Hockey puck

A hockey puck is a disk made of vulcanized rubber that serves the same functions in various games as a ball does in ball games. The best-known use of pucks is in a major international sport. A hockey puck has been referred to as a "Flat Ball." Ice hockey and its various precursor games utilized balls until the late 19th century. By the 1870s, flat pucks were made of wood as well as rubber. At first, pucks were square; the first recorded organized game of ice hockey used a wooden puck, to prevent it from leaving the rink of play. Rubber pucks were first made by slicing a rubber ball trimming the disc square; the Victoria Hockey Club of Montreal is credited with making and using the first round pucks, in the 1880s. Many indigenous persons throughout North America played a version of field hockey which involved some type of "puck" or ball, curved wooden sticks, it was first observed by Europeans being played by Mi'kmaqs in Nova Scotia in the late 17th century. It was called "ricket" by the Mi'kmaqs.

They began to carve pucks from cherrywood, the puck of preference until late in the century when rubber imported by Euro-Americans replaced the wood. The "Flat ball" saying comes from Old England, it is believed by some that the sport of modern hockey was first conceived in Europe sometime in the late 1800s to early 1900s. It is believed that some Europeans were playing a form of hockey utilizing a round ball that had not been aired up properly; the ball was about 3/4 full. Finding it more enjoyable they worked to make a flat ball, easier to glide across the ice, they combined a flat wooden disk with a rubber outside coating around the middle. The exact thickness is unknown and no known pictures exist of the flat ball or play with it, it is unknown if this has any direct tie to the modern sport, but is believed by some to have inspired, or have created the modern sport. The origin of the word puck is obscure; the Oxford English Dictionary suggests the name is related to the verb to puck used in the game of hurling for striking or pushing the ball, from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc, meaning "to poke, punch or deliver a blow":It is possible that settlers of Halifax, Nova Scotia, many of whom were Irish and played hurling, may have introduced the word to Canada.

The first known printed reference was in Montreal, in 1876, just a year after the first indoor game was played there. A hockey puck is referred to colloquially as a "biscuit". To put the "biscuit in the basket" is to score a goal. Ice hockey requires a hard disk of vulcanized rubber. A standard ice hockey puck is black, 1 inch thick, 3 inches in diameter, weighs between 5.5 and 6 ounces. Pucks are marked with silkscreened team or league logos on one or both faces. Pucks are frozen before the game to reduce bouncing during play. There are several variations on the standard 6-ounce hockey puck. One of the most common is a blue, 4-ounce puck, used for training younger players who are not yet able to use a standard puck. Heavier 10-ounce training pucks reddish pink or reddish orange in colour, are available for players looking to develop the strength of their shots or improve their stick handling skills. Players looking to increase wrist strength practice with steel pucks that weigh 2 pounds. White pucks are used for goaltender practice.

These are weight, but made from white rubber. A hollow, light-weight fluorescent orange puck is available for floor hockey. Other variants, some with plastic ball-bearings or glides, are available for use for road or roller hockey. Two major developments have been devised to create better puck visibility on television broadcasts, but both were short-lived: The use of a "Firepuck" in the early 1990s was the first attempt to improve the visibility of hockey pucks as seen on television; this invention incorporated coloured retro reflective materials of either embedded lens elements or prismatic reflectors laminated into recesses on the flat surfaces and the vertical edge of a standard hockey puck. Yellow was the preferred reflected colour. A spotlight was required to be positioned on the TV camera and focused at the centre of the viewing area. A short demonstration tape of the Minnesota North Stars skating with the Firepuck was shown during the period break at the 1993 NHL All-Star Game in Montreal.

The International Hockey League pursued testing the Firepuck with Donald Klassen. The next television viewing was the IHL All-Star Game in Fort Wayne, January 1994, where the Firepuck was used for the entire game; the IHL tested the Firepuck in two more games, the East Coast Hockey League used it January 17, 1997, for their all-star game. The use of the Firepuck was discontinued because of these reasons: The slight structural change increased the tendency for the puck to bounce on the ice; this resulted in increased scoring. The skaters objected to the use of camera spotlights; the television viewing contrast of the Firepuck was not noticeably enhanced when the camera view was of the entire rink, this being the most common camera shot. The Firepuck name has since been discontinued; the FoxTrax "smart puck" was developed by the Fox television network when it held National Hockey League broadcasting rights for the United States. The puck had integrated electronics to track its position on screen.

Neil Atkinson

Neil Atkinson is a Liverpool based writer and film producer. Atkinson is the host, ‘Content Manager’, one of the main writers and business developers behind online football and culture magazine The Anfield Wrap which has had over 28 million podcast downloads worldwide. Atkinson has presented sell out shows of The Anfield Wrap in London, New York, Melbourne and Scandinavia as well as on stage at the Sound City Festival in Liverpool. Atkinson co-wrote and co-produced the film Native which had a theatrical release in the UK in 2018 and won the feature film award at the 2016 Boston science fiction festival. Described as ‘smart’ and ‘elegant’ by Peter Bradshaw in the Guardian. Kim Newman in Empire magazine described it as ‘ambitious and thought-provoking’. In The Times Ed Potton a “script full of promise, with provocative things to say about empathy and individualism”. Atkinson is a regular Radio City Talk presenter and won the Football Supporters Federation 2016 national radio show award, he runs his own Liverpool-based production company, Film1st, hosts music podcast The Rider.

A chairman for Spirit of Shankly, he has contributed to The New Statesmen discussing the social impact of tragedies and has appeared on BBC Breakfast, Football Focus, BBC Five Live, BT Sport Copa90 and Sky Sports, during which former Manchester United defender Gary Neville described Atkinson as “a better pundit than me”. Atkinson has written for newspapers such as newspapers such as The Guardian the Birmingham Mail the Liverpool Echo the North Wales Daily Post the Newcastle Chronicle, The Straits Times, The Daily Star. Atkinson reviewed a concert of Elgar and Strauss by the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, highlighted by Classic FM, he co-wrote the 2014 book Make Us Dream with John Gibbons about the 2013-14 Liverpool F. C. season as well as Numero 6 in 2019, about Liverpool’s 2018-19 season culminating in their 2019 UEFA Champions League Final victory, their sixth European Cup triumph

Beatty, South Australia

Beatty is a rural locality in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state's east within the Murray and Mallee region about 126 kilometres north-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 99 kilometres north of the municipal seat of Mannum. It was established in March 2003, when boundaries were formalised for the "long established local name", it consists of the northern half of the cadastral Hundred of Beatty. The 2016 Australian census, conducted in August 2016 reports that Beatty had a population of eight people. Beatty is located within the federal division of Barker, the state electoral district of Chaffey and the local government area of the Mid Murray Council