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Hofburg

The Hofburg is the former principal imperial palace of the Habsburg dynasty rulers and today serves as the official residence and workplace of the President of Austria. It is located in the center of Vienna and was built in the 13th century and expanded several times afterwards, it served as the imperial winter residence, as Schönbrunn Palace was the summer residence. Since 1279 the Hofburg area has been the documented seat of government; the Hofburg has been expanded over the centuries to include various residences, the imperial chapel, the imperial library, the treasury, the Burgtheater, the Spanish Riding School, the imperial mews. The palace faces the Heldenplatz ordered under the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I, as part of what was planned to become the Kaiserforum but, never completed. Numerous architects have executed work at the Hofburg as it expanded, notably the Italian architect-engineer Filiberto Luchese, Lodovico Burnacini and Martino and Domenico Carlone, the Baroque architects Lukas von Hildebrandt and Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, Johann Fischer von Erlach, the architects of the Neue Burg built between 1881 and 1913.

The name translates as "Castle of the Court", which denotes its origins when constructed during the Middle Ages. Planned in the 13th century as the seat of the Dukes of Austria, the palace expanded over the centuries, as they became powerful. From 1438 to 1583, again from 1612 to 1806, it was the seat of the Habsburg kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, thereafter until 1918 the seat of the Emperors of Austria. Since the palace has continued in its role as the seat of the head of state and is today used by the Austrian Federal President, it is the permanent home of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The whole palace complex is under the administration of the governor, who in turn is part of the Burghauptmannschaft, an office, in existence since the Middle Ages under the auspices of the Burgrave. At present the Burghauptmannschaft is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Ministry of the Economy. In September 1958, parts of the Hofburg were opened to the public as a convention centre.

In the first ten years, the Burghauptmannschaft operated the convention centre. Every year the convention centre hosts about 300 to 350 events, with around 300,000 to 320,000 guests. Among the events are conventions and meetings as well as banquets, trade fairs and balls; the oldest parts of the palace date from the 13th century and were constructed by the last of the Babenbergers, or by Ottakar II of Bohemia. Before that the castle of the Austrian rulers had been located on the square called "Am Hof", near the Schottenstift; the castle had a square outline, with four turrets, was surrounded by a moat with a drawbridge at the entrance. These oldest sections of the castle today form the Swiss Court, where there are a gothic chapel, dating from the 15th century, the treasury, affiliated to the Kunsthistorisches Museum which holds, among other things, the imperial insignia of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Empire of Austria; the Court Music Chapel is located inside the Court Chapel and is where the Vienna Boys' Choir traditionally sing mass on Sundays.

The appearance of the Swiss Court dates from the Renaissance, during the reign of the Emperor Ferdinand I. The Swiss Gate entrance displays the many titles of Ferdinand I and the insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece are painted on the ceiling. An adjoining section of the Swiss Wing houses the Radetzky Apartments. In recognition of his services in the Italian campaign during the revolutionary year of 1848, the Emperor Franz Joseph I permitted the worthy Field Marshal Radetzky to live in these apartments though he was not a member of the imperial family. In the Knight's Hall, on 15 May 1717 the Empress Maria Theresa was baptised by the Papal Nuntius Giorgio Spinola, representing Pope Clement XI, with baptismal water containing a few drops from the River Jordan. Next to the Knight's Hall is the Guard Room, where the duty officer of the Household Guards kept watch over the emperor; the lower section of this wing once accommodated the imperial kitchen. Although not physically connected to the rest of the complex, the imperial mews of the Hofburg were built as a residence for the crown prince, Maximilian.

It is said that Ferdinand I did not wish to house his son under his roof, as Maximilian had veered towards Protestantism. This structure accommodated the art collection of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, the art-inclined brother of Emperor Ferdinand III, the collection forms the core of the Kunsthistorisches Museum from 1889; the residence was converted during the Baroque era to house the imperial horses on the ground floor and is used by the Spanish Riding School. Across from the Swiss Gate is the Amalienburg, named after Empress Amalie Wilhelmine, the widow of Joseph I. However, this wing had been in use for more than a century, constructed as the residence of the Emperor Rudolph II in the style of the late Renaissance. Of note is the small tower with its cuppola and the astronomical clock on its façade; the connection between the Amalienburg and the Swiss Court is the Leopoldi

1948 South Korean presidential election

Presidential and vice-presidential elections were held in South Korea on 20 July 1948, following the Constitutional Assembly elections in May. The president was to be elected by the members of the National Assembly, as instructed by the 1948 Constitution. Of the 198 members of the National Assembly, 196 were present for the vote. A candidate required. Syngman Rhee was elected with 180 votes, took over the government to oversee the transfer of power from the United States Army Military Government in Korea. An important role was played in the run-up to the election by the dispute between Rhee and Kim Koo over the issue of establishing a separate government in the southern part of Korea, instead of including the communist-controlled north. Kim rejected the idea of separate elections, had boycotted the Constitutional Assembly elections in May, instead campaigning for a united Korea, he split from the National Alliance for the Rapid Realization of Korean Independence to form the Korea Independence Party.

Despite Kim's refusal to take any part in a South-only government and therefore in this election, 13 members cast their votes for Kim. In the event, Kim's split allowed Rhee to consolidate power over NARRKI and, in 1951, form the Liberal Party, enabling his rule over South Korea until the April Revolution in 1960. In order to be elected, a candidate had to receive at least two-thirds of the votes cast, including blank and invalid ballots. While there were 198 members in the National Assembly, 196 members participated in the voting. Therefore, the number of votes needed to win the presidency was 131. Though Kim Koo did not send his approvals for the new South Korean government and insisted that the lawmakers not cast votes for him, 13 of the 196 lawmakers who voted voted for Kim Koo; the election, ended as a landslide victory of the only candidate that sought the presidency, Rhee Syng-man, who received 180 of the 196 votes cast. One vote was invalidated, as it was cast for independence activist Seo Jae-pil, who at the time was a US citizen.

Endorsed by Rhee Syngman and the Korea Democratic Party, former Finance Minister of Provisional Government Yi Si-yeong was elected vice president, but only in the second round. The Constitution stated that for the first two rounds of voting, candidates need to win 2/3 of the votes to win. Had Yi failed to win the required 132 votes in the second round of voting, a runoff election would have been conducted of him and runner-up Kim Koo, whoever won the plurality of the votes would have become the vice president

Erik A. Schjerven

Erik Aleksander Schjerven is a Norwegian actor. He graduated from the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art in London, United Kingdom, in 2009. Schjerven is notable for playing Albert Lunde on the Norwegian soap-opera television series Hotel Cæsar from 1998 throughout 2000, he has appeared in Fox Grønland, a crime series on TV 2, a Norwegian television channel. Schjerven played Jon Hatland in Max Manus, a Norwegian biographical war film based on the real events of the life of World War II resistance fighter Max Manus, he will be seen in the upcoming film Robin Hood, scheduled to be released on 14 May 2010. His brother, Petter Schjerven, is a television host on the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation television channel. Erik Schjerven on IMDb Erik Aleksander Schjerven on Filmfront on Det Danske Filminstitut