Al +3 O2 →2 Al2O3, the transition metals are slower to oxidize because they form a passivating layer of oxide that protects the interior. Others, like palladium and gold, do not react with the atmosphere at all, some metals form a barrier layer of oxide on their surface which cannot be penetrated by further oxygen molecules and thus retain their shiny appearance and good conductivity for many decades.
The oxides of metals are generally basic, as opposed to those of nonmetals, exceptions are largely oxides with very high oxidation states such as CrO3, Mn2O7, and OsO4, which have strictly acidic reactions. Painting, anodizing or plating metals are good ways to prevent their corrosion, however, a more reactive metal in the electrochemical series must be chosen for coating, especially when chipping of the coating is expected. Water and the two form an electrochemical cell, and if the coating is less reactive than the coatee. Metals in general have high conductivity, high thermal conductivity. Typically they are malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving, in terms of optical properties, metals are shiny and lustrous. Sheets of metal beyond a few micrometres in thickness appear opaque, although most metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense solid element and osmium the densest
An artifact or artefact is. something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest. In archaeology, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as, an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may have a cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity, examples include stone tools, pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such as buttons and clothing. Bones that show signs of modification are examples. Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts, natural objects that humans have moved but not changed are called manuports. Examples include seashells moved inland, or rounded pebbles placed away from the action that made them. For instance, a bone removed from a carcass is a biofact. Similarly there can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or naturally occurring and it can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts – naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools.
It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general attributed to man-made tools. Artifact Collection at the Royal Military College of Canada Museum in Kingston, Ontario
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process. Tool use by humans dates back millions of years, and other animals are known to employ simple tools. Tools that are used in fields or activities may have different designations such as instrument, implement, device. The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is equipment, the knowledge of constructing and using tools is technology. Anthropologists believe that the use of tools was an important step in the evolution of mankind, because tools are used extensively by both humans and wild chimpanzees, it is widely assumed that the first routine use of tools took place prior to the divergence between the two species. These early tools, were made of perishable materials such as sticks. Stone artifacts only date back to about 2.5 million years ago, however, a 2010 study suggests the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis ate meat by carving animal carcasses with stone implements.
This finding pushes back the earliest known use of tools among hominins to about 3.4 million years ago. Finds of actual tools date back at least 2.6 million years in Ethiopia, one of the earliest distinguishable stone tool forms is the hand axe. Up until recently, weapons found in digs were the tools of “early man” that were studied. Now, more tools are recognized as culturally and historically relevant, as well as hunting, other activities required tools such as preparing food, “…nutting, grain harvesting and woodworking…” Included in this group are “flake stone tools. “Man the hunter” as the catalyst for Hominin change has been questioned, based on marks on the bones at archaeological sites, it is now more evident that pre-humans were scavenging off of other predators carcasses rather than killing their own food. Mechanical devices experienced an expansion in their use in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome with the systematic employment of new energy sources. Their use expanded through the Dark Ages with the addition of windmills, machine tools occasioned a surge in producing new tools in the industrial revolution.
Advocates of nanotechnology expect a similar surge as tools become microscopic in size, one can classify tools according to their basic functions and edge tools, such as the knife, scythe or sickle, are wedge-shaped implements that produce a shearing force along a narrow face. Ideally, the edge of the needs to be harder than the material being cut or else the blade will become dulled with repeated use. But even resilient tools will require periodic sharpening, which is the process of removing deformation wear from the edge, other examples of cutting tools include gouges and drill bits. Moving tools move large and tiny items, many are levers which give the user a mechanical advantage
The Stirling torcs make up a hoard of four gold Iron Age torcs, a type of necklace, all of which date to between 300 and 100 BC and which were buried deliberately at some point in antiquity. They were found by a metal detectorist in a field near Blair Drummond, the hoard has been described as the most significant discovery of Iron Age metalwork in Scotland and is said to be of international significance. The torcs were valued at £462,000, and after an appeal were acquired for the National Museums of Scotland in March 2011. The finder was a metal detectorist, David Booth, who found the torcs on his first treasure-hunting outing, using a basic model metal detector. Having identified an area he considered to be of good potential, I parked up and got the metal detector out. There was an area of ground behind the car, and I thought, I’ll just scan this first. Literally about seven steps behind where I had parked, I found them, Booth took the torcs home and washed them in water. Dr Fraser Hunter said he almost fell off seat when he first saw photographs of the discovery the next morning, the subsequent archaeological excavation at the site exposed the remains of a wooden roundhouse but found no more artefacts.
All four torcs were buried together, some 15–20 centimetres below the surface, subsequent archaeological investigations determined that the torcs had originally been buried within a roundhouse, a prehistoric circular building. All four torcs date to between 300 and 100 BC, they are highly and unexpectedly varied in form and style which greatly adds to the significance of the find, two twisted ribbon torcs, in perfect condition, are elegant and relatively simple in design. One has plain hooked terminals while the other has more decorative disc terminals, the third torc is broken, with only half of the original artefact surviving in two fragments. It is a tubular annular torc, which would have had a hinge and it is of ornate design compared to the ribbon torcs, and experts have identified it as a type originating from the Toulouse area in southern France. It is the first of its kind to have found in Britain. The fourth torc is a looped terminal torc, complete and in good condition and it is made from eight gold wires twisted together.
It has intricately decorated terminals and has a length of safety chain. It has been described by Dr Fraser Hunter, Iron Age and Roman curator at the National Museum of Scotland, as a hybrid of Mediterranean craftsmanship. There are no directly comparable other artefacts, the last significant find of torcs in Scotland was in 1857, when gold ribbon torcs were found on Law Farm, Moray. The eclecticism of the styles and origins is comparable to that of the objects in the Broighter Hoard from Northern Ireland, according to Scottish Treasure Trove laws, the crown can claim any archaeological objects found in Scotland
The Shrewsbury Hoard is a hoard of 9,315 bronze Roman coins discovered by a metal detectorist in a field near Shrewsbury, Shropshire in August 2009. The coins were found in a large storage jar that was buried in about AD335. The coins were buried in a brown pot in a plantation next to a public bridleway by Nic Davies only a month after he had started metal detecting as a hobby. Davies led Reavill and Shropshire County Council archaeologists to the site. The top of the pot had broken off, and about 300 scattered coins were recovered from the area around the find spot, the total weight of the pot and the coins was approximately 32 kg. After the excavation was completed, the hoard was sent to the British Museum in London for cleaning, there were a very few radiates dating to AD 260–293. In addition to the coins, a nail and a piece of cloth were found towards the bottom of the pot. It is very unusual for organic material such as cloth to survive and it is thought that it may be the remains of a cloth bag that closed with a nail, and put in with the coins as a votive offering.
Although the coins are not individually valuable, the number of coins in the hoard makes it important. On 25 October 2011, a treasure inquest declared that the coins were treasure under the terms of the 1996 Treasure Act. The hoard will be valued by the Treasure Valuation Committee, and a reward will be paid to the landowner, Shropshire County Council Museum Service has acquired the hoard with the intention of putting it on permanent display at Shrewsbury Museum. List of hoards in Britain Roman currency Pictures of the Shrewsbury Hoard on Flickr
Wonoboyo hoard is an important archaeological find of golden and silver artifacts from the 9th century Medang Kingdom in Central Java, Indonesia. It was discovered in October 1990 in Plosokuning hamlet, Wonoboyo village, Central Java, after digging down 2.5 metres, Witomoharjo hit a hard surface that he thought was a stone. However, after digging further they unearthed three large terracotta jars containing large amounts of coins and gold artifacts, the discovery was reported to village authorities, and reached the attention of the Culture and Education Authority. The total weight of treasure was 16.9 kilograms of valuable artifacts, the Wonoboyo hoard is displayed in Treasure Room in National Museum of Indonesia, and a replica of the treasure is on display at the Prambanan museum. The hoard has exhibited in Australia. The Wonoboyo hoard is one of the most important archaeological findings in Indonesia, next to the high value of the gold and silver artifacts, it a significant to reveal the wealth, economy and culture of 9th century Javanese Medang Kingdom.
The artifacts shows the artworks, displays the aesthetic. On the surface of the gold coins engraved with a script ta, revealed the scripts Saragi Diah Bunga engraved in one of the treasure written in Kawi language, which probably was the name of the owner. The hoard was estimated dated from the reign of King Balitung, the treasure has been identified as belonging to a noble or the member of royal family. Old Javanese gold Singapore, Ideation, c1990, ISBN 981-00-1622-0 Tempo, Warisan Saragi Diah Bunga
Objects from the hoard provide a link between the cultures of the Iranian plateau and the nomadic or Scythian art forms known as the animal style. The Scythian motives adopted by Urartu account for the decoration of the great Treasure of Sakiz brought to light on the shore of Lake Urmia, was Leonard Woolleys assessment. The hoard contains objects in four styles, Scythian, proto-Achaemenid, the objects have been related to finds at Teppe Hasanlu and Marlyk. Examples of the Ziwiye Treasure are scattered among public and private collections, a Ziwiye provenance may have been applied to comparable objects that have passed through the trade since the 1960s. Items attributed to the hoard are currently in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum in New York, the Louvre in Paris, in a work Muscarella denounced several Ziwiye objects as modern forgeries. 2, Ziwiye and Ziwiye, The Forgery of a Provenience, google books Muscarella, Oscar White, the Forgery of Ancient Near Eastern Cultures. The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic Cultures On-line excerpt Report of a dig at Ziwiye by the American archaeologist Robert Dyson in 1963