Museum Island is the name of the northern half of an island in the Spree river in the central Mitte district of Berlin, the site of the old city of Cölln. The Neues Museum finished in 1859 according to plans by Friedrich August Stüler, destroyed in World War II, it was rebuilt under the direction of David Chipperfield for the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and re-opened in 2009. It exhibits the sculpture collections and late Antique and Byzantine art, the Pergamon Museum, the final museum of the complex, constructed in 1930. It contains multiple reconstructed immense and historically significant buildings such as the Pergamon Altar, in 1999, the museum complex was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. A first exhibition hall was erected in 1797 at the suggestion of the archaeologist Aloys Hirt, in 1822, Schinkel designed the plans for the Altes Museum to house the royal Antikensammlung, the arrangement of the collection was overseen by Wilhelm von Humboldt. The island, originally an area, was dedicated to art.
Further extended under succeeding Prussian kings, the collections of art. They are today maintained by the Berlin State Museums branch of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, Museum Island further comprises the Lustgarten park and the Berlin Cathedral. Between the Bode and Pergamon Museums it is crossed by the Stadtbahn railway viaduct, the adjacent territory to the south is the site of the former Stadtschloss and the Palace of the Republic. These include the Priams Treasure, called the gold of Troy, excavated by Heinrich Schliemann in 1873, smuggled out of Turkey to Berlin and today kept at the Pushkin Museum in Moscow. Then, six months later, Peter-Klaus Schuster took over and set in motion a far more ambitious program intended to turn Museum Island into a Louvre on the Spree. The federal government pledged $20 million a year through 2010 for projects to enhance Berlins prestige and Unesco declaring the island a World Heritage Site. The contents of the museums were decided on as follows, The Pergamon, with the Greek altar that gives it its name, the Neues Museum presented archaeological objects as well as Egyptian and Etruscan sculptures, including the renowned bust of Queen Nefertiti.
The Altes Museum, the oldest on the island, displayed Greek and Roman art objects on its first floor, the Bode Museums paintings went from Late Byzantine to 1800. And, as now, the Alte Nationalgalerie will cover the 19th century, the James Simon Gallery, a $94 million visitors’ center designed by the British architect David Chipperfield, is being built beside the Neues Museum. It will in turn be linked to the Neues, Pergamon, once the Museum Island Master Plan is completed, the so-called Archaeological Promenade will connect four of the five museums in the Museum Island. The Promenade will begin at the Old Museum in the south, lead through the New Museum, before World War II, these museums were connected by bridge passages above ground, they were destroyed due to the effects of the war. There have never been plans to them, the central courts of individual museums will be lowered
The Middle Paleolithic is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archeology, the Middle Paleolithic broadly spanned from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago. There are considerable dating differences between regions, the Middle Paleolithic was succeeded by the Upper Paleolithic subdivision which first began between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago. Activities such as catching fish and hunting large game animals with specialized tools connote increased group-wide cooperation. Both Neandertal and modern human societies took care of the members of their societies during the Middle Paleolithic. Typically, it has assumed that women gathered plants and firewood. Anthropologists such as Tim D. Cannibalism in the Middle Paleolithic may have occurred because of food shortages, around 200,000 BP Middle Paleolithic Stone tool manufacturing spawned a tool-making technique known as the prepared-core technique, that was more elaborate than previous Acheulean techniques.
Wallace and Shea split the core artifacts into two different types, formal cores and expedient cores, formal cores are designed to extract the maximum amount from the raw material while expedient cores are more based on function need. This method increased efficiency by permitting the creation of more controlled and this method allowed Middle Paleolithic humans correspondingly to create stone-tipped spears, which were the earliest composite tools, by hafting sharp, pointy stone flakes onto wooden shafts. The use of fire became widespread for the first time in human prehistory during the Middle Paleolithic, some scientists have hypothesized that hominids began cooking food to defrost frozen meat which would help ensure their survival in cold regions
The Aurignacian culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is the earliest modern human culture in Europe, and is associated with the immigration of anatomically modern humans from the Near East and it first appeared in Eastern Europe around 43,000 BP, and in Western Europe between 40,000 and 36,000 years BP. It was replaced by the Gravettian culture around 28,000 to 26,000 years ago, the name originates from the type site of Aurignac, Haute-Garonne, which is a town in the south-west of France near Toulouse or Andorra. The oldest undisputed example of figurative art, the Venus of Hohle Fels. It was discovered in September 2008 in a cave at Schelklingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, the Bacho Kiro site is one of the earliest known Aurignacian burials. The Aurignacian tool industry is characterized by worked bone or antler points with grooves cut in the bottom. Their flint tools include blades and bladelets struck from prepared cores rather than using crude flakes.
)The people of this culture produced some of the earliest known cave art, such as the animal engravings at Trois Freres. They made pendants and ivory beads, as well as three-dimensional figurines, perforated rods, thought to be spear throwers or shaft wrenches, are found at their sites. The sophistication and self-awareness demonstrated in the work led archaeologists to consider the makers of Aurignacian artifacts the first modern humans in Europe, human remains and Late Aurignacian artifacts found in juxtaposition support this inference. Although finds of human remains in direct association with Proto-Aurignacian technologies are scarce in Europe. At least three robust, but typically anatomically-modern individuals from the Peștera cu Oase cave in Romania, were dated directly from the bones to ca, although not associated directly with archaeological material, these finds are within the chronological and geographical range of the Early Aurignacian in southeastern Europe. On genetic evidence it has argued that both Aurignacian and the Dabba culture of North Africa came from an earlier big game hunting Aurignacian culture of the Levant.
Many 35, 000-year-old animal figurines were discovered in the Vogelherd Cave in Germany, one of the horses, amongst six tiny mammoth and horse ivory figures found previously at Vogelherd, was sculpted as skillfully as any piece found throughout the Upper Paleolithic. The production of ivory beads for body ornamentation was important during the Aurignacian, there is a notable absence of painted caves, which begin to appear within the Solutrean. Typical statuettes consist of women that are called Venus figurines and they emphasize the hips and other body parts associated with fertility. Feet and arms are lacking or minimized, one of the most ancient figurines was discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave in Germany. The figurine has been dated to 35,000 years ago, the oldest undisputed musical instrument was the Hohle Fels Flute discovered in the Hohle Fels cave in Germanys Swabian Alb in 2008. The flute is made from a wing bone perforated with five finger holes
Northern Germany is the region in the north of Germany. Its exact area is not precisely or consistently defined but varies depending on one is taking a linguistic, geographic. Northern Germany generally refers to the Sprachraum area north of the Uerdingen and Benrath line isoglosses, since World War II and the immigration of expellees from the former eastern territories of Germany, its prevalence has steadily reduced. Besides which, Frisian is spoken in East and North Frisia, from a linguistic and cultural perspective, Northern Germany is linked to the Netherlands and England. Additionally, Jansen/Janssen and Petersen are the most common surnames in the far north of Germany, which are some of the most common surnames in Denmark. The key terrain feature of Northern Germany is the North German Plain including the marshes along the coastline of the North and Baltic Seas, as well as the geest and heaths inland. Also prominent are the low hills of the Baltic Uplands, the moraines, end moraines, glacial valleys, bogs.
Likewise the Altmark in Saxony-Anhalt, the Prignitz and Uckermark areas of northern Brandenburg and socially, Northern Germany is characterized by higher levels of income equality and gender equality, relative to southern and south-western Germany. The traditional Northern German daily diet is centered around boiled potatoes, rye bread, dairy products, cucumbers, jams and pork and beef. A breakfast specialty is the Crispbread or Knäcke, eaten with a variety of such as ham, fruits. Lentil stews and soups are popular as a working lunch. Regional specialties in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Lower Saxony include Blutwurst or Blood sausage, another Northern German regional specialty are Hackbraten, made from a mixture of ground pork and beef and served with mashed potatoes, brown sauce and lingonberry jam. Many traditional meat-based lunch dishes are served boiled or mashed potatoes. Eating brunch is popular during weekends in the larger towns. In regions nearer to the coast, fish is popular, with Pickled herring.
Coffee drinking is strongly rooted in Northern Germany and the Northern provinces on average consume around 8 kilograms of coffee per capita annually and this is fairly more than the 6 kilograms of coffee per capita consumed in the south. Coffee is frequently drunk four times a day, with breakfast, after lunch, in the evening at around 4, and after dinner. Many working people drink a coffee at the workstation with the start of the days work, there is a strong tradition of taking coffee breaks and visits to the café with friends and acquaintances
Hedeby was an important Viking Age trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein, the settlement developed as a trading centre at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet known as the Schlei, which connects to the Baltic Sea. Hedeby was the second largest Nordic town during the Viking Age, after Uppåkra in present-day southern Sweden, Hedeby was abandoned after its destruction in 1066. Hedeby was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in 1900, the Haithabu Museum was opened next to the site in 1985. The Old Norse name Heiða-býr simply translates to heath-settlement, the name is recorded in numerous spelling variants. Heiðabýr is the name in standard Old Norse, anglicized as Heithabyr The Stone of Eric. Old English aet Haethe, mentioned by Alfred the Great Hedeby, the old name of the nearby town of Schleswig is Sliesthorp.
It is possible that the two names were used interchangeably for the settlement, depending on which language was being used. Hedeby is first mentioned in the Frankish chronicles of Einhard who was in the service of Charlemagne, in 808 the Danish king Godfred destroyed a competing Slav trade centre named Reric, and it is recorded in the Frankish chronicles that he moved the merchants from there to Hedeby. This may have provided the impetus for the town to develop. The same sources record that Godfred strengthened the Danevirke, a wall that stretched across the south of the Jutland peninsula. The Danevirke joined the defensive walls of Hedeby to form an east-west barrier across the peninsula, the town itself was surrounded on its three landward sides by earthworks. At the end of the 9th century the northern and southern parts of the town were abandoned for the central section, a 9-metre high semi-circular wall was erected to guard the western approaches to the town. On the eastern side, the town was bordered by the innermost part of the Schlei inlet, Hedeby became a principal marketplace because of its geographical location on the major trade routes between the Frankish Empire and Scandinavia, and between the Baltic and the North Sea.
Between 800 and 1000 the growing power of the Vikings led to its dramatic expansion as a major trading centre. The following indicate the importance achieved by the town, The town was described by visitors from England, Hedeby became the seat of a bishop and belonged to the Archbishopric of Hamburg and Bremen. The town minted its own coins, Adam of Bremen reports that ships were sent from this portus maritimus to Slavic lands, to Sweden and even Greece. A Swedish dynasty founded by Olof the Brash is said to have ruled Hedeby during the last decades of the 9th century and this was told to Adam of Bremen by the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, and it is supported by three runestones found in Denmark
The Chilehaus is a ten-story office building in Hamburg, Germany. It is located in the Kontorhausviertel and it is an exceptional example of the 1920s Brick Expressionism style of architecture. This large angular building is located on a site of approximately 6, 000m² and it was designed by the German architect Fritz Höger and finished in 1924. The Chilehaus building is famed for its top, which is reminiscent of a ships prow, and the facades, the best view of the building is from the east. Because of the vertical elements and the recessed upper stories, as well as the curved facade on the Pumpen street, the building has, despite its enormous size. The building has a concrete structure and has been built with the use of 4.8 million dark Oldenburg bricks. The building is constructed on very difficult terrain, so to gain stability it was necessary to build on 16-meter-deep reinforced-concrete pilings, the sculptural elements in the staircases and on the facade were provided by the sculptor Richard Kuöhl.
The building hosts one of the few remaining working paternosters in the world, the Chilehaus building was designed by the architect Fritz Höger and built between 1922 and 1924. It was commissioned by the shipping magnate Henry B, who made his fortune trading saltpeter from Chile, hence the name Chile House. Media related to Chilehaus at Wikimedia Commons Chilehaus webcam from Chilehaus towards Hamburg-Speicherstadt, Elbe Philharmonic Hall and Hamburg Harbour
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the centre of the district of Goslar and located on the northwestern slopes of the Harz mountain range. The Old Town of Goslar and the Mines of Rammelsberg are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Goslar is situated in the middle of the upper half of Germany, about 40 kilometres south of Braunschweig and about 70 km southeast of the state capital Hannover. The Schalke mountain is the highest elevation within the boundaries at 762 metres. The lowest point of 175 m is near the Oker river, in the northeast the Harly Forest stretches down to the Oker river, in the east Goslar borders on the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. Immediately to the south, the Harz range rise above the borough at a height of 636 m at Mt. Rammelsberg. The major rivers crossing the boundaries is the Oker with its Gose/Abzucht. The eponymic Gose River originates approximately 9 kilometres south-west of Goslar at the Auerhahn Pass east of the Bocksberg mountain, at the northern foot of the Herzberg it meets the smaller Abzucht stream, before it flows into the Oker.
The Dörpke and Gelmke streams flow from the Harz foothills to the south into the Goslar municipal area, Schladen-Werla, Bad Harzburg, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, and Langelsheim. The township currently comprises 18 districts, Salian Emperor Henry I founded the town in the 10th century after the discovery of deposits in the nearby Rammelsberg. The wealth derived from silver mining brought Goslar the status of an Imperial City, the medieval Imperial Palace was built in the 11th century and became a summer residence for the emperors, especially Henry III of Germany who visited his favourite palace about twenty times. Henrys heart is buried in Goslar, his body in the vault in Speyer Cathedral. In the winter of 1798, the coldest of the century, to dispel homesickness he started to write a few verses about his childhood, which would eventually evolve into the masterpiece that was published in thirteen volumes after his death as The Prelude. Goslars medieval cathedral was built at the time as the medieval Imperial Palace, but only the porch survived.
Other sights are the town hall and the ancient mines of the Rammelsberg, during the Cold War, Goslar was a major garrison town for the West German army and the Border police. After the fall of the Berlin wall, the barracks were vacated and it is host to several productions of visiting theatre companies and music groups. The alternative theatre Culture Power Station Harz or Kulturkraftwerk Harz is housed in a disused powerstation, being run by volunteers, it produces contemporary theatre and hosts mostly alternative cultural events. The oldest and most traditional sports club is the MTV Goslar and its main facilities, a football pitch and gymnasium are located at the Golden Meadow site
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
The Speicherstadt in Hamburg, Germany is the largest warehouse district in the world where the buildings stand on timber-pile foundations, oak logs, in this particular case. It is located in the port of Hamburg—within the HafenCity quarter—and was built from 1883 to 1927, the district was built as a free zone to transfer goods without paying customs. As of 2009 the district and the area is under redevelopment. As the first site in Hamburg, it has awarded the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site on 5 July 2015. The Speicherstadt is located in the port of Hamburg and it is 1.5 km long and interlaced by loading canals. With the establishment of the German Empire in 1871, Hamburg could not be a free zone. Due to treaties of 1888 Hamburg was part of the German customs zone, in 1883, the demolition of the Kehrwieder and Wandrahm area began and more than 20,000 people needed to be relocated. From 1885 to 1888 the first part was built and managed by the Freihafen-Lagerhaus-Gesellschaft, in 1991 it was listed as a protected Hamburg heritage site, and since 2008, it has been part of the HafenCity quarter.
In an attempt to revitalize the city area, the Hamburg government initiated the development of the HafenCity area. In World War II, Allied bombing destroyed around 50% of the Speicherstadt, some of the structures completely destroyed were not rebuilt. They are now the location of the Hanseatic Trade Center, the warehouses were built with different support structures, but Andreas Meyer created a Neo-Gothic red-brick outer layer with little towers and glazed terra cotta ornaments. The warehouses are multi-storey buildings with entrances from water and land, one of the oldest warehouses is the Kaispeicher B of the International Maritime Museum. The Speicherstadt is a tourist attraction in Hamburg, there are several museums like the Deutsches Zollmuseum, Miniatur Wunderland and the Hamburg Dungeon. The Afghan Museum was located here, but closed in 2011, the buildings are used as warehouses. As of 2005, the companies in the Speicherstadt handled one-third of the carpet production, and other goods including cocoa, tea, maritime equipment.
Mortzenhaus Batz, M. Urbane Light Germany Speicherstadt, die rote Stadt, ein historischer Kriminalroman. Speicherstadt und HafenCity, zwischen Tradition und Vision, media related to Speicherstadt at Wikimedia Commons
The cave bear was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum. Both the word cave and the scientific name spelaeus are used because fossils of species were mostly found in caves. This reflects the views of experts that cave bears may have spent more time in caves than the brown bear, Cave bear skeletons were first described in 1774 by Johann Friederich Esper in his book Newly Discovered Zoolites of Unknown Four Footed Animals. While scientists at the time considered that the skeletons could belong to apes, felids, or even dragons or unicorns, twenty years later, Johann Christian Rosenmüller, an anatomist at the Leipzig University, gave the species its binomial name. The bones were so numerous that most researchers had little regard for them, during World War I, with the scarcity of phosphate dung, earth from the caves where cave bear bones occurred were used as a source of phosphates. When the dragon caves in Austrias Steiermark region were exploited for this purpose, only the skulls, many caves in Central Europe have skeletons of cave bears inside, for example the Heinrichshöhle in Hemer, the Dechenhöhle in Iserlohn, Germany.
A complete skeleton, five complete skulls, and 18 other boness were found inside Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia in 1966 in Poland, in Romania, in a cave called Bears Cave,140 cave bear skeletons were discovered in 1983. Both the cave bear and the bear are thought to be descended from the Plio-Pleistocene Etruscan bear that lived about 5.3 Mya to 10,000 years ago. The last common ancestor of cave bears and brown bears lived between 1.2 and 1.4 Mya. The immediate precursor of the bear was probably Ursus deningeri. Ursus spelaeus deningeroides, while other authorities consider both taxa to be variants of the same species. Cave bears found in different regions vary in age, thus facilitating investigations into evolutionary trends, the three anterior premolars were gradually reduced, possibly in response to a largely vegetarian diet. In a fourth of the found in the Conturines, the third premolar is still present. The last remaining premolar became conjugated with the molars, enlarging the crown and granting it more cusps.
This phenomenon, known as molarization, improved the mastication capacities of the molars and this allowed the cave bear to gain more energy for hibernation, while eating less than its ancestors. The cave bear had a broad, domed skull with a steep forehead. Its stout body had long thighs, massive shins and in-turning feet, Cave bears were comparable in size to the largest modern-day bears. The average weight for males was 400 to 500 kilograms, with a specimen weighing 817 kg or more