Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in York, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Manaus, Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame, over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk. It was finished in 1903 with the help of Arthurs brother, Walter Davidson, upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance. They quickly wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a learning experiment. Work immediately began on a new and improved second-generation machine and this first real Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb.
The machines advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle, the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft ×15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the parts, were made elsewhere. This prototype machine was functional by September 8,1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park and it was ridden by Edward Hildebrand and placed fourth. This is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record, in January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis. That year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H.
Lang of Chicago, in 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidsons corporate headquarters. The first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft ×60 ft single-story wooden structure, the company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering and that year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907, the company was officially incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, in 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all models with 26.84 cubic inch engines
Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing
Coburg is a city in Lane County, United States,8 miles north of Eugene. The citys population as of the 2010 census was 1,035, the city was originally named Diamond after John Diamond, an early pioneer in the area, on whose land claim the city was located. The citys current name comes from a stallion that was named after the Coburg district of Bavaria, the Coburg Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The period of significance of the buildings in the dates back to 1875. Coburg is headquarters for Marathon Coach Corporation, a manufacturer of luxury bus conversion motorcoaches, Marathon Coach has a manufacturing plant in Coburg, as well as plants in Grand Prairie and San Antonio, Florida. Coburgs city government had generated hundreds of thousands of dollars for its budget through speeding fines at a trap on Interstate 5 located outside of city limits. By 2003, the city was raising nearly half of its $1.7 million annual budget through traffic fines, the speed trap was temporarily ended when Floyd Prozanski, a state legislator from Eugene, sponsored bills to make the practice against the law, effective January 2004.
Police Chief Hudson lost his job, following the adoption of the new law, the city annexed a segment of I-5, which enabled the continuation of some revenue from traffic fines to motorists in this area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 0.95 square miles. Coburg is situated near the Coburg Hills, as of the census of 2010, there were 1,035 people,398 households, and 283 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,089.5 inhabitants per square mile, there were 415 housing units at an average density of 436.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90. 4% White,0. 4% African American,0. 8% Native American,1. 4% Asian,0. 6% Pacific Islander,2. 7% from other races, and 3. 7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 4% of the population,20. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 41.6 years. 23. 1% of residents were under the age of 18, 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24, 24% were from 25 to 44,34. 7% were from 45 to 64, and 10% were 65 years of age or older.
The gender makeup of the city was 49. 3% male and 50. 7% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 969 people,367 households, and 256 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,384.1 people per square mile, there were 387 housing units at an average density of 552.8 per square mile
The company is a provider of truck and diesel engine parts and service. Headquartered in Lisle, Navistar has 16,500 employees, the company provides financing for its customers and distributors principally through its wholly owned subsidiary, Navistar Financial Corporation. Today, Navistar produces International brand military vehicles through its affiliate Navistar Defense, International Harvester fell on hard times during the poor agricultural economy in the early to mid-1980s and the effects of a long strike with the UAW over proposed work rule changes. IHs new CEO, Donald Lennox, directed the management organization to begin exiting many of its IHs historical business sectors in an effort to survive. Some of the sales of business endeavors were executed to raise cash for short-term survival. During this period of economic survival, in an effort to raise needed cash and to reduce losses. The Scout and Light Truck Parts Business was sold to Scout/Light Line Distributors, after the Agricultural Division sale in 1985, all that remained of IH was the Truck and Engine Divisions.
The company changed its name in 1986 to Navistar International Corporation, in the early 1980s, IH developed a series of reliable large-displacement V8 diesel engines that were sold as an option for heavy-duty Ford 3/4-ton and 1-ton pickup trucks. During the 1980s and 1990s, the popularity of diesel engines had made Navistar a leading manufacturer of bus chassis, the company purchased one-third of American Transportation Corporation, an Arkansas-based manufacturer in 1991, and the remaining two-thirds in April 1995. By becoming both a body and chassis manufacturer at the time, Navistar gained significant market share in the industry. In 2002, AmTran was rebranded as IC after a few months as International Truck, after nearly a century of business in Chicago, Navistar announced its plans on 30 September 2000 to leave the city and relocate its corporate offices to west suburban Warrenville, Illinois. The companys Melrose Park, Illinois plant is notable for a significant workplace shooting on February 5,2001, in 2004, Navistar re-entered the retail vehicle market for the first time since 1980.
The International XT pickup truck was a series of three pickup trucks and it was the largest pickup truck available for retail sale and two of the three versions were essentially International Durastar medium-duty trucks fitted with pickup beds. The third version was essentially a version of a Navistar-designed military vehicle. The three XT trucks were sold until 2008, in 2005, Navistar purchased the Workhorse company, a manufacturer of step-van and motor home chassis, to seemingly re-enter the delivery van market. It appeared that the new subsidiary might benefit by its association with a company history from the 1930s into the 60s included the popular Metro van. For a short time Workhorse offered an integrated chassis-body product called MetroStar, in Sept. of 2012, Navistar announced the shut down of Workhorse and the closure of the plant in Union City, Indiana in order to cut costs. Workhorse has since repositioned itself as a manufacturer of electrically powered trucks, in January 2006, the company declared it would not file its form 10-K annual report with the U. S.
Securities and Exchange Commission on time
Elkhart /ˈɛlkɑːrt/ is a city in Elkhart County, United States. The city is located 15 miles east of South Bend, Indiana,110 miles east of Chicago, the population was 50,949 at the 2010 census. Despite the shared name, it is not the county seat of Elkhart County, when the Northwest Territory was organized in 1787, the area now known as Elkhart was mainly inhabited by the Ottawa and Potawatomi Indian tribes. In 1829, the Village of Pulaski was established, consisting of a Post Office, Two years later, Dr. Havilah Beardsley moved westward from Ohio and purchased one square mile of land from Pierre Moran in order to establish a rival town named Elkhart. In 1839, the Pulaski Post Office was officially changed to Elkhart, Elkhart County was founded exclusively by immigrants from New England. These were old stock Yankee immigrants, that is to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, the completion of the Erie Canal caused a surge in New England immigration to what was the Northwest Territory.
Some of these settlers were from upstate New York and had parents who had moved to that region from New England shortly after the Revolutionary War. New Englanders and New England transplants from upstate New York were the vast majority of Elkhart Countys inhabitants during the first several decades of its history. The Congregational Church subsequently has gone through many divisions and some factions, including those in Elkhart County are now known as the Church of Christ, many inhabitants of Elkhart County fought in the Union Army during the Civil War. By the late 19th century and early 20th century, musical instrument factories, Miles Medical Company, in 1934, the first recreational vehicle factory opened in Elkhart. Similar companies followed suit for the remainder of the decade, after the war, growth picked back up and, by 1949, Elkhart was officially dubbed the RV Capital of the World. In 1851, the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana Railroad Company built the first rail line through the city and this, in turn, caused major population growth.
Today, Norfolk Southern has the biggest railroad presence in town, although Elkhart has 2 other railroads (Shortline-Elkhart and Western, Amtrak has two trains that stop in Elkhart. Canadian Pacific runs 6-8 trains through town on Norfolk Southerns trackage, in 1867, Elkhart Hydraulic Company built the first hydroelectric dam across the St. Joseph River and by 1870, it powered the city. Today, the dam still produces electric power and is operated by Indiana Michigan Power, in 1889, the second electric streetcar system in the world began operation on the citys streets. The Beardsley Avenue Historic District, Albert R. Beardsley House, Dr. Havilah Beardsley House, although apparently a name of German or Germanic origin, the etymology of the citys name is disputed. One source argues that the citys Island Park looks like an elks heart, another source claims that the origin of the citys name was the Shawnee Indian Chief Elkhart, cousin of the famous Chief Tecumseh, and the father of Mishawaka, the namesake of neighboring Mishawaka.
Elkhart is located at 41°40′59″N 85°58′8″W, according to the 2010 census, Elkhart has a total area of 24.417 square miles, of which 23.45 square miles is land and 0.967 square miles is water
A recreational vehicle is, in North America, the usual term for a motor vehicle or trailer equipped with living space and amenities found in a home. A recreational vehicle includes a kitchen, a bathroom. Less commonly found features are a hot tub, a room, a desk. Most RVs are single-deck, double-deck RVs exist, RVs are defined as either motor vehicles or towable trailers, and are primarily intended for leisure activities such as camping and vacations. They are usually found in RV parks or campgrounds, and can be rented in most major cities, other RVs serve as traveling permanent homes. People who use their RVs as traveling permanent homes on a full-time basis are commonly referred to as full-timers, recreational vehicle types include the motorhome, travel trailer, fifth wheel trailer, toy hauler, popup trailer, and slide-in camper. See the list of recreational vehicles, Most modern dictionaries give one of the meanings for the word caravan as a camper equipped with living quarters. They, in turn, give one of the meanings for camper as a vehicle equipped for camping out while travelling.
In Europe, wagons built to live in, rather than just to carry persons or goods, were developed in France around 1810 and they were used in Britain by showmen and circus performers from the 1820s. Romani people only began living in caravans circa 1850, the covered wagon that played a significant part in opening up of the interior of the North American continent to white settlement, beginning circa 1745, was a type of caravan. A well set-up wagon provided its occupants with living quarters as well as a means of transportation for themselves, in Canada, the earliest motorhomes were built on car or truck bodies from about 1910. By the 1920s the RV was well established in the US, with RV camping clubs established across the country, despite the unpaved roads, in Australia, the earliest known motorhome was built in 1929. It is now in the Goolwa Museum, where it has partially restored. It is recognized by both the National Museum of Australia and the National Motor Museum as being the first motorized caravan in Australia and these caravans were built like short railway carriages, about 6.1 metres long, but had wooden wheels with solid rubber tyres and ball bearings.
In the US, the modern RV industry had its beginnings in the late 1920s and 1930s, these started out as mom and pop operations, building their units in garages or back yards. During the 1950s, in addition to travel trailers or trailer coaches, the RV lifestyle is made up of those interested in traveling and camping rather than living in one location, as well as by vacationers. Some travel nearer the equator during the months in their RV and return in spring. There is a large and growing number of fulltimers, people who live full-time in their RV/motorhome, new RVers tend to be DIY technology enthusiasts who develop the products they need on a low budget
Wakarusa is a town in Harrison and Olive townships in Elkhart County, United States. The population was 1,758 at the 2010 census, Wakarusa is a small farming and manufacturing community located on Indiana 19 just north of Indiana 119. The town is 12 miles south of Elkhart,25 miles southeast of South Bend,120 miles east of Chicago, Wakarusa is located at 41°32′4″N 86°0′58″W. According to the 2010 census, Wakarusa has an area of 2.277 square miles. In 1836, rural Olive Township was formed in western Elkhart County, and in 1849, as the population grew, after more population growth, a new village named Salem was established to prevent people from having to travel to either Goshen or Elkhart to conduct business. Since there is already a town named Salem in Indiana, the name was changed to Wakarusa in 1859, the Mt. Olive Post Office was renamed for Wakarusa a year later. Railroad - In 1891 work began on the Wabash Railroad line through town, the line, which connected Chicago with Montpelier, became part of the Norfolk & Western Railway in 1964 and lasted until the 1980s.
Today, the original Wabash depot along with two Norfolk & Western rail cars are featured along with many displays at the Wakarusa Historical Museum. The etymology of the name Wakarusa is not known, according to tradition, the name Wakarusa is from a Native American language, meaning knee deep in mud. A more recent source claims a settler named it after a location in Kansas, as of the census of 2010, there were 1,758 people,665 households, and 448 families residing in the town. The population density was 799.1 inhabitants per square mile, there were 717 housing units at an average density of 325.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96. 0% White,1. 0% African American,0. 1% Native American,1. 0% Asian,0. 9% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 4% of the population. 29. 9% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the town was 42 years. 24. 9% of residents were under the age of 18,7. 2% were between the ages of 18 and 24,22. 1% were from 25 to 44,23. 7% were from 45 to 64, and 22. 2% were 65 years of age or older.
The gender makeup of the town was 45. 8% male and 54. 2% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,618 people,595 households, and 427 families residing in the town. The population density was 716.0 people per square mile, there were 618 housing units at an average density of 273.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97. 34% White,0. 49% African American,0. 19% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,0. 62% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 48% of the population
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Center for Land Use Interpretation
The Center for Land Use Interpretation is a non-profit research organization, based on Venice Boulevard in the Westside Palms neighborhood of the city of Los Angeles, in southern California. The Center employs a variety of methods to this end, engaging in research, extrapolation, the mission statement of the CLUI is to increase and diffuse knowledge about how the nations lands are apportioned and perceived. The organization produces exhibitions about land use phenomenology in the USA, the CLUI produces publications, online resources, tours and other public programs across the country. Activities of the Center are summarized and discussed in its newsletter, The Lay of the Land. The CLUIs main office is in Los Angeles, on Venice Boulevard, across from downtown Culver City and it operates other facilities and interpretive sites in the USA. According to Coolidge, the man made landscape is an inscription that can help us better understand who we are. Writer and curator Lucy Lippard suggests the CLUI occupies “a tantalizing liminal space has opened up between disciplines, between the arts, history, sociology.
”Culture writer Doug Harvey calls the Center, known for its “multidisciplinary examinations of human/landscape interaction, uncategorizable. ”The CLUI executes exhibitions, research projects, and public programs. Many of these exhibitions and public programs, such as guided bus tours and interpretive programs, are described in their respective Programs, the CLUI makes a collection of unusual and exemplary land use sites in the United States available online, through the Land Use Database. Site-specific images in the database are taken by members of the CLUI, another archive of non-site-specific images taken by members of the CLUI, known as the Morgan Cowles Archive, is available online. Official Center for Land Use Interpretation website The CLUI land-use data base
Monaco Coach Corporation
Monaco is a recreational vehicle brand, manufactured in Decatur, Indiana, by Allied Recreation Group. Monaco holds a portfolio of popular Class A Diesel motorhomes, including Diplomat. Monaco is led by Monaco President, Mike Snell, and Allied Recreation Group President, Allied Recreation Group is a subsidiary of Allied Specialty Vehicles. Allied Recreation Group was established in 2013 following the acquisition of Monaco, Allied Recreation Group is one of the leading manufacturers of Class A Gas, Class A Diesel, and Class C Gas products for Fleetwood RV, American Coach, Holiday Rambler and Trek. Monaco was incorporated in 1968 as the Caribou Manufacturing Company, the most popular line was named Monaco. In 1977 the name was changed to Monaco Coach Corporation and it acquired the Roadmaster Chassis Division of Chrysler Corporation in 1984 and the Holiday Rambler Division of Harley-Davidson in 1996. In 1987 Kay Toolson was appointed President, Monaco manufactured seven brands of motorhomes and RVs, including Monaco, Beaver Motorcoach Corporation, Safari Motorcoach Corporation, McKenzie, Holiday Rambler, R-Vision, and Roadmaster Chassis.
In 1994 Monaco President Kay Toolson announced they would move their Junction City operations to the Coburg Industrial Park in Eugene, the Company acquired ten Holiday World Dealerships for $13.0 million, including a $12.0 million subordinated. In 2005, the company had sales of approximately US$1.2 billion, on March 5,2009 the company filed for Chapter 11 bankrutpcy. The order converting the case to Chapter 7 was effective June 30, in 2013 as part of Navistar International Corp. restructuring Monaco RV LLC was sold to Allied Specialty Vehicles Template, Allied Recreation Group Template, Allied Specialty Vehicles
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895