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Holden known as General Motors-Holden, is an Australian business and former automobile manufacturer, which manufactured cars in Australia before switching to imported manufactured cars under the Holden brand. It was headquartered in Port Melbourne; the company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer in South Australia. In 1908, it moved into the automotive field and built the Ford Model T for a period before becoming a subsidiary of the United States-based General Motors in 1931, when the company was renamed General Motors-Holden's Ltd, it was renamed Holden Ltd in 1998, adopting the name GM Holden Ltd in 2005. In the past, Holden has offered badge-engineered models due to sharing arrangements with Chevrolet, Nissan, Suzuki and Vauxhall Motors. In previous years, the vehicle lineup consisted of models from GM Korea, GM Thailand, GM North America, self-developed models like the Holden Commodore, Holden Caprice, the Holden Ute. Holden distributed the European Opel brand in Australia in 2012 until its Australian demise in mid-2013.

Holden owned assembly plants in New Zealand during the early 1990s. The plants had belonged to General Motors from 1926 until 1990 in an earlier and quite separate operation from GM's Holden investment in Australia. From 1994 to 2017, all Australian-built Holden vehicles were manufactured in Elizabeth, South Australia, engines were produced at the Fishermans Bend plant in Melbourne. Production or assembly plants were operated in all mainland states of Australia; the consolidation of final assembly at Elizabeth was completed in 1988, but some assembly operations continued at Dandenong until 1994. Although Holden's involvement in exports has fluctuated since the 1950s, the declining sales of large cars in Australia led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. From 2010, Holden incurred losses due to the strong Australian dollar, reductions of government grants and subsidies; this led to the announcement, on 11 December 2013, that Holden would cease vehicle and engine production by the end of 2017.

On 20 October 2017, the last existing vehicle plant, located in Elizabeth, was closed as the production of the Holden Commodore ended. On 17 February 2020, General Motors announced that the Holden brand would be retired by 2021. In 1852, James Alexander Holden emigrated to South Australia from Walsall, in 1856 established J. A. Holden & Co. a saddlery business in Adelaide. In 1879 J A Holden’s eldest son Henry James Holden, became a partner and managed the company. In 1885, German-born H. A. Frost joined the business as a junior partner and J. A. Holden & Co became Holden & Frost Ltd. Edward Holden, James' grandson, joined the firm in 1905 with an interest in automobiles. From there, the firm evolved through various partnerships, in 1908, Holden & Frost moved into the business of minor repairs to car upholstery; the company began to re-body older chassis using motor bodies produced by F T Hack and Co from 1914. Holden & Frost mounted the body, painted and trimmed it; the company began to produce complete motorcycle sidecar bodies after 1913.

After 1917, wartime trade restrictions led the company to start full-scale production of vehicle body shells. H. J. Holden founded a new company in late 1917, registered Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd on 25 February 1919, specialising in car bodies and using the former F T Hack & Co facility at 400 King William Street in Adelaide before erecting a large four-story factory on the site. By 1923, HMBB were producing 12,000 units per year. During this time, HMBB assembled bodies for Ford Motor Company of Australia until its Geelong plant was completed. From 1924, HMBB became the exclusive supplier of car bodies for GM in Australia, with manufacturing taking place at the new Woodville plant; these bodies were made to suit a number of chassis imported from manufacturers including Austin, Chevrolet, Dodge, Fiat, Oakland, Overland, Reo and Willys-Knight. In 1926, General Motors Limited was established with assembly plants at Queensland. In 1930 alone, the still independent Woodville plant built bodies for Austin, Chrysler, DeSoto, Hillman, Humber and Willys-Overland, as well GM cars.

The last of this line of business was the assembly of Hillman Minx sedans in 1948. The Great Depression led to a substantial downturn in production by Holden, from 34,000 units annually in 1930 to just 1,651 units one year later. In 1931, GM purchased HMBB and merged it with General Motors Pty Ltd to form General Motors-Holden's Ltd. Throughout the 1920s, Holden supplied tramcars to the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board, of which several examples have been preserved in both Australia and New Zealand. Holden's second full-scale car factory, located in Fishermans Bend, was opened on 5 November 1936 by Prime Minister Joseph Lyons, with construction beginning in 1939 on a new plant in Pagewood, New South Wales. However, World War II delayed car production with efforts shifted to the construction of vehicle bodies, field guns and engines. Before the war ended, the Australian government took steps to encourage an Australian automotive industry. Both GM and Ford provided studies to the Australian government outlining the production of the first Australian-designed car.

Ford's proposal was the government's first choice, but required substantial financial assistance. GM's study was chosen because of its low level of government interventi

Tule (disambiguation)

Tule is a plant of the sedge family. Tule may refer to the following places in the United States: Arizona: Tule Desert or Tule Basin, in Coconino County Tule Mountains, in Yuma CountyCalifornia: Los Tules, a populated place in San Diego County Tule Creek, California, a stream that parallels the first few miles of California State Route 371 Tule Valley, California, in Riverside County Tule Lake Basin, in Modoc County, near the 42nd parallel north Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, an open water/croplands preserve of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service Tule Lake War Relocation Center, a Japanese American internment camp of World War II Tulelake, California, a city in Siskiyou County and namesake of the Tulelake Basin Joint Unified School District & Tulelake Municipal Airport Tule River, in Tulare County, named for the Spanish tulare, the place of tules. Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation Tule Station, California, a former settlement in Inyo CountyColorado: Tule Lakes, twin reservoirs separated by the Upper Tule Lake Dam in Arapahoe CountyMontana: Tule Valley, the course of Tule Creek in Roosevelt CountyNevada: Tule Desert, in Lincoln County Tule Springs, a series of lakes in the Mojave Desert Tule Springs Archaeological Site, a National Register of Historic Places listing in Clark County, Nevada Tule Springs Ice Age Park, fossil beds which the Protectors of Tule Springs Wash lobby to be a national monument Tule Springs Ranch, a National Register of Historic Places listings in Nevada in the archaeological site Tule Springs Hills, a mountain range in Lincoln County Tule Valley, on Pine Creek, Elko CountyNew Mexico: Little Tule Lake, in Curry CountyOregon: Tule Lake Valley, in Klamath CountyTexas: Tule Canyon, a scenic area near Texas State Highway 207.

Tule Formation, the paleontological location of an extinct horse species Tule Creek, a river with the Mckenzie Dam/Reservoir, in Briscoe County Tule Lake Turning Basin, in Nueces County Tule Pens, a road intersection in Briscoe CountyUtah: Tule Valley, Utah, an area of several valleys in the Great Salt Lake subregion Tule Valley, in Millard County and the area of a desiccated paleolakeWashington: Tule Lake, in Whitman County Tule fog, a weather phenomenon of California's Central Valley Guna people, an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia, sometimes called "Tule Indians"

Peter Grant Peterkin

Major-General Anthony Peter Grant Peterkin is a retired senior British Army officer. He was the British House of Commons' Serjeant at Arms between 2004 and 2007. Grant Peterkin was born on 6 July 1947, he is the son of DSO and his wife Dorothea Grant Peterkin. He was educated at Ampleforth College an all-boys independent school in Ampleforth, North Yorkshire. Having graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Grant Peterkin was commissioned into the Queen's Own Highlanders on 28 July 1967 as a second lieutenant, he was given the service number 483916. In 1968, he began studying History at Durham University, he was promoted to lieutenant on 28 January 1969. He graduated from Durham with a Bachelor of Arts in 1971, he was a member of Hatfield College during his studies. He was promoted to captain on 28 July 1973. Between 1973 and 1974, he served as aide-de-camp to the Chief of the General Staff General Sir Peter Hunt, he was promoted to major on 31 December 1979, attended the Indian Staff College in 1980.

Following this experience he rejoined the 1st Battalion of the Queen's Own Highlanders in Hong Kong and took them to the Falkland Islands in the aftermath of the Falklands War. After a posting at the Ministry of Defence he attended the Australian Joint Services Staff College in 1986, was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 31 December 1986 with seniority in that rank from 30 June 1986, he was appointed commanding officer of 1st Battalion, Queen's Own Highlanders in 1987. From 1989 to 1991, he was Military Assistant to the Military Secretary. In the aftermath of the Gulf War he joined the United Nations Iraq–Kuwait Observation Mission, heading the British contingent of border observers, he was appointed Commander 24th Airmobile Brigade in 1993 and became Deputy Military Secretary in 1996. In 1999 he went on a mission, arranged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, to Kosovo and later that year he was appointed the senior Army representative at the Royal College of Defence Studies.

In October 1999 he became General Officer Commanding 5th Division. He became Military Secretary in 2000 before retiring in 2004, he was appointed Serjeant at Arms in 2004. His contract was not renewed in 2007 after suggestions of a falling out with Michael Martin, the Speaker of the House of Commons. In 1974, Grant Peterkin married daughter of Sir Brian Young. Together, they have had two children. In the 1991 New Year Honours, Grant Peterkin was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire. In the 2003 New Year Honours, he was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath

Mount Clef Ridge

Mount Clef Ridge is a 1,076 ft volcanic mountain in Thousand Oaks, California. It is a volcanic outcrop; the ridge was under ownership by the Janss Corporation, but was acquired by the Conejo Recreation and Park District in 1967. Trails here are available from Newbury Park and Wildwood Regional Park. Although being a major feature of Wildwood, it occupies its own open-space area bordering Wildwood’s northern boundaries. Mount Clef Ridge Open Space Area occupies 212 acres. From the ridge are great panoramic views of Santa Rosa Valley, Conejo Valley, Hill Canyon, as well as the Santa Susana-, Santa Monica- and Topatopa Mountains; the open-space area is home to plants such as coastal sage scrub, Lyon's pentachaeta and Conejo dudleya. The fauna includes mountain lions, coyotes, gray foxes, more. Mount Clef Ridge was featured in the film Flaming Star starring Elvis Presley; the horse training scenes in Dark Victory starring Ronald Reagan features sequences by the ridge. An army was storming off Mount Clef Ridge in the film Spartacus.

The ridge was featured in Wuthering Heights, where the ridge dubbed for Peniston Crag, England. A rock shelter, known as Wildflower Cave, is located here and was utilized for shelter by the Chumash people in pre-colonial times; the ridge is named in honor of the California Lutheran Education Foundation, which worked to establish California Lutheran University in the 1950s. The ridgeline extends from the Norwegian Grade westwards to Wildwood Regional Park. A rock formation that spells out "CLU" can be found atop Mount Clef on the campus of California Lutheran University, a 30-foot cross is located just east of the landmark letters; the cross was made from old telephone poles. This part of the ridge, Dr. Rudy Edmund Living Laboratory, was dedicated on May 5, 2003, in order to enhance student research in biology and geology at the university. Ecological field studies take place here; the area's namesake, CLU professor Rudy Edmund, published extensively on the need to preserve Mount Clef Ridge. Wildwood Regional Park

Sven Gustaf Wingqvist

Sven Gustaf Wingqvist was a Swedish engineer and industrialist, one of the founders of Svenska Kullagerfabriken, one of the world's leading ball bearing and roller bearing makers. Sven Wingqvist invented the multi-row self-aligning ball bearing in 1907. 1876: Born December 10 in Kumla Municipality south of Örebro, Sweden. His parents are railway station inspector at Hallsberg S. D. Anna Lundberg. 1894: Graduated from Rudbecksskolan in Örebro. 1899: Wingqvist became employed as an operating engineer at Gamlestadens Textile Industry in Göteborg. He worked here for many years to find a solution to the problems with frequent break downs in the ball bearings for the main drive shafts; this was caused by the ground conditions. The shaft bearing supports moved some fractions of millimeters from time to time, hardly measurable, but enough to induce enormous extra forces in the "stiff" bearings that were available at that time. Wingqvist spent more and more time on the development of bearings in general, collecting all sorts of technical achievements and new ideas that were presented continuously on ball bearing technology around Europe.

In particular he studied the report presented in 1902 by professor Richard Stribeck working at the Institute of Technology in Dresden, where he had compared ball bearings versus plain bearings from a scientific point of view. Wingqvist soon realized that there was room for innovation. On his initiative a small workshop was set up within the premises of the Gamlestadens factory where they could carry out tests with different designs and steel materials. In 1906 he was granted a patent for Swedish patent reg. No. 24160, but this type of bearing had the disadvantage that it was poor for axial loads. He continued to work in order to find a solution for a self-aligning bearing that could carry axial loads. 1907: On the initiative of Sven Wingqvist and the owners of Gamlestadens Textile Industry, SKF was founded February 16, at first as a subsidiary company to Gamlestadens Textile Industry. He was appointed the managing director as well as technical manager. Axel Carlander, son of one of the owners of Gamlestadens Textile Industry, was appointed CEO for SKF..

On May 21, SKF filed the patent application at the Swedish Patent and Registration Office for a Multi-row self-aligning radial ball bearing. The patent was granted June 6 with patent reg. No. 25406. Inventor: S. G. Wingqvist. In the patent application a double-row as well as a triple-row ball bearing is described. Within the same period of time, patent applications were sent out by SKF to 10 different countries, among them France, Germany and the United States, patent was granted in all these countries within a short time; the door was now open for worldwide expansion. After the new factory had been built in Göteborg, SKF sales companies and new manufacturing plants were built in many countries around the world; the first SKF manufacturing plant outside Sweden was set up in Luton, England 1911. 1919: Wingqvist marries Hildur Hult. 1919–1932: Wingqvist works as an independent consulting engineer and as part-time CEO for SKF. 1938–1953: CEO for SKF. 1933–38: Managing director for AB Bofors. 1938–46: CEO for AB Bofors.

1941–53: CEO for the company Svenska Flygmotor AB. 25406 Multi-row self-aligning radial ball bearing, 1907 26266 Self-aligning ball bearing for axial loads, 1908 27397 Tool for precision measurements, 1908 31707 2-row spherical roller bearing, 1910 33901 Ball holder device, Wingqvist and H. Olsson, 1910 57197 Roller bearing with pressure flange, Wingqvist and N. A. Palmgren, 1919 78223 Device for 2-row roller bearings, 1931 Vingqvist, Herman: Släkten Wingqvist från Södra Ving jämte upptecknarens antavla, Skara 1936. P. 20. SKF - The History of a Swedish Export Industry, 1907–1957 by Birger Steckzén, 1957. Published by SKF, 1957. "The history of SKF, 1977, Sv. kullagerfabriken, Göteborg, 1977. "SKF - a global story: 1907–2007", Martin Fritz, Birgit Karlsson. ISBN 978-91-7736-576-1

Don't Deliver Us from Evil

Don't Deliver Us from Evil is a 1971 French film directed by Joël Séria. It is loosely based on the Parker–Hulme murder case of 1954. Anne de Boissy and Lore Fournier are two adolescent Angevin girls who stay at a Catholic boarding school. Both have conservative families living in the countryside. Anne and Lore become friends, they spend most of their time reading poems about the beauty of death, mocking their classmates and teachers, engaging in vicious pranks and petty theft, believing that not only is church downright fatuous, but for idiots, as well as that the both of them together are special, untouchable. Which is a fact that seems more and more true to them with each passing day when they always manage to escape detection and punishment by blaming it on their fellow peers; when Anne's parents take a long trip and leave Anne behind during summer vacation, Lore secretly moves into their château with Anne, where they become lovers and their insidious pranks escalate. The girls set fire to the home of the local cowherd, Émile, let his cows loose as punishment for his sexual leering over schoolgirls.

They kill all the pet birds of their school's mentally handicapped groundskeeper, Léon as well as ripping up his clothes and burning some of his personal belongings just to make him suffer. Afterwards, laugh at his expense. Stealing sacramental bread same with traditional priest uniforms from the church, the girls prepare the abandoned chapel at the château for a Black Mass in which they wed themselves to Satan, promising more wicked works in his name. Cutting both of their fingers and joining each other's blood so that their bond will become stronger. One night, a motorist runs out of gasoline near the château; the girls invite him in, offer him alcohol, begin to behave seductively toward him. At first he is confused he grows more drunk, as well as eager. Lore continues the seduction, only to become terrified when she gets more than she bargained for; the motorist attempts to forcefully rape her out of nowhere as soon as Anne leaves the room by jumping on top of her and trying to suck on her bare breasts after ripping off her bra.

Anne shortly thereafter walks in on the scene after hearing her friend's desperate cries of help as she has an intense struggle with the motorist. The man is now trying to pull off Lore's underwear and continuing to vigorously have his way with her despite her repeated pleas for him to stop. At first Anne tries to get him off of Lore, but after being unable to do so and pushed away by the stranger, she bludgeons the man to death by picking up a nearby hard plank of wood hitting him over the head with it. Afterwards the two girls try to conceal the body by wrapping it up in a carpet and dumping it in a nearby lake as they are not sure what to do. Not to mention are horribly afraid of getting blamed for his murder and arrested. Police find the motorist's abandoned car and suspect foul play. A detective arrives at the château to inquire if the motorist stopped there, but is suspicious when the girls behave nervously and refuse to tell them where their parents are; the girls in turn become convinced that the detective knows what they have done and plan a suicide pact, convinced they will go to Hell and be rewarded by Satan for their service.

At a school recital, the girls read out loud a rather grim yet eloquent poem by Baudelaire. The nuns become suspicious as to what Anne and Lore are up to, since they have no idea what the girls are plotting, or of their secret suicide pact; however they are too late to interfere in what is unfolding, everyone in the room is engrossed with the girls' performance. After reading the poem, while members in the audience start to both cheer and clap in applause, both girls dump petrol on themselves immediately light a match, lighting themselves on fire as the audience watches bewildered; the entire crowd begins to scream in horror and panic as people realize that the abrupt, shocking finale was in fact and not part of the play at all. Pandemonium breaks out, fueled by adrenaline, people proceed to subsequently run towards the exit, in addition to go as far as to trample at least a couple unfortunate patrons in the audience in an attempt to try to save themselves while evacuating; the two girls' grief-stricken parents watch helplessly with tears in their eyes while distraughtly yelling their daughters' names.

With one final look at what has just happened, they have no choice but to join the others as smoke starts to fill up the room. The film cuts to credits as the inferno begins to spread to the front of the auditorium, in addition to the top of the stage which catches the ceiling rafters aflame as the sound of the attendees frightful shrieking can still be heard in the background. Jeanne Goupil as Anne de Boissy Catherine Wagener as Lore Fournier Bernard Dhéran as motorist Gérard Darrieu as Émile Marc Dudicourt as almoner Michel Robin as Léon Véronique Silver as Countess de Boissy Jean-Pierre Helbert as Count de Boissy Nicole Mérouze as Mrs. Fournier Henri Poirier as Mr Fournier Serge Frédéric as priest René Berthier as Gustave Frédéric Nort Jean-Daniel Ehrmann Les Chants de Maldoror, which the girls read from and reference. Les Fleurs du mal, from. Heavenly Creatures, another film based on the same murder case. Mais ne nous délivrez pas du mal on IMDb