Hoboken, New Jersey

Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,005, having grown by 11,428 from 38,577 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,180 from the 33,397 in the 1990 Census. Hoboken is part of the New York metropolitan area and is the site of Hoboken Terminal, a major transportation hub for the tri-state region. Hoboken was first settled as part of the New Netherland colony in the 17th century. During the early 19th century the city was developed by Colonel John Stevens, first as a resort and as a residential neighborhood. Part of Bergen Township and North Bergen Township, it became a separate township in 1849 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Hoboken is the location of the first recorded game of baseball and of the Stevens Institute of Technology, one of the oldest technological universities in the United States, it is well known for being the birthplace and hometown of American singer Frank Sinatra, there are parks and streets located in the city that are named for him.

Located on the Hudson Waterfront, the city was an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey and home to major industries for most of the 20th century. The character of the city has changed from a blue collar town to one of upscale shops and condominiums, it has been ranked 2nd in Niche's "2019 Best Places to Live in Hudson County" list. The name "Hoboken" was chosen by Colonel John Stevens when he bought land, on a part of which the city still sits; the Lenape tribe of Native Americans referred to the area as the "land of the tobacco pipe", most to refer to the soapstone collected there to carve tobacco pipes, used a phrase that became "Hopoghan Hackingh". Like Weehawken, its neighbor to the north and Harsimus to the south, Hoboken had many variations in the folks-tongue. Hoebuck, old Dutch for high bluff and referring to Castle Point, was used during the colonial era and spelled as Hobuck, Hobock and Hoboocken. However, in the nineteenth century, the name was changed to Hoboken, influenced by Flemish Dutch immigrants and a folk etymology had emerged linking the town of Hoboken to the similarly-named Hoboken district of Antwerp.

Today, Hoboken's unofficial nickname is the "Mile Square City", but it covers about 1.25 square miles of land and an area of 2 square miles when including the under-water parts in the Hudson River. During the late 19th/early 20th century the population and culture of Hoboken was dominated by German language speakers who sometimes called it "Little Bremen", many of whom are buried in Hoboken Cemetery, North Bergen. Hoboken was an island, surrounded by the Hudson River on the east and tidal lands at the foot of the New Jersey Palisades on the west, it was a seasonal campsite in the territory of the Hackensack, a phratry of the Lenni Lenape, who used the serpentine rock found there to carve pipes. The first recorded European to lay claim to the area was Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who anchored his ship the Halve Maen at Weehawken Cove on October 2, 1609. Soon after it became part of the province of New Netherland. In 1630, Michael Reyniersz Pauw, a burgemeester of Amsterdam and a director of the Dutch West India Company, received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would plant a colony of not fewer than fifty persons within four years on the west bank of what had been named the North River.

Three Lenape sold the land, to become Hoboken for 80 fathoms of wampum, 20 fathoms of cloth, 12 kettles, six guns, two blankets, one double kettle and half a barrel of beer. These transactions, variously dated as July 12, 1630 and November 22, 1630, represent the earliest known conveyance for the area. Pauw failed to settle the land, he was obliged to sell his holdings back to the company in 1633, it was acquired by Hendrick Van Vorst, who leased part of the land to Aert Van Putten, a farmer. In 1643, north of what would be known as Castle Point, Van Putten built a house and a brewery, North America's first. In series of Indian and Dutch raids and reprisals, Van Putten was killed and his buildings destroyed, all residents of Pavonia were ordered back to New Amsterdam. Deteriorating relations with the Lenape, its isolation as an island, or long distance from New Amsterdam may have discouraged more settlement. In 1664, the English took possession of New Amsterdam with little or no resistance, in 1668 they confirmed a previous land patent by Nicolas Verlett.

In 1674–75 the area became part of East Jersey, the province was divided into four administrative districts, Hoboken becoming part of Bergen County, where it remained until the creation of Hudson County on February 22, 1840. English-speaking settlers interspersed with the Dutch, but it remained scarcely populated and agrarian; the land came into the possession of William Bayard, who supported the revolutionary cause, but became a Loyalist Tory after the fall of New York in 1776 when the city and surrounding areas, including the west bank of the renamed Hudson River, were occupied by the British. At the end of the Revolutionary War, Bayard's property was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government of New Jersey. In 1784, the land described as "William Bayard's farm at Hoebuck" was bought at auction by Colonel John Stevens for £18,360. In the early 19th century, Colonel John Stevens developed the waterfront as a re

Portlethen Academy

Portlethen Academy is a six-year comprehensive secondary school in Portlethen, Scotland. With the expansion of the communities of Portlethen and Newtonhill in the 1980s, the Education Committee of Grampian Regional Council decided to build a new six-year Academy in Portlethen; until pupils from the area were bused to Mackie Academy, in near-by Stonehaven. Portlethen Academy opened on 20 April 1987 as a new school for the communities of Portlethen, Newtonhill and Banchory-Devenick. Owned by Grampian Regional Council, the school passed to Aberdeenshire Council, when it formed in 1996; the school opened with 180 pupils in Years 1 and 2 and a capacity of around 650. It has expanded in numbers each session since April 1987; as the roll rose, the school became too small to accommodate staff. Seven temporary classrooms were added to the school prior to closure; the current Headteacher is Neil Morrison. Aberdeenshire Council commissioned a new school under the PPP Scheme; as early as the turn of the millennium, plans existed for a new school, to be built and managed by Robertson FM, as part of the Government's PPP scheme.

It was built on the playing fields adjacent to the existing Academy. Construction started in June 2004, was completed by the end of July 2006. Set to open in June 2006, for the start of the new timetable, a burst pipe delayed the school's opening until August; the new building opened on 22 August 2006 with a roll of 867. The old school has been knocked down, the main car park which forms part of the area along with the all-weather pitch made up stage 2 of the relocation programme. N. Morrison - Head Teacher T. Liversedge - DHT C. Cowie - DHT K. Campbell-Robertson - DHT P. Thompson-Wright - Facility Manager GUIDANCE TEAM L. Allan - Auchlee A. L. Macleod - Bourtree H. Jones - Cookston C. Lloyd - Downies Official website

Weapon target assignment problem

The weapon target assignment problem is a class of combinatorial optimization problems present in the fields of optimization and operations research. It consists of finding an optimal assignment of a set of weapons of various types to a set of targets in order to maximize the total expected damage done to the opponent; the basic problem is as follows: There are a number of weapons and a number of targets. The weapons are of type i = 1, …, m. There are W i available weapons of type i. There are j = 1, …, n targets, each with a value of V j. Any of the weapons can be assigned to any target; each weapon type has a certain probability of destroying each target, given by p i j. Notice that as opposed to the classic assignment problem or the generalized assignment problem, more than one agent can be assigned to each task and not all targets are required to have weapons assigned. Thus, we see that the WTA allows one to formulate optimal assignment problems wherein tasks require cooperation among agents.

Additionally, it provides the ability to model probabilistic completion of tasks in addition to costs. Both static and dynamic versions of WTA can be considered. In the static case, the weapons are assigned to targets once; the dynamic case involves many rounds of assignment where the state of the system after each exchange of fire is considered in the next round. While the majority of work has been done on the static WTA problem the dynamic WTA problem has received more attention. In spite of the name, there are nonmilitary applications of the WTA; the main one is to search for a lost object or person by heterogeneous assets such as dogs, walkers, etc. The problem is to assign the assets to a partition of the space in which the object is located to minimize the probability of not finding the object; the "value" of each element of the partition is the probability. The weapon target assignment problem is formulated as the following nonlinear integer programming problem: min ∑ j = 1 n subject to the constraints ∑ j = 1 n x i j ≤ W i for i = 1, …, m, x i j ≥ 0 and integer for i = 1, …, m and j = 1, …, n.

Where the variable x i j represents the assignment of as many weapons of type i to target j and q i j is the probability of survival. The first constraint requires that the number of weapons of each type assigned does not exceed the number available; the second constraint is the integral constraint. Notice that minimizing the expected survival value is the same as maximizing the expected damage. An exact solution can be bound techniques which utilize relaxation. Many heuristic algorithms have been proposed which provide near-optimal solutions in polynomial time. A commander has 5 tanks, 2 aircraft, 1 sea vessel and is told to engage 3 targets with values 5, 10, 20; each weapon type has the following success probabilities against each target: One feasible solution is to assign the sea vessel and one aircraft to the highest valued target. This results in an expected survival value of 20 = 6. One could assign the remaining aircraft and 2 tanks to target #2, resulting in expected survival value of 10 2 = 2.56.

The remaining 3 tanks are assigned to target #1 which has an expected survival value of 5 3 = 1.715. Thus, we have a total expected survival value of 6 + 2.56 + 1.715 = 10.275. Note that a better solution can be achieved by assigning 3 tanks to target #1, 2 tanks and sea vessel to target #2 and 2 aircraft to target #3, giving an expected survival value of 5 3 + 10 (