St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen, it evolved from the hermitage of Saint Gall, founded in the 7th century. Today, it represents the center of eastern Switzerland, its economy consists of the service sector. Internationally, the town is known as the home of the University of St. Gallen, one of world's leading business schools; the main tourist attraction is the Abbey of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Abbey's renowned library contains books from the 9th century; the official language of St. Gallen is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect; the city has good transport links to the rest of the country and to neighbouring Germany and Austria. It functions as the gate to the Appenzellerland; the city of St. Gallen grew around the Abbey of St Gall, founded in the 8th century; the abbey is said to have been built at the site of the hermitage of Irish missionary Gallus, who according to legend had established himself by the river Steinach in AD 612.
The monastery itself was founded by Saint Othmar in c. 720. The abbey prospered in the 9th century and became a site of pilgrimage and a center of trade, with associated guest houses and other facilities, a hospital, one of the first monastery schools north of the Alps. By the tenth century, a settlement had grown up around the abbey. In 926 Magyar raiders attacked surrounding town. Saint Wiborada, the first woman formally canonized by the Vatican saw a vision of the impending attack and warned the monks and citizens to flee. While the monks and the abbey treasure escaped, Wiborada chose to stay behind and was killed by the raiders. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars again threatened the abbey, its books were removed for safekeeping to Reichenau. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire consumed much of the abbey. However, the library was spared. About 954 a protective wall was raised around the abbey. A wall with gates and towers was built in 953/954 under abbot Anno and 971-975 under abbot Notker, first establishing the abbey and its associated settlement as a city.
From the 12th century, the city of St. Gall pushed for independence from the abbey. In 1180, an imperial reeve, not answerable to the abbot, was installed in the city. In 1207, Abbot Ulrich von Sax was granted the rank of Imperial Prince by Philip of Swabia, King of the Germans; as an ecclesiastical principality, the Abbey of St. Gallen was to constitute an important territorial state and a major regional power in northern Switzerland; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot. Abbot Wilhelm von Montfort in 1291 granted special privileges to the citizens. By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, had gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund. In 1405, the Appenzell estates of the abbot rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became an ally, they joined the "everlasting alliance" as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became free from the abbot.
However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zurich, Lucerne and Glarus who were all members of the Confederation. Ulrich Varnbüler was an early mayor of St. Gallen and one of the most colorful. Hans, the father of Ulrich, was prominent in city affairs in St. Gallen in the early 15th century. Ulrich entered public affairs in the early 1460s and attained the various offices and honours that are available to a talented and ambitious man, he demonstrated fine qualities as field commander of the St. Gallen troops in the Burgundian Wars. In the Battle of Grandson his troops were part of the advance units of the Confederation and took part in their famous attack. A large painting of Ulrich returning triumphantly to a hero's welcome in St. Gallen is still displayed in St. Gallen. After the war, Varnbüler represented St. Gallen at the various parliaments of the Confederation. In December 1480, Varnbüler was offered the position of mayor for the first time. From that time on, he served in several leadership positions and was considered the city's intellectual and political leader.
According to Vadian, who understood his contemporaries well, "Ulrich was a intelligent and eloquent man who enjoyed the trust of the citizenry to a high degree." His reputation among the Confederates was substantial. However, in the late 1480s, he became involved in a conflict, to have serious negative consequences for him and for the city. In 1463, Ulrich Rösch had assumed the management of the abbey of Saint Gall, he was an ambitious prelate, whose goal was to return the abbey to prominence by every possible means, following the losses of the Appenzell War. His restless ambition offended the material interests of his neighbours; when he arranged for the help of the Pope and the Emperor to carry out a plan to move the abbey to Rorschach on Lake Constance, he encountered stiff resistance from the St. Gallen citizenry, other clerics, the Appenzell nobility in the Rhine Valley, who were concerned for their holdings. At this point, Varnbüler entered the conflict against the prelate, he wanted to restrain the increase of the abbey's power and at the same time increase
Altach is a municipality in Feldkirch district in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg. Five other municipalities are surrounding Altach, Hohenems in the Dornbirn district, Götzis and Mäder in the Feldkirch district, Oberriet and Diepoldsau in the Swiss canton St. Gallen; the Habsburgs ruled the villages in Vorarlberg alternately from Further Austria. In 1801 Altach was separated from neighboring Götzis. From 1805 to 1814 Altach belonged to Bavaria to Austria again. Altach is part of the Austrian state Vorarlberg since its founding in 1861. From 1945 to 1955 the municipality was in the French occupation zone in Austria. Official homepage of Altach: www.altach.at
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
William III of Sicily
William III, a scion of the Hauteville dynasty, was the last Norman King of Sicily, who reigned for ten months in 1194. He was overthrown by his great-aunt Constance and her husband Emperor Henry VI, he was the second son of his wife Sibylla of Acerra. When in 1189 King William II of Sicily died childless, Tancred, an illegitimate son of the Norman duke Roger III of Apulia gained the support of Pope Clement III to be crowned King of Sicily, denying the rights of his aunt Constance, daughter of late King Roger II. At the age of four, shortly after the death of his first older brother Roger and a few weeks of his father, William was crowned king by Pope Celestine III in Palermo, his mother Sibylla acted as his regent. However, Constance's husband, the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI claimed the throne of Sicily in right of his wife. Before Tancred's death he had been laying plans to invade, his resources had been further augmented by the ransom he had received for the release of King Richard I of England.
In August 1194 Henry marched against Sicily. Sibylla was unable to organize much effective resistance. By the end of October Henry had conquered all the mainland parts of the kingdom and crossed over into the island of Sicily. On November 20 Palermo fell and his mother fled to Caltabellotta Castle. Henry offered Sibylla generous terms: William was to retain the County of Lecce, the home territory of his father before he had become king, was to retain the Principality of Taranto in turn for renouncing the royal crown. With that agreement reached, his mother and his sisters watched while Henry was crowned King of Sicily on December 25. Four days an alleged conspiracy against the new king was uncovered, many of the leading Italo-Norman political figures were arrested and sent to prison in Germany, including William and his family. While his mother and sisters were released and lived in obscurity in France, nothing is known for certain of William's subsequent fate, he is said to have been castrated, or both.
According to some sources he died in captivity at Alt-Ems Castle a few years others claim that he was released and became a monk. Another theory is that he returned to Sicily under the alias Tancredi Palamara. Henry's son, Emperor Frederick II discovered Tancredi Palamara in Messina and had him executed in 1232. However, referring to several letters by Pope Celestine III, the date accepted for his death is 1198. William's heir was his younger sister, whose precise name is unclear but has been given variously as Mary, Albinia or Blanche
Dornbirn is a city in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg. It is the administrative centre for the district of Dornbirn, which includes the town of Hohenems, the market town Lustenau. Dornbirn is the tenth largest in Austria, it is an important shopping centre. Dornbirn is located in western Vorarlberg at 437 metres above sea level in the Alpine Rhine Valley, at the foot of the Karren mountain, part of the Bregenz Forest Mountain chain at the edge of the Eastern Alps, it is near the borders to Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The Dornbirner Ach river flows through the town and into Lake Constance. Dornbirn once consisted only of 4 "quarters": Markt, Hatlerdorf and Haselstauden. By the 20th century Dornbirn had annexed two independent communities to the west: Rohrbach and Schoren, thus bringing the total number of districts to 6; the Town of Dornbirn constitutes 70% of the surface of the district Dornbirn and has numerous borders to other municipalities. As well as bordering on the two other municipalities in the Dornbirn district, the town shares borders with 15 municipalities of the Bregenz District: and four with the Feldkirch District:.
The earliest evidence of human presence in the Dornbirn area can be dated from the Mesolithic era. The name "Dornbirn" derives from'torrin puirron', meaning the'Settlement of Torro' and thus has nothing to do with "pears", although this fruit is prominently portrayed on the town emblem; this name is mentioned in a document from St. Gallen. Dornbirn became part of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1380. In 1793 it was elevated to a market community, it was not given municipal status until 1901. In 1932 the mountain village of Ebnit was annexed. In 1969 Dornbirn became the seat of the new Dornbirn district administrative authority. 1881: the first phone in the K&K empire was inaugurated by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria on 8/10/1881 The Dornbirn Municipal Council has 36 seats and the following party mandates: 21 Austrian People's Party 8 Social Democratic Party of Austria 4 Die Grünen 3 Freedom Party of AustriaThe current mayor is Andrea Kaufmann. Dornbirn has town partnerships with Kecskemét, Hungary Sélestat, France Dubuque, United States Karl Cordin, ski racer Francis Martin Drexel, Philadelphia banker and artist Margret Dünser, journalist Artur Doppelmayr ski lift pioneer Ingrid Eberle, ski racer Elfi Graf, singer Yvonne Meusburger, WTA tennis player Tamira Paszek, WTA tennis player Aaron Pilsan, pianist Gerold Ratz, former Landesstatthalter of Vorarlberg Wolfgang Rümmele, Mayor of Dornbirn 1999-2013 Karl Aubert Salzmann, president of Federal Council Johann Georg Waibel, Mayor of Dornbirn 1869-1908, member of Reichsrat and Landtag The Messestadion is an indoor sporting arena located in Dornbirn, home to the local ice hockey team.
Vorarlberg's regional studio of the ORF is located in Dornbirn. Zumtobel Lighting Group is an ATX traded company based in Dornbirn. Many other large companies are situated there; the town was a major centre of the textile industry, in decline since the 1980s. Located in the middle of the Rhine valley, Dornbirn is an important junction of regional and interregional bus lines, connecting Bregenz to the north, Feldkirch to the south, the Bregenz Forest to the east; the A14 Rheintal freeway/motorway passes by to the west. The Achrain tunnel, opened in 2009, directly connects Dornbirn/Haselstauden with the Bregenz Forest - Alberschwende region; the town has an excellent network of municipal buses. Dornbirn's railway station connects. A small airport is located at nearby Hohenems. Educational institutions in Dornbirn include the Vorarlberg University of Applied Sciences, two General Education Secondary Schools, a Higher Technical Vocational College; the Vorarlberg University of Applied Sciences was founded as technical school in 1989.
It achieved status of an recognized university in 1999. To date, it is the only institution of higher education in Vorarlberg, it offers Bachelor's and Master's degrees in the fields of Business, Engineering & Technology and Social Work. About 1350 students have enrolled for the term 2018/19. One of the most important sportive institutions in Dornbirn is the RHC Dornbirn, one of the most powerful Austrian Rink Hockey teams. In 2010 it hosted. Baseball & Softball Club Dornbirn was founded in 1990, has won the Austrian title twice. BSC Dornbirn consists of one youth team, two men's teams, two women's teams. Dornbirn hosted the World Gymnaestrada event in 2007 and will do so again in 2019. Dornbirn College of Applied Sciences Natural History Museum Rolls Royce Museum Roller Hockey Dornbirn Club Tiscover Dornbirn Spielboden Cultural Events PhotoGlobe - Dornbirn offers high quality photos together with GPS coordinates
Lake Constance is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein. These waterbodies lie within the Lake Constance Basin, part of the Alpine Foreland and through which the Rhine flows; the lake is situated in Germany and Austria. Its shorelines lie in the German states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, the Swiss cantons of Thurgau, St. Gallen, Schaffhausen; the Rhine flows into the lake from the south, with its original course forming the Austro-Swiss border, has its outflow on the "Lower Lake" where — except for Schaffhausen — it forms the German-Swiss border until the city of Basel. Lake Constance is the third largest freshwater lake in Central and Western Europe in terms of surface area, after Lake Geneva and Lake Balaton, it is 63 km long, at its widest point, nearly 14 km wide. It covers 536 km2, is 395 m above sea level.
The greatest depth is 252 metres, quite in the middle of the Upper Lake. Its volume is 48 km3; the lake has two parts: the main east section, called Obersee or "Upper Lake", covers about 473 square kilometres, to which its northwestern arm, the Überlinger See and the much smaller west section, summarizingly called Untersee or "Lower Lake", with an area of about 63 square kilometres. The connecting part between these two lake parts is the Seerhein. Geographically, it is sometimes not considered to be part of a river; the Lower Lake Constance is loosely divided into three sections around the Island of Reichenau: The two German parts, the Gnadensee north of the island and north of the peninsula of Mettnau, the Zeller See, south of Radolfzell and to the northwest of the Reichenau island, the Swiss Rheinsee – not to be mismatched with the Seerhein at its start! – to the south of the island and with its southwestern arm leading to its effluent in Stein am Rhein. The river water of the regulated Alpine Rhine flows into the lake in the southeast near Bregenz, Austria through the Upper Lake Constance hardly targeting the Überlinger See, into the Seerhein in the town of Konstanz through the Rheinsee without feeding both German parts of the Lower Lake, feeds the start of the High Rhine in Swiss town Stein am Rhein.
The lake itself is an important drinking water source for southwestern Germany. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is the Swiss peak Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level, it starts with the creek Aua da Russein. Car ferries link Romanshorn, Switzerland, to Friedrichshafen, Konstanz to Meersburg, all in Germany. Lake Constance is a zungenbecken lake. After the end of the last glacial period, about 10,000 years ago, the Obersee and Untersee still formed a single lake; the downward erosion of the High Rhine caused the lake level to sink and a sill, the Konstanzer Schwelle, to emerge. The Rhine, the Bregenzer Ach, the Dornbirner Ach carry sediments from the Alps to the lake, thus decreasing the depth and coastline extension of the lake in the southeast. In antiquity the two lakes still had different names. In the 19th century, there were five different local time zones around Lake Constance. Constance, belonging to the Grand Duchy of Baden, adhered to the Karlsruhe time, Friedrichshafen used the time of the Duchy of Württemberg, in Lindau, the Bavarian Munich time was observed, Bregenz used the Prague time, while the Swiss shore used the Berne time.
One would have needed to travel only 46 kilometers to visit five time zones. Given the amount of trade and traffic over Lake Constance, this led to serious confusion. Public clocks in harbors used three different clock faces, depending on the destinations offered by the boat companies. In 1892, all German territories used CET, the Austrian railways introduced CET in 1891, Switzerland followed in 1894; because traffic timetables had not been yet updated, CET became the sole valid time around and on Lake Constance in 1895. The Roman geographer, Pomponius Mela, was the first to mention the lake around 43 AD, calling it the Lacus Venetus and the Untersee Lacus Acronius, the Rhine passing through both. Around 75 AD, The naturalist Pliny the Elder called the entire Lake Constance, Lacus Raetiae Brigantinus after the main Roman town on the lake, Brigantium; this name is associated with the Celtic Brigantii who lived here, although it is not clear whether the place was named after the tribe or the inhabitants of the region were named after their main settlement.
Ammianus Marcellinus used the form Lacus Brigantiae. The current German name of Bodensee derives from the place name Bodman, which originally derived from the Old High German bodamon which meant "on the soils", indicating a place on level terrain by the lake; this place, situated at the west end of Lake Überlingen, had a more supraregional character for a certain period in the early Middle Ages as a Frankish imperial palace, Alamannian ducal seat and mint, why the name may have been transferred to the lake. From 833/
Lustenau is a town in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg in the district of Dornbirn. It lies on the river Rhine. Lustenau is Vorarlberg's fourth largest town; until 1830, Lustenau was an independent county reigned by the counts of Waldburg-Zeil-Lustenau-Hohenems. After 1830 it became part of Austria; the name Lustenau derives from a document signed by the Carolingian king Charles the Fat with the title "Lustenauua curti regali", meaning "Royal Court of Lustenau" Lustenau is served by a railway station, on the Vorarlberg Railway which runs between St. Margrethen in Switzerland and Bregenz, it is the headquarters of the International Rhine Regulation Railway, a preserved industrial railway, used in the management of the Rhine. Lustenau has a successful history in sports; the town's two football teams, SC Austria Lustenau and FC Lustenau, play in major Austrian football leagues. The well-known and successful skier, Marc Girardelli, was born in Lustenau, the Lustenau ice-hockey team, EHC Lustenau, is part of the Austrian National League.
The town used to be a major centre of the embroidery industry in the past and is now a centre for the new technologies industry. FC Lustenau 07 and SC Austria Lustenau played in the Austrian Football First League in the 2007-08 and 2008-09 seasons. There are two good athletics and gymnastic clubs in Lustenau, the TS Lustenau and the TS Jahn Lustenau. Both have achieved top results internationally, they have survived the domination of the football clubs, which led to a total demolition of the athletic track in the Reichshofstadion in 1998. Sadly, the rebuilding project by the county, in progress since 1999, has not been completed, although it should have been finished in 2005. Manfred Schurti, Liechtenstein racing driver Fredmund Malik, economist Marc Girardelli, skier Markus Peintner, ice hockey player René Swette, ice hockey player Barbara Gasser, gymnast Market Community of Lustenau