Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Festungsberg is a mountain in the city of Salzburg, Austria. Its summit at about 542 m is the site of Hohensalzburg Castle, the mountain is located in the south of the Altstadt or Old Town quarter. It forms the rim of the Berchtesgaden range within the Northern Limestone Alps. Archaeological findings date back to the Celtic La Tène culture, the area was fortified during the days of the Roman above the city of Iuvavum until King Odoacer of Italy commanded to leave the Province of Noricum in 488. About 715 Bishop Rupert of Salzburg established the Benedictine Nonnberg Abbey at the foot of the mountain. Archbishop Gebhard had a first castle built at the top during the Investiture Controversy about 1077, formerly used for grassland or for vineyard cultivation by the monks of St Peters Abbey, the slopes are nowadays mostly wooded
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but became a rival and was banished to the United States. Moreau was born at Morlaix in Brittany and his father was a successful lawyer, and instead of allowing Moreau to enter the army, as he attempted to do, insisted on Moreau studying law at the University of Rennes. Young Moreau showed no inclination for law, but reveled in the freedom of student life, instead of taking his degree, he continued to live with the students as their hero and leader, and formed them into a sort of army, which he commanded as their provost. When 1789 came, he commanded the students in the daily affrays which took place at Rennes between the young noblesse and the populace, in 1791, Moreau was elected a lieutenant colonel of the volunteers of Ille-et-Vilaine. Lazare Carnot promoted Moreau to be general of division early in 1794, the Battle of Tourcoing established Moreaus military fame, and in 1795 he was given the command of the Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle, with which he crossed the Rhine and advanced into Germany.
He was at first completely successful and won victories and penetrated to the Isar. It was at time he found a traitorous correspondence between his old comrade and commander Charles Pichegru and the émigré Prince de Condé. Too late to clear himself, he sent the correspondence to Paris, joubert fell in the battle, and Moreau conducted the retreat of the army to Genoa, where he handed over the command to Jean Étienne Championnet. In reward, Napoleon again gave him command of the Army of the Rhine, on his return to Paris he married 19-year-old Eugénie Hulot, born in Mauritius and friend of Joséphine de Beauharnais, an ambitious woman who gained a complete ascendancy over him. After spending a few weeks with the army in Germany and winning the battle of Hohenlinden. His wife collected around her all who were discontented with the aggrandisement of Napoleon, all this was well known to Napoleon, who seized the conspirators. In 1804, Moreau passed through Spain and embarked for America, Moreau arrived with his wife in New York City, in August 1805.
He lived there till 1813, dividing his time fishing and social intercourse. His abode was the refuge of all political exiles, and representatives of foreign powers tried to induce him to raise his sword against Napoleon, at the outbreak of the War of 1812, President Madison offered him the command of the U. S. troops. Moreau was willing to accept, but after hearing the news of the destruction of the Grande Armée in Russia, Charles John and Tsar Alexander I of Russia were now together with the Prussians and the Austrians leading an army against Napoleon. Moreau, who wished to see Napoleon defeated and a republican government installed, gave advice to the Swedish, Moreau was mortally wounded in the Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813 while he was talking to the tsar and died on 2 September in Louny. After Moreau was shot down at his side, the observed to Metternich. Moreau was buried in the Catholic Church of St. Catherine in St. Petersburg
Leonhard von Keutschach
Leonhard von Keutschach was Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1495 until his death, the last to rule in the feudal style. He was probably born at Viktring in Carinthia, the son of Otto von Keutschach, a judge at the manorial court, the Keutschach family came from the northern shore of Lake Keutschach. Their arms are a white turnip on a black field, Leonhard started out as canon of the Augustinian order and provost of Eberndorf Abbey. In 1490 he was promoted as provost of the Salzburg chapter, in 1498 he again expelled the Salzburg Jews, who had returned to the area since their banishment in 1404, and had their synagogues at Salzburg and Hallein destroyed. In 1511, Leonhard ended the unrest, He invited the mayor, Leonhard died at Salzburg, spending his last years unsuccessfully battling his coadjutor, who would succeed him in 1519. His efforts made Salzburg one of the richest states of the Holy Roman Empire, starting a tradition of a local culture rich in music. Leonhard used his wealth to buy back lands sold by his predecessors to cover their debt and to support Emperor Maximilian I financially and he expanded the defenses of the city, notably by strengthening Hohensalzburg Castle and a large number of castles in Salzburg and Carinthia.
He crowned his economic achievements by a reform that was the basis for the modern Salzburger monetary system. Verlag Pustet, Salzburg 1981, ISBN 3-7025-0121-5 Media related to Leonhard von Keutschach at Wikimedia Commons Extensive biography in German on Salzburg Coins Interactive
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties. Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion, in the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European than they are today. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose uniformity on his domains. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose that had granted in the Peace of Augsburg. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor and his policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic.
They ousted the Habsburgs and elected Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as their monarch, Frederick took the offer without the support of the union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this, led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor. The Empire soon crushed this rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony finally gave its support to the union, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers.
The Thirty Years War ended with the treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, the war altered the previous political order of European powers. Lutherans living in a prince-bishopric could continue to practice their faith, Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Those prince-bishops who had converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories and this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The Dutch revolted against Spanish domination during the 1560s, leading to a war of independence that led to a truce only in 1609. This dynastic concern overtook religious ones and led to Catholic Frances participation on the otherwise Protestant side of the war and Denmark-Norway were interested in gaining control over northern German states bordering the Baltic Sea
Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. Salzburgs Old Town is internationally renowned for its architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997, the city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic center and the scenic Alpine surroundings, Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the musical play, traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC, around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called Juvavum and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD, Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum.
After the Norican frontiers collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it became a ruin. The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the citys rebirth, when Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica, Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. He traveled to evangelise among pagans, the name Salzburg means Salt Castle. The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach River, the Festung Hohensalzburg, the citys fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence. It was greatly expanded during the following centuries, independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, as the reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants War, and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress It was besieged for three months in 1525.
It was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces,21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, the rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism, in 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon, he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg
Rudolf of Rheinfelden
Rudolf of Rheinfelden was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. After a series of armed conflicts, Rudolf succumbed to his injuries after his forces defeated Henrys in the Battle on the Elster, Rudolf was the son of the Swabian count Kuno of Rheinfelden. He was first mentioned in a 1048 deed issued by the Salian emperor Henry III as a count in the Swabian Sisgau on the High Rhine, an estate held by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel. Rudolfs family had large possessions up to Sankt Blasien Abbey in the Black Forest and he probably was related to King Rudolph II of Burgundy, the Dukes of Lorraine and the Ottonian dynasty. When Duke Otto III of Swabia died without heirs in 1057, Empress Agnes, consort of late Henry III, appointed him Swabian duke. Rudolf demanded, and received, Matildas hand in marriage, in 1061 Berthold received the Duchy of Carinthia instead. When Matilda died in 1060, Rudolf subsequently, in 1066, married Adelaide of Savoy, when Adelaides sister Bertha of Savoy married Henry IV in 1066, Rudolf became brother-in-law to the king twice over.
During Agnes regency, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire could further strengthen their position against the Imperial authority, in the 1062 Coup of Kaiserswerth, several princes led by Archbishop Anno II of Cologne even abducted the minor king to enforce the surrender of the Imperial Regalia. When Henry came of age in 1065, he continued the policies of his father against the reluctant Saxon nobility, after the joint victory, Rudolf became estranged to the king and rumours occurred that he was involved in adversarial conspiracies. Empress Agnes repeatedly had to arbitrate between the parties, Pope Gregory agreed to meet with the princes at Augsburg in February 1077. Already in January, Henry hastened to see the pope on his way to the Empire from Rome, by doing penance Henry managed to achieve absolution, buying time at the price of his reputation and secular authority. The rebels continued with their plans, Rudolf was elected anti-king on 15 March 1077 at the Kaiserpfalz in Forchheim, where already Louis the Child and Conrad I of Germany had been crowned.
The first anti-king in the history of the Empire, he promised to respect the investiture solely according to law as well as the concept of the elective monarchy. Further claims raised by the princes were rejected as simony by the attendant papal legates. Rudolf was supported by the Archbishops of Mainz and Magdeburg as well as by the Dukes of Carinthia and Bavaria, the Saxon rebel Otto of Nordheim and possibly by Duke Magnus of Saxony. He proceeded to Mainz, where on 25 May he was crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I, but soon after was forced to flee to Saxony and this presented a problem, since the Saxon duchy was cut off from his Swabian homelands by the kings Salian territory. Moreover, the pope avoided taking sides and adopted a waiting attitude, Rudolf was accused of greed and usurpation by Henrys liensmen, while his own support crumbled. Rudolf gave Swabia to his son Berthold and attempted to rectify his situation by stalking Henrys forces near Würzburg, meanwhile, he was deprived of Swabia by the Hoftag diet at Ulm in May, and the king gave the duchy to Frederick of Büren, the first Hohenstaufen ruler
The Festungsbahn is a funicular railway providing public access to the Hohensalzburg Castle at Salzburg in Austria. It links the castle with Festungsgasse, under the side of the castle walls. The Festungsbahn opened in 1892, and should not be confused with the much older Reisszug funicular that provides access to the castle. The line is operated by Salzburg AG, who operate the citys buses. The Festungsbahn opened in 1892 as a water balance funicular operated by the Salzburger Eisenbahn- und Tramwaygesellschaft, previously used as barracks, the line made the castle available to a broader range of visitors. The line was rebuilt with new cars and a drive in 1960. In 1991 the line was modernised, with the provision of new cars with an increased passenger capacity. Between January and April 2011, the funicular was again modernized, two new vehicles were provided and the electrical equipment replaced. Panoramic windows offer a view of the city. The line operates every day from 09,00, the time of the last car varies from 17,00 to 22,00 depending on the time of year.
The line has the technical parameters, Reisszug Salzburg S-Bahn Page on the Festungsbahn from the Salzburg AGs web site Article on the Festungsbahn from Funimag
Nonnberg Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Salzburg, Austria. It was founded ca.714 by Saint Rupert of Salzburg and is the oldest womens religious house in the German-speaking world and its first abbess was Saint Erentrudis of Salzburg, who was either a niece or a sister of Saint Rupert. The abbeys endowment was provided by Theodbert, Duke of Bavaria, and augmented by Emperor Henry II, the abbey was independent of the founding house from 987 and was re-built in about 1000. This building was destroyed in a fire of 1423. Reconstruction took place between 1464 and 1509, in 1624 the church was enlarged by the addition of three side chapels. A refurbishment in the Baroque style took place in the 1880s, the Mother Abbess during Marias time at Nonnberg was Sister Virgilia Lütz. The Abbey was recently selected as main motif for the Austrian Nonnberg Abbey commemorative coin minted on April 5,2006 and this was the first coin of the series Great Abbeys of Austria. It shows the Benedictine convent of Nonnberg Abbey, on the hilltop in the background, the castle of Hohensalzburg and the Kajetaner church can be seen.
Citations Bibliography Nonnberg Abbey at Sacred Destinations Stift Nonnberg at Visit-Salzburg Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg at UNESCO
War of the Second Coalition
The War of the Second Coalition was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire and Naples. Their goal was to contain the spread of chaos from France and they failed to overthrow the revolutionary regime and French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. The Allies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back Frances previous military conquests, the Coalition did very well in 1799, but Russia pulled out. Napoleon took charge in France in late 1799, and he, in the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, while Austria was granted Venetia and the Dalmatian coast. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, by May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France. On 20 April 1792, the French Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria, in this War of the First Coalition, France ranged itself against most of the European states sharing land or water borders with her, plus Portugal and the Ottoman Empire.
In the summer of 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt, where his army was trapped, during his absence from Europe, the outbreak of violence in Switzerland drew French support against the old Swiss Confederation. When revolutionaries overthrew the government in Bern, the French Army of the Alps invaded. In northern Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories, driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic were defeated by French commander André Masséna, ultimately the Russians left the Coalition when Great Britain insisted on the right to search all vessels it stopped at sea. In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, Jourdan was replaced by Massena, who combined the Armies of the Danube and Helvetia. From October 1797 until March 1799, the signatories of the Treaty of Campo Formio avoided armed conflict, despite their agreement at Campo Formio, two primary combatants and Austria, remained suspicious of each other and several diplomatic incidents undermined the agreement.
The French demanded additional territory not mentioned in the Treaty, the Habsburgs were reluctant to hand over designated territories, much less additional ones. The Congress at Rastatt proved inept at orchestrating the transfer of territories to compensate the German princes for their losses, Ferdinand of Naples refused to pay tribute to France, followed by the Neapolitan rebellion and the subsequent establishment of the Parthenopaean Republic. Republicans in the Swiss cantons, supported by the French army, overthrew the government in Bern. Other factors contributed to the rising tensions, on his way to Egypt, Napoleon had stopped at the heavily fortified port city of Valletta. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, who ruled the island, the French Knights of the order deserted, and the remaining Knights failed to mount a successful resistance. Bonaparte forcibly removed the other Knights from their possessions, angering Paul, Tsar of Russia, the French Directory, was convinced that the Austrians were conniving to start another war