Spring Street, Melbourne
Spring Street is a major street in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. It runs north-south and is the easternmost street in the original 1837 Hoddle Grid. Spring Street is famous as the traditional seat of the Government of Victoria, as well as being central to many of the state's major cultural institutions; the street's name is used as a metonym to refer to the state's bureaucracy. Spring Street is notable for its impressive Victorian architecture, including Melbourne Parliament House, the Old Treasury Building, the Windsor Hotel and the Princess Theatre; the street is thought to be named after Baron Thomas Spring Rice, Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Melbourne. An alternative theory is that the name is due to the golden wattle trees in full bloom during Richard Bourke's visit; the street runs from Flinders Street in the south to Victoria Street and the Carlton Gardens in the north. Nicholson Street begins as an offshoot of Spring Street south to its intersection with Lonsdale Street.
Spring Street has a number of architecturally notable buildings and important gardens, with many featuring on the Victorian Heritage Register and/or National Trust of Australia. These include: Parliament House * Old Treasury Building * Treasury Gardens * Gordon Reserve * Hotel Windsor * Princess Theatre * Alcaston House an early apartment building designed by A&K Henderson in the palazzo style to complement the wider area Royal Australasian College of Surgeons **Also classified by the National Trust Holy Name Sisters Parliament railway station an underground railway station built for the City Loop 1 Collins Street a post-modern tower by Denton Corker Marshall amongst the city's first to incorporate heritage buildings Casselden Place a tall office building, home to government offices Shell House at the corner of Spring and Flinders Street is a notable granite clad office tower designed by Harry Seidler in a similar style to his buildings in Sydney and Brisbane; the building's floor plates are in the shape of a shell as it was the Australian Head Office of Royal Dutch Shell.
Spring Street forms the western border of the Treasury Gardens. Gordon Reserve, a small triangle of parkland featuring heritage listed statues, is located on Spring Street. Another small Chinese garden, known as the Tianjin Garden, is located at the northern end of Spring Street, it is a symbol of Melbourne's close friendship with its sister city, China. A number of tram routes run along Spring Street for all or part of its length, including the City Circle Tram, route 48 and route 96. Parliament railway station, connecting to most suburban Melbourne train lines as part of the underground City Loop, lies directly beneath and parallel to Spring Street. Australian roads portal
Little Bourke Street, Melbourne
Little Bourke Street in Melbourne's CBD runs east–west within the Hoddle Grid. It is a one-way street heading in a westward direction; the street intersects with Spring Street at its eastern end. Melbourne's Chinatown, which extends between the corners of Swanston and Exhibition Streets, is a major feature of the street. Major department stores Myer and David Jones along with upscale shopping centre Emporium Melbourne have entrances on Little Bourke Street with stores Coach, Michael Kors, Ted Baker, Emporio Armani and Kate Spade New York within the centre having frontages onto Little Bourke between Swanston Street and Elizabeth Street; the back entrance of GPO Melbourne is on this street. Higher-end restaurants are found on the stretch between Spring Street. Australian Roads portal
The Yarra River or the Yarra Yarra River, is a perennial river in east-central Victoria, Australia. The lower stretches of the river are where the city of Melbourne was established in 1835 and today Greater Melbourne dominates and influences the landscape of its lower reaches. From its source in the Yarra Ranges, it flows 242 kilometres west through the Yarra Valley which opens out into plains as it winds its way through Greater Melbourne before emptying into Hobsons Bay in northernmost Port Phillip; the river was a major food source and meeting place for indigenous Australians from prehistoric times. Shortly after the arrival of European settlers land clearing forced the remaining Wurundjeri to neighbouring territories and away from the river. Called Birrarung by the Wurundjeri, the current name was mistranslated from another Wurundjeri term in the Boonwurrung language; the river was utilised for agriculture by early European settlers. The landscape of the river has changed since 1835; the course has been progressively disrupted and the river widened in places.
The first of many Crossings of the Yarra River to facilitate transport was built in Princes Bridge. Beginning with the Victorian gold rush it was extensively mined, creating the Pound Bend Tunnel in Warrandyte, the Big and Little Peninsula Tunnels above Warburton. Widening and dams, like the Upper Yarra Reservoir have helped protect Melbourne from major flooding; the catchment's upper reaches are affected by logging. Industrialisation led to the destruction of the marshlands at the confluence of the Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers in the area around Coode Island in West Melbourne. Today, the mouth and including Swanson and Appleton Docks are used for container shipping by the Port of Melbourne, the busiest on the continent; the city reach, inaccessible to larger watercraft, has seen increased use for both transport and recreational boating. In recent years however recreational use of the river is threatened by high levels of pollution in its lower stretches; the upper reaches remain healthy. The annual Moomba festival celebrates the Yarra River's increasing cultural significance to Melbourne.
The river was called Birrarung by the Wurundjeri people who occupied the Yarra Valley and much of Central Victoria prior to European colonisation. It is thought that Birrarung is derived from Wurundjeri words meaning "ever flowing". Another common term was Birrarung Marr, thought to mean "river of mist" or "river bank". Upon European arrival it was given the name'Yarra Yarra' by John Helder Wedge of the Port Phillip Association in 1835, in the mistaken belief that this was the Aboriginal name for the river in the Boonwurrung language; however it is believed that'Yarra' means "waterfall", "flow", or refers to running or falling water, descriptive of any river or creek in the area, not just the Yarra. The name Yarra Yarra is said to mean "ever flowing river", but most refers to the Yarra Yarra falls which were dynamited. Of their contact with local Wurunderi people in 1835, John Wedge wrote: On arriving in sight of the river, the two natives who were with me, pointing to the river, called out,'Yarra Yarra', which at the time I imagined to be its name.
Sometime before 6000 BC, the Yarra river was joined with other tributaries such as rivers now called the Patterson, Werribee and drained directly into Bass Strait through what is now called the Rip. Between 8000 BC and 6000 BC, the basin flooded forming Port Phillip Bay and moving the "mouth" of the Yarra over 50 km inland. A dry period combined with sand bar formation may have dried the bay out as as between 800 BC and 1000 AD extending the Yarra to Bass Strait during this period; the area surrounding the Yarra River and modern day Melbourne was inhabited by Natives of the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin nation. It is believed; the river was an important resource for the Wurundjeri people and several sites along the river and its tributaries were important meeting places where corroborees were held between indigenous communities. The river's resources were utilised sustainably by the Wurundjeri until the advent of early European settlement in the early-mid-19th century. In 1803, the first Europeans sailed up the river, a surveying party led by Charles Grimes, Acting Surveyor General of New South Wales, sailed upstream to Dights Falls where they could no longer continue due to the nature of the terrain.
European explorers would not enter the river for another 30 years until, in 1835, the area, now central and northern Melbourne was explored by John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association, who negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres of land from eight Wurundjeri elders. He selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village"; the river was instrumental in the establishment of Melbourne along its banks from 1835 onwards. The new settlement's main port was sited just downstream of Yarra Falls west of modern-day Queen's Bridge, the place where saltwater met freshwater. Ships would use one side of the falls while the other side provided fresh drinking water for the town and a convenient sewer. In the city's early days the
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
Exhibition Street, Melbourne
Exhibition Street is a major street in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. The street is named after the International Exhibition held at the Royal Exhibition Building in 1880, was known as Stephen Street from 1837; the street runs north-south and was laid out as part of the original Hoddle Grid. Situated in the east of the Melbourne city centre, Exhibition Street is a major thoroughfare for city traffic. At its southern end, Exhibition Street becomes Batman Avenue after its intersection with Flinders Street and the Batman Avenue Bridge. Batman Avenue links the central business district to the Monash Freeway, the section south of Flinders Street is known as the Exhibition Street Extension. At its northern end it becomes Rathdowne Street, which runs along the western edge of the Carlton Gardens, Royal Exhibition Building and Melbourne Museum. Stephen Street, as Exhibition Street was known, was established in April 1837 as one of the eight north-south streets on Robert Hoddle's original survey of Melbourne.
Stephen Street was named as a tribute to Sir James Stephen, the Permanent Undersecretary for the British Colonies in London, at the peak of his power within the Colonial Office at the time of the naming of the streets in the Hoddle Grid. In 1847, the Eastern Market was opened on the corner of Bourke Street, it was the second major market in Melbourne, after the Western Market. It was intended to be Melbourne's main fresh food market, but it proved less popular than the Queen Victoria Market, became closer to an amusement park, it was demolished in 1960. Stephen Street was renamed Exhibition Street by Melbourne City Council on 5 December 1898, it was renamed to celebrate the 1880 International Exhibition and the 1888 Centennial Exhibition, both held at the Royal Exhibition Buildings during the boom time of Marvellous Melbourne. The change only applied to the portion of Stephen Street north of Collins Street; the remainder was called Collins Place, kept that name until it became part of Exhibition Street in 1963.
The Exhibition Street Extension project was announced by the State Government in April 1998 and opened in October 1999, with CityLink operator Transurban operating the road and collecting tolls from road users. The project included a four lane divided road over the Jolimont railyards, enabling Batman Avenue west of Melbourne Park to be closed. In addition the route 70 tram was removed from Swan Street, rerouted to dedicated tracks between the sporting precinct and the railway lines, before crossing the new bridge and turning into Flinders Street; the Exhibition Street Extension was not part of the initial CityLink project announcement, as it had been promoted as a bypass that would keep cars out of the CBD. Exhibition Street is a commercial district lined by skyscrapers and home to many of Melbourne's tallest buildings, it is home to many heritage buildings listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and/or classified by National Trust of Australia. These include: Cooper's Inn Pub Former London Chartered Bank Former Mickveh Yisrael Synagogue and School Her Majesty's Theatre Friendly Societies House P Ng Hong Nam Building The Herald and Weekly Times Building Comedy Theatre Reserve Bank of Australia building Collins Place SX1 Australia Post Headquarters Telstra Corporate Centre Ernst & Young Tower Marriott Hotel Rydges Hotel Mantra 100 Exhibition Australian Roads portal "Exhibition Street".
Emporis Buildings. Retrieved 2006-07-31
East Melbourne, Victoria
East Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 2 km east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Melbourne. East Melbourne is a small area of inner Melbourne, located between Richmond and the Melbourne Central Business District. Broadly, it is bounded by Spring Street, Victoria Parade, Punt Road/Hoddle Street and Brunton Avenue. One of Melbourne's earliest suburbs, East Melbourne has long been home to many significant government and religious institutions, including the Parliament of Victoria and offices of the Government of Victoria in the Parliamentary and Cathedral precincts, which are located on a gentle hill at the edge of the Melbourne's Hoddle Grid, known as Eastern Hill; the world-famous Melbourne Cricket Ground is located in Yarra Park, in the East Melbourne locality of Jolimont. East Melbourne has been affluent since its first establishment and contains some of the oldest Victorian homes and terrace houses and parks and gardens in Melbourne.
The Parliamentary and Cathedral precincts are located on a gentle hill, known as Eastern Hill. Jolimont railway station is at the top of a ridge, which extends towards Bridge Road in Richmond, from which Jolimont slopes downwards towards the Yarra River and the residential section to the north slopes towards the flatter areas of Fitzroy and Collingwood to the north and Richmond to the south. East Melbourne was one of Melbourne's earliest suburbs, it was first planned in 1837 by surveyor Robert Hoddle, but was not settled until 1840, some time after neighbouring Fitzroy and Collingwood. Among the first settlers was Charles La Trobe, who built a transportable dwelling in 1840 and wealthy professionals followed, establishing mansions there; the plan of the alignment of streets was adopted in July 1849. In the 1960s and 1970s, while other inner-city suburbs were experiencing gentrification, East Melbourne, traditionally a blue ribbon district, experienced a temporary decline. Flats began to replace many of the old mansions.
Many remaining mansions had been converted to rooming houses over the years. The construction of the Hilton Hotel saw the demolition of Cliveden mansions, a five-storey Victorian era terrace and the largest mansion in Melbourne. Office development and expansion of the hospitals in the area affected much of the area surrounding Victoria Parade. During the 1990s East Melbourne once again experienced a sharp increase in property prices; the Becton development at Jolimont, modelled on a picturesque Georgian village, created one of inner-city Melbourne's first exclusive enclaves. Many of the remaining mansions and terraces were placed on heritage registers and subdivided into apartments; the Victoria Brewery was converted into exclusive apartments, named "TriBeCa", after the Manhattan neighbourhood. East Melbourne's proximity to the city, its small size and its unspoilt streetscapes ensure its property is expensive and sought after. At the 2016 Census, East Melbourne had a population of 4,964. 62.8% of people were born in Australia.
The most common countries of birth were England 4.2% and New Zealand 3.0%. 75.0% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 42.8% and Catholic 18.3%. East Melbourne is home to many famous Melbourne landmarks. Treasury Place is notable for its government buildings on Spring Street, including Parliament House of Victoria and the old Treasury Building. Treasury Place forms Australia's finest Renaissance revival streetscape, combining the facades of the Premier's Department and Treasury, State Offices, now occupied by the Education Department, the former Government Printing Office and Commonwealth Government Offices, all overlooking the Treasury Gardens; the rear of these offices is a feature of St Andrews Place. Nearby Cathedral Place is home to St Patrick's Cathedral and many other former religious buildings now serving mixed use; the former Baptist Church House, built between 1859 and 1863, although modified during conversion into an office building, is one of the finer classical styled buildings in East Melbourne and was designed by Thomas Watts.
On the corner of Hotham and Powlett Streets, the large Cairns Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in the 1880s was subject to an innovative apartment conversion after the church was gutted by fire in 1988, leaving only the exterior sandstone shell. Other notable buildings include the Arts & Crafts style of the Victorian Artists Society by Richard Speight and Harry Tompkins, the Eastern Hill Fire Station and the East Melbourne Synagogue by Crouch & Wilson. ICI House, built on the edge of the Melbourne CBD on Nicholson Street between 1955 and 1958 and designed by Bates, Smart & McCutcheon, is notable as being one of the first curtain wall glass skyscrapers in the world and the first skyscraper to break Melbourne's strict height limits; until 1961, it was Australia's tallest building. The Dallas Brooks Hall, one of Australia's finest examples of the "stripped classical" style, was completed in 1969 and has served as a major events venue for many years; the building caused controversy after 2001 when it owners, Freemasons Victoria announced that it was to be sold and demolished to make way for multi-purpose commercial development.
Despite the building's architectural and cultural significance, its heritage protection status remains unknown. The building has since been demolished. Victoria Brewery, between Albert and Victoria Streets, is notable as an early
King Street, Melbourne
King Street is a main road in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. It is considered a key hub of Melbourne's nightlife and is home to many pubs, nightclubs and adult entertainment venues. Part of the original Hoddle Grid laid out in 1837, the road has become a main traffic thoroughfare connecting Southbank and North Melbourne through the city centre. King street is named for the third Governor of New South Wales. King Street begins at Flinders Street and ends at the intersection of Hawke Street and Victoria Street in West Melbourne. Towards the northern end of King Street lay the Flagstaff Gardens, whilst the Sea Life Melbourne Aquarium and Crown Casino are at its southern tip. King Street becomes Kings Way south of Flinders Street; the street was part of National Routes 1 and 79 until the city bypass road linking the Monash Freeway with the Westgate Freeway was completed. Crossing through Melbourne's main financial district, many of Melbourne's tallest office towers line King Street.
The area was once lined with bluestone warehouses. The street has many examples of modern architecture, some designed by Yuncken Freeman who had their offices located on the street. Many King Street buildings are listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and/or classified by the National Trust of Australia, including: St James Old Cathedral, the oldest church in Melbourne 328-330 King Street, the oldest residence in Melbourne Former York Butter Factory Former F. Blight & Company Warehouse Colonial Hotel Former Zanders No 3 Warehouse Former Levicks & Piper Wholesale Ironmongers Warehouse Former Phoenix Clothing Company Langdon Building New Zealand Mercantile building Former Melbourne Wool Exchange Australian Institute of Music City Campus Other prominent buildings include: Great Western Hotel, a pub continuously operating for 150 years Rialto Towers Melbourne's tallest building The Melbourne Stock Exchange Victoria University's City King St campusAs with many of Melbourne's streets, several notable heritage buildings were demolished during the 1960s and 1970s, including: The Federal Coffee Palace Robb's Buildings During the 1980s many former warehouses at the southern end of King Street were converted into night clubs.
King Street subsequently became Melbourne's main nightclub district, with some of Melbourne's largest clubs including Clique Lounge Bar, Inflation, La Di Da, Brown Alley & Sorry Grandma along the strip. The street is considered the hub of Melbourne's adult entertainment venues, including Goldfingers, The Men's Gallery, Dallas Dancers, Bar 20, Centrefold Lounge and Spearmint Rhino; the collapse of the new King Street Bridge on 10 July 1962 Australian Roads portal