Hokkien or Minnan language or Quanzhang in linguistics, is a Southern Min language originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, spoken there. It is spoken in Taiwan and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, by other overseas Chinese all over the world, it is the mainstream form of Southern Min. Hokkien served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Indonesia and some parts of Indochina; the Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin. Chinese speakers of the Quanzhang variety of Southern Min refer to the mainstream Southern Min language as Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-ōe in Mainland China and Taiwan.
Tâi-gí in Taiwan. Lán-lâng-ōe in the Philippines. In parts of Southeast Asia and in the English-speaking communities, the term Hokkien is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian, the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches present in Fujian such as the Fuzhou dialect, Putian dialect, Northern Min, Gan Chinese or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou; the word Hokkien first originated from Walter Henry Medhurst when he published the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832. This is considered to be the earliest English-based Hokkien Dictionary and the first major reference work in POJ, although the romanization within was quite different from the modern system.
In this dictionary, the word "Hok-këèn" was used. In 1869, POJ was further revised by John Macgowan in his published book A Manual Of The Amoy Colloquial. In this book, "këèn" was changed to "kien" and from on, the word "Hokkien" began to be used more often. Hokkien originated in the southern area of Fujian province, an important center for trade and migration, has since become one of the most common Chinese varieties overseas; the major pole of Hokkien varieties outside of Fujian is nearby Taiwan, where immigrants from Fujian arrived as workers during the 40 years of Dutch rule, fleeing the Qing Dynasty during the 20 years years of Ming loyalist rule, as immigrants during the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule in the last 120 years after immigration restrictions were relaxed, as immigrants during the period of Japanese rule. The Taiwanese dialect has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since the Amoy dialect known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China.
Both Amoy and Xiamen come from the Chinese name of the city. There are many Minnan speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia as well as in the United States. Many ethnic Han Chinese emigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian, brought the language to what is now Burma and present day Malaysia and Singapore. Many of the Minnan dialects of this region are similar to Xiamen dialect and Taiwanese Hokkien with the exception of foreign loanwords. Hokkien is the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among, known locally as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē. Hokkien speakers form the largest group of overseas Chinese in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines. Southern Fujian is home to three principal Minnan Proper dialects: Chinchew, Chiangchew, originating from the cities of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. Traditionally speaking, Quanzhou dialect spoken in Quanzhou is the Traditional Standard Minnan, it is the dialect, used in and Liyuan Opera and Nanying music. Being the Traditional Standard Minnan, Quanzhou dialect is considered to have the purest accent and the most conservative Minnan dialect.
In the late 18th to the early 19th century, Xiamen became the principal city of southern Fujian. Xiamen dialect is adopted as the Modern Standard Minnan, it is a hybrid of the Zhangzhou dialects. It has played an influential role in history in the relations of Western nations with China, was one of the most learnt dialect of Quanzhang variety by Westerners during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century; the Modern Standard form of Quanzhang accent spoken around the city of Tainan in Taiwan is a hybrid of the Quanzhou
The Langwieser Viaduct is a single track reinforced concrete railway bridge spanning the Plessur River and the Sapünerbach, near Langwies, in the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. Designed by Hermann Schürch, it was built between 1912 and 1914 by Eduard Züblin for the Chur–Arosa railway, is now owned and used by the Rhaetian Railway, it is now listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance as it is a pioneering reinforced concrete structure. The viaduct is located on the Rhaetian Railway's metre gauge line from Chur to the holiday and recreation resort of Arosa, it carries the railway line over the Plessur River valley up the line from Langwies station. The line from Chur to Arosa was the last of the railway lines in the Rhaetian Railway's so-called core network to be built; the Arosa line pioneered the use of new construction methods and techniques. Erected between 1912 and 1914, the Langwieser Viaduct was the world's first railway bridge to be constructed of reinforced concrete, at that time represented a significant breakthrough.
A "little brother" of the Langwieser Viaduct, the 139 metres long Gründjitobel Viaduct, was built about 1.8 kilometres downstream. The Langwieser Viaduct is 284 metres long; the main span consists with a rise of 42 metres. The viaduct has a total of 13 openings; the rail carriers have a plate beam cross section rigidly connected with the carriers. The only divisions are between the two foreshore areas; these separations are constructed as double piers. At the time of its erection, the Langwieser Viaduct was the longest railway bridge in the world. A total of 800 cubic metres of wood was used for the falsework, the construction of, another impressive achievement of the carpenter Richard Coray of Trin; the plans for the viaduct were created by Hermann Schürch, the chief engineer was Züblin, the building contractor was Eduard Züblin. Arch bridge Viaduct Langwies Gründjitobel Viaduct Chur–Arosa railway Rhaetian Railway See the list of references in Langwieser Viadukt Media related to Langwieser Viadukt at Wikimedia Commons "Langwieser Viadukt".
Brueckenweb.de. Langwies Viaduct at Structurae
Bernhard Engelbert Joseph Danckelmann was a German forester and forest scientist. He studied forestry at the Eberswalde Forest Academy in 1850–52, studied law at the University of Berlin. From 1862 he worked as an Oberförster in Hambach, two years became a forest inspector in Potsdam. In 1866 he was appointed director of the Forest Academy in Eberswalde. From 1869 he was editor of the Zeitschrift für Forst und Jagdwesen. Die Forstakademie Eberwalde von 1830 bis 1880, in: Festschrift für die Fünfzigjährige Jubelfeier der Forstakademie Eberswalde, 1880, pp. -62 – The forest academy in Eberswalde from 1830 to 1880, in: Festschrift for fifty years of jubilant celebration of the forestry academy in Eberswalde. Die Ablösung und Regelung der Waldgrundgerechtigkeiten, 1880. Die deutschen Nutzholzzölle. Forstbotanischer Garten Eberswalde Albrecht Milnik: Bernhard Danckelmann. Leben und Leistungen eines Forstmannes. Nimrod, Suderburg 1999, 352 S. ISBN 3-927848-28-X Albrecht Milnik: Bernhard Danckelmann, in ders.
Et al.: Im Dienst am Wald – Lebenswege und Leistungen brandenburgischer Forstleute. Brandenburgische Lebensbilder. Verlag Kessel, Remagen-Oberwinter 2006, ISBN 3-935638-79-5, S. 231–233. Works by or about Bernhard Danckelmann at Internet Archive Literature by and about Bernhard Danckelmann in the German National Library catalogue Eintrag in Meyers Konversationslexikon 1905ff. Materialien zur Entstehungsgeschichte des BGB Biographie Staatsbibliothek Berlin
Don't Fade Away is a 2011 coming-of-age drama film starring Mischa Barton and Ryan Kwanten. The film has been produced by Origin Entertainment Group and was shot in Los Angeles and North Carolina, it was released on DVD in Australia on April 6, 2011. Life was easy for Jackson White. With looks and athletic ability, the world's possibilities seemed limitless. But, when he came to Los Angeles to pursue a career in the music industry, he was so seduced by money and status that he lost track of who he was. Now, with both his personal and professional lives on the edge of ruin, he's been called home to care for his dying father. While in North Carolina and Los Angeles, he'll have to confront the friends he lost track of and the girl he never met. Mischa Barton as Kat Ryan Kwanten as Jackson White Beau Bridges as Chris White Ja Rule as Foster Jenn Sterger as Amber Official website Don't Fade Away on IMDb Don't Fade Away at Rotten Tomatoes
Queens' College Chapel Choir, Cambridge is the choir of Queens' College, England. It is a mixed collegiate Chapel Choir composed both of Choral Scholars and volunteers from across Cambridge University. Between 2011 and 2015 the choir was run by Director of Music, Silas Wollston, two undergraduate organ scholars. From 2015 direction of the choir was handed to the British conductor Ralph Allwood; until October 2008, the choir was run by the organ scholars, who were responsible for music in Chapel and the recruiting and conducting of the Choir. Since the Director of Music has been responsible for conducting the chapel choir, and, in turn and mentoring the organ scholars. Additionnaly the choir employs two singing teachers to aid in the training of the choral scholars and volunteers; the Choir meets three times per week during full term, singing choral evensongs on Wednesday and Sunday evenings, compline on a Friday. The choir performs concerts, sings at special services, such as Eucharists on feast days, the college's Commemoration of Benefactors and memorial services.
The Choir tours singing for services around the country in cathedrals such as Westminster Abbey, Canterbury Cathedral, Southwell Minster and Truro Cathedral. The choir travels on international tours further afield on an annual basis; the Choir has recorded with three labels: Guild Music, Past Times, Orchid Classics. The Choir's most recent recordings have been with Orchid Classics; the choir appoints up to four choral scholars a year. Choral volunteers are appointed by audition at the start of the academic year and come from a large range of the university's colleges.'For the Wings of a Dove' Orchid Classics'And Comes The Day: Carols and Antiphons for Advent' Orchid Classics'Love and Honour' Guild Music'Songs of Heaven and Earth' Guild Music'Flight of Song' Guild Music'Christmas from Cambridge' Past Times'Wedding Hymns' Guild Music'Evening Watch' Guild Music'Vox Dicentis' Mirabilis'The Queen's Service' Mirabilis December 2007 — Hong Kong December 2008 — East Coast USA March 2009 — Angers, France March 2010 — Sicily December 2010 — West and South Germany April 2011 — Exeter Cathedral December 2011 - Brussels and Ghent August 2012 - North Germany December 2012 - Paris March 2013 - Bury St. Edmunds July 2013 - Switzerland January 2014 - Hong Kong July 2015 - Budapest July 2016 - North France: Loire Valley and Paris April 2017 - East coast USA July 2018 - Greece: Athens and Thessaloniki Queens' College, Cambridge Suzi Digby Ralph Allwood "Guild Music".
Guild Music. Retrieved 4 January 2010. "Queens' College Chapel Choir". Queens' College Chapel Choir. Retrieved 1 July 2013. Queens' College Chapel Choir
The 1992 Davis Cup was the 81st edition of the Davis Cup, the most important tournament between national teams in men's tennis. 93 teams would enter the competition, 16 in the World Group, 21 in the Americas Zone, 23 in the Asia/Oceania Zone, 33 in the Europe/Africa Zone. Due to the increased number of entries, the tournament was expanded to add a Group III in all zones, with promotion and relegation between it and Group II. Puerto Rico and Qatar made their first appearances in the tournament, former champions South Africa returned to the tournament for the first time since 1978; the United States defeated Switzerland in the final, held at the Tarrant County Convention Center in Fort Worth, United States, on 4–6 December, to win their 30th title overall. United States vs. Switzerland Date: 25–27 September The eight losing teams in the World Group first round ties and eight winners of the Zonal Group I final round ties competed in the World Group Qualifying Round for spots in the 1993 World Group.
Germany and Spain remain in the World Group in 1993. Austria, CIS, Cuba and India are promoted to the World Group in 1993. Israel, South Korea and Uruguay remain in Zonal Group I in 1993. Argentina, Belgium and Great Britain are relegated to Zonal Group I in 1993. Cuba and Uruguay advance to World Group Qualifying Round. Paraguay relegated to Group II in 1993. Venue: Maya Country Club, San Salvador, El Salvador Date: 19–22 March Puerto Rico and Haiti promoted to Group II in 1993. China relegated to Group II in 1993. South Korea and India advance to World Group Qualifying Round. Venue: Isa Town Tennis Courts, Bahrain Date: 20–26 April Iran and Kuwait promoted to Group II in 1993. CIS, Denmark and Austria advance to World Group Qualifying Round. Romania and Poland relegated to Group II in 1993. Venue: Tennis Club de Tunis, Tunisia Date: 29 April–3 May South Africa, Senegal and Cameroon promoted to Group II in 1993. General"World Group 1992". DavisCup.com. Retrieved 1 January 2020. Specific Davis Cup Official Website