A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Holidays are intended to allow individuals to celebrate or commemorate an event or tradition of cultural or religious significance. Holidays may be designated by religious institutions, or other groups or organizations; the degree to which normal activities are reduced by a holiday may depend on local laws, the type of job held or personal choices. The concept of holidays originated in connection with religious observances; the intention of a holiday was to allow individuals to tend to religious duties associated with important dates on the calendar. In most modern societies, holidays serve as much of a recreational function as any other weekend days or activities. In many societies there are important distinctions between holidays designated by governments and holidays designated by religious institutions. For example, in many predominantly Christian nations, government-designed holidays may center on Christian holidays, though non-Christians may instead observe religious holidays associated with their faith.

In some cases, a holiday may only be nominally observed. For example, many Jews in the Americas and Europe treat the minor Jewish holiday of Hanukkah as a "working holiday", changing little of their daily routines for this day; the word holiday has differing connotations in different regions. In the United States the word is used to refer to the nationally, religiously or culturally observed day of rest or celebration, or the events themselves, whereas in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations, the word may refer to the period of time where leave from one's duties has been agreed, is used as a synonym to the US preferred vacation; this time is set aside for rest, travel or the participation in recreational activities, with entire industries targeted to coincide or enhance these experiences. The days of leave may not coincide with any specific laws. Employers and educational institutes may designate ‘holidays’ themselves which may or may not overlap nationally or culturally relevant dates, which again comes under this connotation, but it is the first implication detailed that this article is concerned with.

The word holiday comes from the Old English word hāligdæg. The word referred only to special religious days. In modern use, it means any special day of rest or relaxation, as opposed to normal days away from work or school. Winter in the Northern Hemisphere features many holidays that involve feasts; the Christmas and holiday season surrounds the Christmas and other holidays, is celebrated by many religions and cultures. This period begins near the start of November and ends with New Year's Day. Holiday season in the US corresponds to the period that begins with Thanksgiving and ends with New Year's Eve; some Christian countries consider the end of the festive season to be after the feast of Epiphany. Sovereign nations and territories observe holidays based on events of significance to their history. For example, Americans celebrate Independence Day, celebrating the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Other secular holidays are observed nationally and across multi-country regions.

The United Nations Calendar of Observances dedicates decades to a specific topic, but a complete year, month and days. Holidays dedicated to an observance such as the commemoration of the ending of World War II, or the Shoah, can be part of the reparation obligation as per UN General Assembly Resolution 60/147 Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. Another example of a major secular holiday is the Lunar New Year, celebrated across Asia. Many other days are marked to celebrate events or people, but are not holidays as time off work is given; these are holidays. These holidays are celebrated by various individuals; some promote a cause, others recognize historical events not recognized, others are "funny" holidays celebrated with humorous intent. For example, Monkey Day is celebrated on December 14, International Talk Like a Pirate Day is observed on September 19, Blasphemy Day is held on September 30.

Other examples are April Fool's Day on April 1 and Liberation Day on May 31. Various community organizers and marketers promote odd social media holidays. Many holidays are linked to religions. Christian holidays are defined as part of the liturgical year, the chief ones being Easter and Christmas; the Orthodox Christian and Western-Roman Catholic patronal feast day or "name day" are celebrated in each place's patron saint's day, according to the Calendar of saints. Jehovah's Witnesses annually commemorate "The Memorial of Jesus Christ's Death", but do not celebrate other holidays with any religious significance such as Easter, Christmas or New Year's; this holds true for those holidays that have combined and absorbed rituals, overtones or practices from non-Christian beliefs into the celebration, as well as those holidays that distract from or replace the worship of Jehovah. In Islam, the largest holidays are Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Ad

Eanbald (floruit 798)

Eanbald was an eighth century Archbishop of York and correspondent of Alcuin. Eanbald was taught by Alcuin when Alcuin was the teacher of the school of York, was affectionately nicknamed "Simeon" by Alcuin. Eanbald was consecrated the successor of his namesake to the archbishopric of York on 14 August 796. Alcuin wrote to Eanbald, laying down many rules for the direction of his province, he sent many gifts to York, including a shipload of metal for the roof of the bell tower at York Minster. Eanbald assisted Æthelhard, Archbishop of Canterbury, in recovering the rights of the See of Canterbury, despoiled by Offa. In 798 Eanbald assembled his clergy in synod near Durham. There, he enacted a number of regulations relating to the ecclesiastical courts and the observance of Easter, he may have been the first to introduce the Roman Ritual in the church of York. Eanbald became estranged from Eardwulf, king of Northumbria after denouncing Eardwulf's adulteries as well as Eanbald's sheltering of Eardwulf's enemies in church sanctuary.

Eanbald died sometime about 808 as late as 830, if numismatic evidence is correct. Eanbald 2 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England


Gowkthrapple is a small neighbourhood of Wishaw, situated around ¾ miles from the town centre. Gowkthrapple can be entered off of Castlehill Road. An industrial area, associated with the Pather Iron and Steel Works and Smith's clock factory, which opened in 1951; this closed in the 1970s, although the premises remain standing on Smith Avenue and have been reused as Garrion Business Park. In 2016, Gowkthrapple had an estimated population of 1330. Gowkthrapple's housing predominately consisted of tower blocks and smaller tenements in a similar design; the largest of these towers were built in the 1970s and were up to 13 floors high, whereas several smaller blocks had 4 floors. In the first decade of the 21st century,some of the larger buildings were demolished as part of a re-development of the area. There are only two remaining tower blocks in the neighbourhood: Allershaw and Birkshaw Towers, each 12 floors high and refurbished (Allershaw Tower is home to the; the decline of industry in the region and its physical isolation from the rest of Wishaw led to economic and social problems in the area, with the estate gaining a reputation locally for a high crime rate.

Falling rates of occupancy among natives led to a wave of migrants from Eastern Europe Poland, moving to Gowkthrapple in the 21st century. Projects have been undertaken to encourage integration between the different groups in the community and improve security and safety for residents. Within the estate there is a small convenience store and a community centre. There are several children's play areas within the scheme. In 2017, it was reported that North Lanarkshire Council planned to demolish all the towers in its control over the next 20 years and replace them with modern housing, due to the rising costs of maintenance as the buildings aged, as well as some of the flats being unpopular and underoccupied. Castlehill Primary School is located on Birkshaw Brae; the area is serviced by the non-denominational secondary school Clyde Valley High School, based in Overtown a quarter-mile to the southeast, Saint Aidan's High School based in the main part of Wishaw. Gowkthrapple's regeneration takes a giant step forward Economic Bulletin 7 – Masterplan for a new Gowkthrapple Media related to Gowkthrapple at Wikimedia Commons Gowkthrapple at Gazetteer for Scotland