The Rough Riders was a nickname given to the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish–American War and the only one to see action. The United States Army was small and understaffed in comparison to its status during the American Civil War thirty years prior; as a measure towards rectifying this situation President William McKinley called upon 125,000 volunteers to assist in the war efforts. The regiment was called "Wood's Weary Walkers" in honor of its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood; this nickname served to acknowledge that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Wood's second in command was former Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, a man who had pushed for American involvement in the Cuban War of Independence; when Colonel Wood became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, the Rough Riders became "Roosevelt's Rough Riders." That term was familiar in 1898, from Buffalo Bill who called his famous western show "Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World."
The Rough Riders were made of college athletes, ranchers and other outdoorsmen. With these men being from southwestern ranch country, they were quite skilled in horsemanship; the volunteers were gathered in four areas: Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. They were gathered from the southwest because the hot climate region that the men were used to was similar to that of Cuba where they would be fighting. "The difficulty in organizing was not in selecting, but in rejecting men." The allowed limit set for the volunteer cavalry men was promptly met. They gathered a diverse bunch of men consisting of cowboys, gold or mining prospectors, gamblers, Native Americans and college boys—all of whom were able-bodied and capable on horseback and in shooting. Among these men were police officers and military veterans who wished to see action again, most of whom had retired. Men who had served in the regular army during campaigns against Native Americans or during the Civil War would serve as higher ranking officers, since they had the knowledge and experience to lead and train the men.
The unit thus would not be without experience. Leonard Wood, an Army doctor who served as the medical adviser for both the President and Secretary of War, was appointed colonel of The Rough Riders, with Roosevelt serving as lieutenant colonel. One famous spot where volunteers were gathered was in San Antonio, Texas, at the Menger Hotel Bar; the bar is still open and serves as a tribute to the Rough Riders, containing much of their, Theodore Roosevelt's, uniforms and memorabilia. Before training began, Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt used his political influence as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to ensure that his volunteer regiment would be properly equipped to serve as any regular Army unit; the Rough Riders were armed with Model 1896 Carbines in caliber.30 US. "They succeeded in getting their cartridges, Colt Single Action Army revolvers, shelter-tents, horse gear... and in getting the regiment armed with the Krag–Jørgensen carbine used by the regular cavalry." The Rough Riders used Bowie knives.
A last-minute gift from a wealthy donor were a pair of modern tripod mounted, gas-operated M1895 Colt–Browning machine guns in 7mm Mauser caliber. In contrast, the uniforms of the regiment were designed to set the unit apart: "The Rough Rider uniform was a slouch hat, blue flannel shirt, brown trousers and boots, with handkerchiefs knotted loosely around their necks, they looked as a body of cowboy cavalry should look." This "rough and tumble" appearance contributed to earning them the title of "The Rough Riders." Training was standard for a cavalry unit. They worked on basic military drills and habits involving conduct and etiquette; the men proved eager to learn what was necessary, the training went smoothly. It was decided that the men would not be trained to use the saber as cavalry did, as they had no experience with it. Instead, they used their revolvers as primary and secondary weapons. Although the men, for the most part, were experienced horsemen, the officers refined their techniques in riding, shooting from horseback, practicing in formations and in skirmishes.
Along with these practices, the high-ranking men studied books filled with tactics and drills to better themselves in leading the others. During times which physical drills could not be run, either because of confinement on board the train, ship, or during times where space was inadequate, there were some books that were read further as to leave no time wasted in preparation for war; the competent training that the volunteer men received prepared them best as possible for their duty. They were not handed weapons and given vague directions to engage in a disorderly brawl. On May 29, 1898, 1060 Rough Riders and 1258 of their horses and mules made their way to the Southern Pacific railroad to travel to Tampa, Florida where they would set off for Cuba; the lot awaited orders for departure from Major General William Rufus Shafter. Under heavy prompting from Washington D. C. General Shafter gave the order to dispatch the troops early before sufficient traveling storage was available. Due to this problem, only eight of the twelve companies of The Rough Riders were permitted to leave Tampa to engage in the war, many of the horses and mules were left behind.
Aside from Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt's first hand mention of deep, heartfelt sorrow from the men left behind, this situation resulted in a premature weakening of the men. One fourth of them who received training had been lost, most dying of malaria and yellow feve
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith's death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; some Mormons are either independent or non-practicing. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States. Mormons have developed a strong sense of commonality that stems from their history. During the 19th century, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location, between 1852 and 1890 a minority of Mormons practiced plural marriage, a form of religious polygamy. Mormons dedicate large amounts of time and resources to serving in their church, many young Mormons choose to serve a full-time proselytizing mission.
Mormons have a health code which eschews alcoholic beverages, tobacco, “hot drinks”, addictive substances. They tend to be family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended family, reflective of their belief that families can be sealed together beyond death. Mormons have a strict law of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside heterosexual marriage and fidelity within marriage. Mormons self-identify as Christian, although some non-Mormons consider Mormons non-Christian and some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books such as the Book of Mormon, they believe that all people are spirit-children of God. Mormons believe that returning to God requires following the example of Jesus Christ, accepting his atonement through ordinances such as baptism, they believe that Christ's church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. Central to Mormon faith is the belief that God answers their prayers.
The number of members in 1971 was 3,090,953 and as of 2018, there are 16,118,169 members worldwide. The word "Mormons" most refers to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints because of their belief in the Book of Mormon, though members refer to themselves as Latter-day Saints or sometimes just Saints; the term "Mormons" has been embraced by others, most notably Mormon fundamentalists, while other Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, have rejected it. Both LDS Church members and members of fundamentalist groups use the word "Mormon" in reference to themselves. LDS Church leaders have encouraged members to use the church's full name to emphasize its focus on Jesus Christ, have discouraged the use of the shortened form "Church of the Latter Day Saints", as well as the acronym "LDS", the nickname "Mormons"; the word "Mormon" is associated with polygamy, a distinguishing practice of many early Mormons. Today, polygamy is practiced within Mormonism only by people.
The history of the Mormons has shaped them into a people with a strong sense of unity and commonality. From the start, Mormons have tried to establish what they call "Zion", a utopian society of the righteous. Mormon history can be divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, a "pioneer era" under the leadership of Brigham Young and his successors, a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century. In the first period, Smith had tried to build a city called Zion, in which converts could gather. During the pioneer era, Zion became a "landscape of villages" in Utah. In modern times, Zion is still an ideal, though Mormons gather together in their individual congregations rather than a central geographic location. Mormons trace their origins to the visions that Joseph Smith reported he had in the early 1820s while living in upstate New York. In 1823, Smith said an angel directed him to a buried book written on golden plates containing the religious history of an ancient people.
Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates in March 1830 as the Book of Mormon, named after Mormon, the ancient prophet–historian who compiled the book. On April 6, 1830, Smith founded the Church of Christ; the early church grew westward. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland, Ohio where missionaries had made a large number of converts and Smith began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to build the city of Zion. In 1833, Missouri settlers, alarmed by the rapid influx of Mormons, expelled them from Jackson County into the nearby Clay County, where local residents were more welcoming. After Smith led a mission, known as Zion's Camp, to recover the land, he began building Kirtland Temple in Lake County, where the church flourished; when the Missouri Mormons were asked to leave Clay County in 1836, they secured land in what would become Caldwell County. The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after the failure of a church-sponsored anti-bank caused widespread defections, Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, Missouri.
During the fall of 1838, tensions escalated into the Mormon War with the old Missouri settlers. On October 27, the governor of Missouri ordered that the Mormons "must be treated as enemies" and be exterminated or driven from the state
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Vázquez de Coronado had hoped to reach the Cities of Cíbola referred to now as the mythical Seven Cities of Gold, a term not invented until American gold-rush days in the 1800s, his expedition marked the first European sightings of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, among other landmarks. His name is Anglicized as "Vasquez de Coronado". Vázquez de Coronado was born into a noble family in Salamanca, Spain, in 1510 as the second son of Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Sosa de Ulloa and Isabel de Luján. Juan Vázquez held various positions in the administration of the captured Emirate of Granada under Iñigo López de Mendoza, its first Spanish governor. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado went to New Spain in 1535 at about age 25, in the entourage of its first Viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, the son of his father's patron and Vázquez de Coronado's personal friend.
In New Spain, he married twelve-year-old Beatriz de Estrada, called "the Saint", sister of Leonor de Estrada, ancestor of the de Alvarado family and daughter of Treasurer and Governor Alonso de Estrada y Hidalgo, Lord of Picón, wife Marina Flores Gutiérrez de la Caballería, from a converso Jewish family. Vázquez de Coronado inherited a large portion of a Mexican encomendero estate through Beatriz and had eight children by her. Vázquez de Coronado was the Governor of the Kingdom of Nueva Galicia, a province of New Spain located northwest of Mexico and comprising the contemporary Mexican states of Jalisco and Nayarit. In 1539, he dispatched Friar Marcos de Niza and Estevanico, a survivor of the Narváez expedition, on an expedition north from Compostela toward present-day New Mexico; when de Niza returned, he told of a city of vast wealth, a golden city called Cíbola, whose Zuni residents were assumed to have killed Estevan. Though he did not claim to have entered the city of Cíbola, he mentioned that it stood on a high hill and that it appeared wealthy and as large as Mexico City.
Vázquez de Coronado assembled an expedition with two components. One component carried the bulk of the expedition's supplies, traveling via the Guadalupe River under the leadership of Hernando de Alarcón; the other component traveled by land, along the trail on which Friar Marcos de Niza had followed Esteban. Vázquez de Coronado and Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza invested large sums of their own money in the venture. Mendoza appointed Vázquez de Coronado the commander of the expedition, with the mission to find the mythical Seven Cities of Gold; this is the reason he was lent 70,000 pesos. In the autumn of 1539, Mendoza ordered Melchior Díaz, commander of the Spanish outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán, to investigate Friar de Niza's findings, on November 17, 1539, Díaz departed for Cíbola with fifteen horsemen. At the ruins of Chichilticalli, he turned around because of "snows and fierce winds from across the wilderness". Díaz had encountered Vázquez de Coronado before he had departed San Miguel de Culiacán, reported that initial investigations into Friar de Niza's report disproved the existence of the bountiful land he had described.
Díaz's report was delivered to Viceroy Mendoza on March 20, 1540. Vázquez de Coronado set out from Compostela on February 23, 1540, at the head of a much larger expedition composed of about 400 European men-at-arms, 1,300 to 2,000 Mexican Indian allies, four Franciscan friars, several slaves, both natives and Africans. Many other family members and servants joined the party, he followed the Sinaloan coast northward, keeping the Gulf of California on his left to the west until he reached the northernmost Spanish settlement in Mexico, San Miguel de Culiacán, about March 28, 1540, whereupon he rested his expedition before they began trekking the inland trail. Aside from his mission to verify Friar de Niza's report, Melchior Díaz had taken notice of the forage and food situation along the trail, reported that the land along the route would not be able to support a large concentrated body of soldiers and animals. Vázquez de Coronado, decided to divide his expedition into small groups and time their departures so that grazing lands and water holes along the trail could recover.
At intervals along the trail, Vázquez de Coronado established camps and stationed garrisons of soldiers to keep the supply route open. For example, in September 1540, Melchior Díaz, along with "seventy or eighty of the weakest and least reliable men" in Vázquez de Coronado's army, remained at the town of San Hieronimo, in the valley of Corazones, or Hearts. Once the scouting and planning was done, Vázquez de Coronado led the first group of soldiers up the trail, they were horsemen and foot soldiers who were able to travel while the main bulk of the expedition would set out later. After leaving Culiacan on April 22, 1540, Vázquez de Coronado followed the coast, "bearing off to the left", as Mota Padilla says, by an rough way, to the Sinaloa River; the configuration of the country made it necessary to follow the river valley until he could find a passage across the mountains to the course of the Yaqui River. He traveled alongside this stream for some distance crossed to the Rio Sonora, which he followed nearly to its source before a pass was discovered.
On the southern side of the mountains he found a stream he
John Horton Slaughter
John Horton Slaughter known as Texas John Slaughter, was an American lawman, poker player and rancher in the Southwestern United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After serving in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, Slaughter earned a reputation fighting hostile Indians and Mexican and American outlaws in the Arizona and New Mexico territories. In the latter half of his life, he lived at the San Bernardino Ranch, today a well-preserved National Historic Landmark in Cochise County in far southeastern Arizona. Slaughter was born in 1841 on a Southern plantation in Sabine Parish near Many in western Louisiana, his parents were the former Minerva Mabry. He was educated in schools in Texas in Caldwell County. From Mexican vaqueros, he learned how to speak Spanish. In the early 1860s, Slaughter defended European settlers against hostile Comanche as a Texas Ranger. Shortly after, during the Civil War, he served in the Confederate States Army, he fought Union forces in Burnet County, west of the capital city of Texas.
In 1874, he, along with his brother, became a cattle driver in Atascosa County, south of San Antonio. The two formed a cattle-transporting company, the San Antonio Ranch Company, which drove cattle to Kansas via the Chisholm Trail. One of his cattle drive. Neatherlin's brother, James Franklin Neatherlin the Slaughter brothers' first cousin, assisted on the drive. In the late 1870s, Slaughter left Texas for New Mexico, where he traded cattle and planned to start a ranch. However, he decided to establish the ranch in the Arizona Territory. Settling in Charleston, Arizona, he purchased the San Bernardino Ranch, on the U. S.–Mexico border near Douglas, in 1884. In 1886, Slaughter was elected sheriff of Cochise County, five years after the infamous Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, he was re-elected to a second term. As sheriff, he helped track Geronimo, the Apache chief, caught on the San Bernardino Ranch. Slaughter fought for law and order with his six-shooter, a repeating shotgun, a Henry rifle, he brought them to justice.
He became a prominent poker player playing all night long. He was good at bluffing, he played with the cattle baron John Chisum. Once, in San Antonio, Texas, he was cheated out of his win by cattle rustler Bryan Gallagher. To retrieve his money, Slaughter went all the way to New Mexico, where he found Gallagher on Chisum's ranch and shot him down. Slaughter married Eliza Adeline Harris on August 4, 1871. Of their four children, only two and Willie, survived until adulthood. Eliza died in 1877 of smallpox in Tucson. On April 16, 1879, Slaughter, at the age of thirty-seven, married eighteen-year-old Cora Viola Howell at Tularosa, New Mexico Territory; the Slaughters had no children of their own, but they adopted several children, including Apache May, whom Slaughter encountered in 1896 while chasing the Apache Kid in Mexico. Years when he became ill, the Slaughters moved to an apartment on Twelfth Street in Douglas, Arizona. Slaughter was found on the morning of February 16, 1922, in his Douglas apartment, having died sometime during the previous night.
The ABC television miniseries Texas John Slaughter, with Tom Tryon in the title role, was inspired by Slaughter's life story. The series began as a Wonderful World of Disney series in 1958. William W. Johnstone's Texas John Slaughter series features Slaughter as a main character. John Slaughter is written about as the main character in the book Gun Justice: The unforgettable story of Texas John Slaughter, one of the greatest gunfighters of the old west by Jason Manning. Published in 1999, it chronicles his life from a ranch hand in Texas to the Arizona frontier, his life is told by himself when explaining his life to friends. Robert Taylor hosted and played John Slaughter in the 1968 episode, "A Short Cut through Tombstone", on the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days. Buck Taylor played Billy Stiles. Ned Romero was cast as the Geronimo Kid. Baird, Clayton. "I Knew John Slaughter." Real West, September 1972. DeMattos, Jack. "Gunfighters of the Real West: John Slaughter." Real West, March 1982.
Erwin, Allen A. The Southwest of John Horton Slaughter 1841-1922, Pioneer Cattleman and Trail-driver of Texas, the Pecos, Arizona and Sheriff of Tombstone. Glendale, CA: The Arthur H. Clarke Company, 1965. Farfan, G. B. "Patchy Slaughter." Frontier Times, September 1963
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti