Prehistoric music is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures, beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Prehistoric music is followed by ancient music in different parts of the world, however, it is more common to refer to the prehistoric music which still survives as folk, indigenous or traditional music. Prehistoric music is studied alongside other periods within music archaeology, findings from paleolithic archaeology sites suggest that prehistoric people used carving and piercing tools to create instruments. Archeologists have found Paleolithic flutes carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced, the Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear femur, is thought to be at least 40,000 years old. Instruments such as the flute and various types of stringed instruments. India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world—references to Indian classical music are found in the Vedas, the earliest and largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and 6600 BCE.
Research on the origins of music started in the second half of the 19th century. After the appearance of the collection of articles The Origins of Music the subject was a topic of human evolutionary history. There are currently many hypotheses about the origins of music, some suggest that the origin of music likely stems from naturally occurring sounds and rhythms. Human music may echo these phenomena using patterns and tonality, even today, some cultures have certain instances of their music intending to imitate natural sounds. In some instances, this feature is related to beliefs or practice. It may serve entertainment or practical functions, even aside from the bird song, monkeys have been witnessed to beat on hollow logs. Although this might serve some purpose of territorialism, it suggests a degree of creativity and seems to incorporate a call, explanations of the origin of music depend on how music is defined. If we assume that music is a form of emotional manipulation, music as we know it was not possible until the onset of intentionality - the ability to reflect about the past.
Between 60,000 and 30,000 years ago humans started creating art in the form of paintings on walls, jewelry. They started to bury their dead ceremonially, if we assume that these new forms of behavior reflect the emergence of intentionality, music as we know it must have emerged during that period. From a psychological viewpoint, the question of the origin of music is difficult to answer, Music evokes strong emotions and changed states of awareness. Generally, strong emotions are associated with evolution, but there is no clear link between music and sex, or between music and survival
Venus of Hohle Fels
The Venus of Hohle Fels is an Upper Paleolithic figurine of a woman hewn from the ivory of a mammoth tusk that was located near Schelklingen, Germany. This female figure is the oldest undisputed example of a depiction of a human being yet discovered, in terms of figurative art only the lion-headed, zoomorphic Löwenmensch figurine is older. The Venus figurine is housed at the Museum in Blaubeuren, the Swabian Alb region of Germany has a number of caves that have yielded many mammoth-ivory artifacts of the Upper Paleolithic period. Approximately twenty-five items have been discovered to date and these include the Löwenmensch figurine of Hohlenstein-Stadel dated to 40,000 years ago and an ivory flute found at Geißenklösterle, dated to 42,000 years ago. Within a distance of 70 cm to the Venus figurine, Conards team found a flute made from a vulture bone, the discovery of the Venus of Hohle Fels by the archaeological team led by Nicholas J. The figurine was found in the hall, approximately 20 m from the entrance and 3 m below the current ground level.
Nearby a bone flute dating to approximately 42,000 years ago was found, in 2015 the team presented two further pieces of carved mammoth ivory discovered at the site which have been identified as parts of a second female figurine. The figurine was sculpted from a mammoth tusk and it has broken into fragments, of which six have been recovered, with the left arm. In place of the head, the figurine has a perforated protrusion, the discoverer, anthropologist Nicholas Conard, has said, This is about sex, reproduction. An extremely powerful depiction of the essence of being female, list of Stone Age art Löwenmensch figurine Prehistoric art Venus of Berekhat Ram Venus of Tan-Tan Venus of Willendorf Venus of Dolní Věstonice Cook, Ice Age Art, the Arrival of the Modern Mind. At Science Obsession with Naked Women Dates Back 35,000 Years at LiveScience Nature Magazine
The Löwenmensch figurine or Lion-man of the Hohlenstein-Stadel is a prehistoric ivory sculpture that was discovered in the Hohlenstein-Stadel, a German cave in 1939. The name currently used in German, Löwenmensch, means lion-human, the lion-headed figurine is the oldest-known zoomorphic sculpture in the world, and the oldest-known uncontested example of figurative art. It has been determined to be between 35,000 and 40,000 years old by carbon dating of material from the layer in which it was found and it was carved out of woolly mammoth ivory using a flint stone knife. Seven parallel, carved gouges are on the left arm, after several reconstructions which have incorporated newly found fragments, the figurine stands 31.1 cm tall,5.6 cm wide, and 5.9 cm thick. It is currently displayed in the Ulm Museum, systematic excavations at Hohlenstein-Stadel cave began in 1937 under the direction of prehistoric historian Robert Wetzel. The discovery of a fragmented mammoth-ivory figurine was made on 25 August 1939 by geologist Otto Völzing, the start of World War II just one week meant that the fieldwork was left incomplete and analysis of the finds was not undertaken.
The excavation trenches were backfilled with the soil in which the ivory had been found. For around thirty years the fragments lay forgotten at the nearby Museum of Ulm and it was not until archaeologist Joachim Hahn started an inventory and assembly of over 200 fragments that a figure with animal and human features began to emerge. Wetzel continued to spend summers digging at the site until 1961, in 1987 a comprehensive restoration began in the workshops of the Landesmuseum Württemberg by Ute Wolf in cooperation with Schmid. During the work, which took six months, it was realized that the figure was only about two-thirds complete. The back is severely damaged and the legs are missing some ivory lamellae, the ears, eye-holes, two-thirds of the mouth and nose, and the back of the head are preserved. To fill gaps in the head and body a reversible substance consisting of a mixture of beeswax, artificial wax, from 2008 further excavations were carried out in the cave. All layers were systematically sifted which led to many minute fragments being discovered, the first new adjustments were simulated virtually so that fragments could be added without having to disassemble the original recreation.
In 2012 a second restoration was begun in the workshops of the State Office for the Preservation of Historical Monuments in Esslingen under the leadership of Nicole Ebinger-Rist, the lion-man grew in height from 296 to 311 millimetres. Work was completed in late 2013, the figurine was classified as male by Hahn who suggested a plate on the abdomen could be a flaccid penis. Schmid classified this feature as a triangle and from examination of new parts of the sculpture. Kurt Wehrberger of the Ulm Museum complained that the statue had become an icon of the feminist movement, after the 2012/13 restoration it was realized that the triangular platelet in the genital area was processed all around separating it from the figure. A fracture point shows that it was square in shape
The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity, modern humans are believed to have emerged about 195,000 years ago in Africa. Although these humans were modern in anatomy, their lifestyle changed very little from their contemporaries, such as Homo erectus, about 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archeological record, between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, this new tool technology spread with human migration to Europe. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory.
The first evidence of fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and this probably contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity. By 50, 000–40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia, by 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61° north latitude in Europe. By 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia above the Arctic Circle, at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed the Bering land bridge and quickly expanded throughout North and South America. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools, archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize. It was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, and were not much concerned about their final forms and he argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated.
These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other, the invaders, commonly referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines. The Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and possibly Chatelperronian technology and these tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 years ago. Settlements were often located in valley bottoms, possibly associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Hunting was important, and caribou/wild reindeer may well be the species of single greatest importance in the anthropological literature on hunting. Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes and racloirs were used to work bone and hides.
Advanced darts and harpoons appear in period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp, rope
The Swabian Jura, sometimes named Swabian Alps in English, is a mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, extending 220 km from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia, the Swabian Jura occupies the region bounded by the Danube in the southeast and the upper Neckar in the northwest. In the southwest it rises to the mountains of the Black Forest. The highest mountain of the region is the Lemberg, the areas profile resembles a high plateau, which slowly falls away to the southeast. The northwestern edge is an escarpment, while the top is flat or gently rolling. In economic and cultural terms, the Swabian Jura includes regions just around the mountain range and it is a popular recreation area. The geology of the Swabian Jura is mostly limestone, which formed the seabed during the Jurassic period, the sea receded 50 million years ago. Three layers of different limestones are stacked over each other to form the range, Black Jurassic, Brown Jurassic, White Jurassic may be as pure as 99% calcium carbonate.
Since limestone is soluble in water, rain seeps through cracks everywhere, thus there are hardly any rivers, lakes or other forms of surface water on the plateau. In some places, former volcanic activity has left traces, such as maars, in the west, the Zollerngraben sometimes causes mild earthquakes. The Nördlinger Ries is a meteorite crater. Tertiary relicts can be found at the part of Swabian Jura. Famous locations are known in the Ulm area, constant rain and other weather influences are slowly dissolving the entire range. Each year, it recedes approximately 2 mm, some millions of years ago, the mountains reached as far as Stuttgart. In some places, the limestone was more resistant to decay, the omnipresent caves are great tourist spots and not very crowded. Many different types can be found, from dry dripstone caves to caves that can only be entered by boat, sometimes the discharge of the water from subterranean rivers can be spectacular, too, e. g. the Blautopf, a source for a tributary of the Danube.
Also because of the limestone, the Danube nearly disappears near Immendingen. Most of the water lost by the Danube resurfaces in the Aachtopf, the soil is not very fertile, the humus is often as thin as 10 cm
A number of flutes dating to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered. The undisputed claims are all products of the Aurignacian archaeological culture, beginning about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago and these flutes represent the earliest known musical instruments and provide valuable evidence of prehistoric music. The presence of these flutes demonstrates that a musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The artifact known as the Divje Babe flute, discovered in Slovenia in 1995, has claimed as the oldest flute. The artifact is a cave bear femur,43100 ±700 years old and its discoverer suggested the holes were man made and that there may have been four originally before the item was damaged. However, other scientists have argued that the holes are the result of the bone fragment having been chewed by a rather than by human design. Until 2012 the oldest undisputed musical instrument was the Hohle Fels Flute discovered in the Hohle Fels cave in Germanys Swabian Alb in 2008, the flute is made from a vultures wing bone perforated with five finger holes, and dates to approximately 35,000 years ago.
Several years before, two made of mute swan bone and one made of woolly mammoth ivory were found in the nearby Geisenklösterle cave. The team that made the Hohle Fels discovery wrote that these finds are the earliest evidence of humans being engaged in musical culture. They suggested music may have helped to maintain bonds between groups of humans, and that this may have helped the species to expand both in numbers and in geographical range. Art of the Upper Paleolithic 35.000 Jahre alte Flöten gefunden, swr. de, Retrieved on June 29,2009 Music played on Divje Babe flute by Ljuben Dimkaroski on YouTube
Nature is an English multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. Nature claims a readership of about 3 million unique readers per month. The journal has a circulation of around 53,000. There are sections on books and arts, the remainder of the journal consists mostly of research papers, which are often dense and highly technical. There are many fields of research in which important new advances, the papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. In 2007 Nature received the Princess of Asturias Award for Communications, the enormous progress in science and mathematics during the 19th century was recorded in journals written mostly in German or French, as well as in English. Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances particularly in the half of the 19th century. In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the 1850s to the 1860s.
According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as organs of science, in essence, first created in 1869, was not the first magazine of its kind in Britain. While Recreative Science had attempted to more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology. Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, established in 1864 and 1868 and these similar journals all ultimately failed. The Popular Science Review survived longest, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in 1881, Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student, the Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in 1885. The Reader terminated in 1867, and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, janet Browne has proposed that far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived and raised to serve polemic purpose.
Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors and this is what Lockyers journal did from the start. Norman Lockyer, the founder of Nature, was a professor at Imperial College and he was succeeded as editor in 1919 by Sir Richard Gregory. Gregory helped to establish Nature in the scientific community. During the years 1945 to 1973, editorship of Nature changed three times, first in 1945 to A. J. V. Gale and L. J. F. Brimble, to John Maddox in 1965, and finally to David Davies in 1973. In 1980, Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until 1995, philip Campbell has since become Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch into the Holocene at about 4,500 years ago in Africa, Europe and they were members of the family Elephantidae, which contains the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors. Mammoths stem from a species called M. africanavus, the African mammoth. These mammoths lived in northern Africa and disappeared about 3 or 4 million years ago, descendants of these mammoths moved north and eventually covered most of Eurasia. These were M. meridionalis, the southern mammoths, the earliest known proboscideans, the clade that contains the elephants, existed about 55 million years ago around the Tethys Sea area. The closest relatives of the Proboscidea are the sirenians and the hyraxes, the family Elephantidae is known to have existed six million years ago in Africa, and includes the living elephants and the mammoths.
Among many now extinct clades, the mastodon is only a distant relative of the mammoths, and part of the separate Mammutidae family, which diverged 25 million years before the mammoths evolved. At the same time, the crowns of the teeth became longer, the first known members of the genus Mammuthus are the African species M. subplanifrons from the Pliocene and M. africanavus from the Pleistocene. The former is thought to be the ancestor of forms, Mammoths entered Europe around 3 million years ago, the earliest known type has been named M. rumanus, which spread across Europe and China. Only its molars are known, which show it had 8–10 enamel ridges, a population evolved 12–14 ridges and split off from and replaced the earlier type, becoming M. meridionalis. In turn, this species was replaced by the mammoth, M. trogontherii, with 18–20 ridges. Mammoths derived from M. trogontherii evolved molars with 26 ridges 200,000 years ago in Siberia, the Columbian mammoth, M. columbi, evolved from a population of M.
trogontherii that had entered North America. A2011 genetic study showed that two examined specimens of the Columbian mammoth were grouped within a subclade of woolly mammoths and this suggests that the two populations interbred and produced fertile offspring. It suggested that a North American form known as M. jeffersonii may be a hybrid between the two species, variations in environment, climate change, and migration surely played roles in the evolutionary process of the mammoths. Take M. primigenius for example, Woolly mammoths lived in opened grassland biomes, the cool steppe-tundra of the Northern Hemisphere was the ideal place for mammoths to thrive because of the resources it supplied. With occasional warmings during the ice age, climate would change the landscape, the word mammoth was first used in Europe during the early 1600s, when referring to maimanto tusks discovered in Siberia. John Bell, who was on the Ob River in 1722 and they were called mammons horn and were often found in washed-out river banks.
Some local people claimed to have seen a living mammoth, but they came out at night