Hoboken Terminal

Hoboken Terminal is a commuter-oriented intermodal passenger station in Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. One of the New York metropolitan area's major transportation hubs, it is served by nine NJ Transit commuter rail lines, one Metro-North Railroad line, various NJT buses and private bus lines, the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail, the Port Authority Trans Hudson rapid transit system, NY Waterway-operated ferries. More than 50,000 people use the terminal daily, making it the ninth-busiest railroad station in North America and the sixth-busiest in the New York area, it is the second-busiest railroad station in New Jersey, behind only Newark Penn Station, its third-busiest transportation facility, after Newark Liberty International Airport and Newark Penn. Hoboken Terminal is wheelchair accessible, with high-level platforms for light rail and PATH services and portable lifts for commuter rail services; the site of the terminal has been used since colonial times to link Manhattan Island and points west.

It was long a ferry landing accessible via turnpike roads, plank roads. In 1811, the first steam-powered ferries began service under John Stevens, an inventor who founded Hoboken; the coming of the railroads brought more and more travelers to the west bank of the Hudson River. Passengers traveling to Manhattan from most of the continental USA had to transfer to a ferry at the riverbank. Cuts and tunnels were constructed through Bergen Hill to rail–ferry terminals on the west bank of the river and the Upper New York Bay; the first of the Bergen Hill Tunnels under Jersey City Heights was opened in 1876 by the Morris and Essex Railroad, leased by the Delaware and Western Railroad. The DL&W built the modern terminal in 1907, opened the second parallel tunnel in 1908. Both tunnels are still used by NJ Transit; the tubes of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, forerunner of PATH, were extended to Hoboken Terminal upon its opening. The first revenue train on the new line ran from the terminal on February 26, 1908.

At the peak of intercity rail service, five passenger terminals were operated by competing railroad companies along the Hudson Waterfront. Of these, Hoboken Terminal is the only one still in active use; those at Weehawken and Exchange Place were demolished in the 1960s, while the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal was restored and is now part of Liberty State Park. In October 1956, four years before its merger with the DL&W to form the Erie Lackawanna Railway, the Erie Railroad began shifting its trains from Pavonia Terminal to Hoboken; the Erie moved its Northern Branch trains to Hoboken in 1959. In October 1965, on former Erie routes, there were five weekday trains run to Midvale, three to Nyack on the Northern Branch, three to Waldwick via the Newark Branch, two to Essex Fells on its Caldwell Branch, two to Carlton Hill, one to Newton. All those trains were dropped in 1966; the last intercity trains that called at the station, with service to Chicago and Buffalo, were discontinued on January 5, 1970.

Conrail acquired the terminal in 1976. NJ Transit bought Conrail's rail properties in northern New Jersey, including Hoboken Terminal, in 1983. Numerous streetcar lines, including the Hoboken Inclined Cable Railway, originated/terminated at the station until bustitution was completed on August 7, 1949. Ferry service from the terminal to lower Manhattan ended on November 22, 1967, it resumed in 1989 on the south side of the terminal and moved back to the restored ferry slips inside the historic terminal on December 7, 2011. The station was badly damaged during Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012, with a 5 feet storm surge inundating the facility; the waiting room reopened in January 2013. Daytime PATH service to midtown Manhattan was restored earlier, on December 19, pre-Sandy service patterns were restored by March 1, 2013. In December 1985, an NJ Transit train crashed into the concrete bumper at Hoboken Terminal, injuring 54; the 1985 crash was said to have been caused by a lubricant, applied to the tracks to test train wheels.

In May 2011, a PATH train crashed in the basement of Hoboken Terminal. The NTSB determined the accident was caused by "the failure of the engineer to control the speed of the train entering the station."On the morning of September 29, 2016, an NJ Transit train crashed through a bumper block and into the concourse of the station, killing one person and injuring more than 110 people. Tracks 10 through 17 were reopened on October 10, 2016, with most remaining tracks reopened a week later; the pedestrian concourse reopened on May 14, 2017. Track 6 reopened for service in June 2017 and track 5 reopened for service sometime around September 2018; the permanent repairs to the concourse roof and supports are ongoing. In a statement published in February 2019, NJ Transit stated that repairs and renovations are continuing and will last for one year, which translates to estimated completion sometime around early 2020. In 1930, Thomas Edison was at the controls for the first departure of a regular-service electric multiple unit train from Hoboken Terminal to Montclair.

One of the first installations of central air-conditioning in a public space was at the station, as was the first non-experimental use of mobile phones. The station has been used for film shoots, including Funny Girl, Three Days of the Condor, Once Upon a Time in America, The Station Agent, The Cur

Military ranks of the Swedish Armed Forces

Military ranks of the Swedish Armed Forces shows the rank system used in the Swedish Armed Forces today, as well as changes during the 20th century due to changes in the personnel structure. 1 October 2019 a new rank system was introduced in the Swedish Armed Forces. The rank insignia below are as worn on the field uniform. Army and air force rank titles are shown below. Seniority for officers with the same relative rank are determined according to time-in-grade. Source: Since 2009, there are three categories of ranks, Specialistofficerare and GSS- Gruppbefäl, soldater och sjömän Officerare Officers lead units from platoon and up, they are trained at the Military Academy Karlberg in a three-year academic program and graduate as fänrik. Cadets with no prior service must complete a 6-9 months preparatory course before they start at the academy. Specialistofficerare Specialistofficerare are educated at specialist schools and centres for 1,5 years and graduate as Förste Sergeant. Experienced soldiers who have served as corporals and sergeants may take a shortened course.

Civilians must complete a preparatory course. GSS - Gruppbefäl, soldater och sjömän The two highest ranks in this category and sergeant, form their own sub-category, gruppbefäl, they command squads of approx. 8 men. Ordinary soldiers are given the rank menig 1 klass with different insignia depending on how long they have served; when the professional NCO corps was reintroduced in 2009 it was decided that some ranks in this category should, like the old underofficerare ranks in 1960-1972, have a relative rank higher than the most junior officers. The current relative ranks are shown in the table below. Rank insigniaThe table below shows ranks with the most senior to the left. OF denotes officers, OR other ranks; those ranks were ratified by the supreme commander on October 24, 2008, became effective as of January 1, 2009. Military ranks of Great Britain have been used as a basis for harmonization with NATO. 1 Menig in the Army wear no insignia other than their respective branch insignia. 2 Menig 1 kl are given one additional bar/stripe after 5 and 7 years of service.

A major change in the personnel structure in 1983, merged the three professional corps of platoon officers, company officers, regimental officers into a one-track career system within a single corps called professional officers. The three messes were merged to one. Specialist school where aspirants graduate as Sergeant Military Academy, cadets graduate as Fänrik Privates wear insignia of branch. In this case the infantry. No new permanent appointments to these ranks after 1990. In 1972 the personnel structure changed, reflecting increased responsibilities of warrant and non-commissioned officers, renaming the underofficerare as kompaniofficerare, giving them the same ranks as company grade officers. Underbefäl was renamed plutonsofficerare and given the rank titles of sergeant and fanjunkare, although their relative ranks were now placed below fänrik; the commissioned officers were renamed beginning with löjtnant. The three-track career system was maintained, as well as three separate messes. Note that the rank of Fältmarskalk was a de jure rank before the reform of 1972 though it has not been used since 1824.

In 1949 the relative rank of the warrant officers were elevated further so that i. The lowest warrant officer, had relative rank just below the lowest officer rank, fänrik. Ii; the second warrant officer rank, had relative rank between fänrik and löjtnant. Iii; the highest warrant officer rank, förvaltare, had relative rank between first lieutenant and captain. In a reform 1926 the relative rank of the senior warrant officer, was increased to be equal with the junior officer rank underlöjtnant and above the most junior officer rank fänrik; when an army based on national service was introduced in 1901 all commissioned officers had ranks that were senior to the warrant officers and non-commissioned officers. Research: Ph. D. thesis in "War and the career system", Dagens Nyheter by Professor Mats Alvesson, researcher of military organization at Lunds University, Karl Ydén at the University of Göteborg. Military Ranks of Kingdom of Sweden

History of Biology (video game)

History of Biology is a browser based scavenger hunt style educational game created by Spongelab Interactive. It is designed to teach high school students and general interest groups about the history of biology the role of a research assistant given the task of a solving a series of puzzles and clues left by a scientist, Dr. Walden Shyre, who has mysteriously disappeared; the puzzles that players solve are connected by a story line that progresses through a series of emails that are displayed once the player has solved a mission. There are 14 missions with two puzzles to solve in each mission. Players investigate objects within the game to find clues or uncover the answer by surfing real and fictitious web sites. Users explore pivotal discoveries; the purpose of the game is to teach the discoveries and research of over 20 scientists, as the missions are completed. For instance, in the first mission called, "The Art of Imitation", players learn about Zacharias Janssen, credited with inventing the compound microscope.

The scientists highlighted in this game are: Anthonie Van Leewenhoek, Robert Hooke, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, Rudolf Virchow, Carl Linnaeus, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Gregor Mendel, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, Johannes Friedrich Mieschner, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty, Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, Fredrick Sanger, Kary Mullis. Various scientific discoveries from the 15th century through to the 21st century are dealt with in this game. Cell theory is explored by analyzing a stamp. Finding the answer to this clue means researching terms such as metabolism, nerve cells and pepsin. To introduce mechanisms of diversity and the work of Charles Darwin, players explore maps, find GPS coordinates and read about Darwin's research with finches; the clues in each mission are randomized so every player has a different path to determine the solution. This allows for players to use a variety of methods to complete a mission and move on to the next level.

This game provides an interactive way to learn about historical events in biology. As players complete each mission, they are sent a victory email from one of the game characters; this email contains a teaser about what the next mission will entail. A notepad is visible in all missions to make notes along the way, create a progress journal and ask questions; the notepad feature in History of Biology, visible to teachers, allows the teacher to answer questions or deal with specific content students may be interested in or struggling with, in class. For the teacher, is a detailed teacher's guide with a walk through of each mission. A back end administration area gives teachers the option of controlling which missions are available to students. Caron, Nathalie. "Decoding Biology with Spongelab Interactive". Gamefwd. Retrieved 2010-11-30. Buckler, Grant. "Canadian startups find opportunity in educational games". Retrieved 2010-11-30."Go On A Scavenger Hunt in History of Biology from Spongelab".

Village Gamer. 2010-08-23. Retrieved 2010-08-23. Wilson, Joseph. ""No ma, this game is helping me learn" - Toronto's serious gaming companies have kids thinking". Yonge Street. Retrieved 2010-07-28. Official History of Biology Website