Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin. Spinozas magnum opus, was published posthumously in 1677, the work opposed René Descartes philosophy on mind–body dualism, and earned Spinoza recognition as one of Western philosophys most important thinkers. In the Ethics, Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, hegel said, You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all. His philosophical accomplishments and moral character prompted 20th-century philosopher Gilles Deleuze to name him the prince of philosophers, Spinozas given name, which means Blessed, varies among different languages. In Hebrew, it is written ברוך שפינוזה, in Portuguese, hes called Benedito Bento de Espinosa and in Latin, Benedictus de Spinoza. Spinoza was raised in a Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam and he developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine. Jewish religious authorities issued a herem against him, causing him to be shunned by Jewish society at age 23.
His books were put on the Catholic Churchs Index of Forbidden Books. Spinoza lived a simple life as a lens grinder, turning down rewards and honours throughout his life. He died at the age of 44 allegedly of a lung illness and he is buried in the churchyard of the Christian Nieuwe Kerk in The Hague. The Spinoza family probably had its origins in Espinosa de los Monteros, near Burgos, or in Espinosa de Cerrato, near Palencia, the family was expelled from Spain in 1492 and fled to Portugal. Portugal compelled them to convert to Catholicism in 1498, attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese conversos first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism. In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission, as a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam were highly proud of their identity. Spinozas father was born roughly a century after this conversion in the small Portuguese city of Vidigueira.
When Spinozas father was still a child, Spinozas grandfather, Isaac de Spinoza and they were expelled in 1615 and moved to Rotterdam, where Isaac died in 1627. Spinozas father and his uncle, moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism, Miguel was a successful merchant and became a warden of the synagogue and of the Amsterdam Jewish school. He buried three wives and three of his six children died before reaching adulthood and Rotterdam operated as important cosmopolitan centres where merchant ships from many parts of the world brought people of various customs and beliefs. This flourishing commercial activity encouraged a relatively tolerant of the play of new ideas
The Blind Man and the Lame
The Blind Man and the Lame is a fable that recounts how two individuals collaborate in an effort to overcome their respective disabilities. The theme is first attested in Greek about the first century BCE, stories with this feature occur in Asia and North America. The adaptation by Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian gave rise to the French idiom, Lunion de laveugle et le paralytique, a group of four epigrams in the Greek Anthology concern a blind man and a lame. Plato the Younger states the situation in two wittily contrasting lines, A blind man carried a man on his back, lending him his feet. The three others, who include Leonidas of Alexandria and Antiphilus of Byzantium, comment that by combining in this way the two make a perfect whole. A variation of the story appears in the Jewish Talmud and yet another is told in Islamic tradition as occurring during the boyhood of Jesus, there an emperor declares a general feast and the lame man proposes the means of getting there to the blind. New life was given to the theme in the Renaissance when Andrea Alciato adapted the epigram by Leonidas into Latin, other illustrated emblem books were to give the theme new interpretations.
Jan Sadelers Emblemata evangelica ad XII signa coelestia pictures the pair crossing a bridge in the lower foreground of a majestic landscape. Combining the meaning of both, the print carries the epigraph Mutua si fuerint studia, hic servatur et illa, though the theme was common enough in art, it does not appear in fable collections until Christian Fürchtegott Gellert included it in his verse collection Fabeln und Erzählungen. In this a man in the street asks a cripple for help. When Robert Dodsley adapted the story in the Modern Fables section of his Select fables of Esop and other fabulists, dodsleys version was illustrated by Thomas Bewick and included in his Select Fables of Aesop. Authors up to had been careful to mention that their collections contained fables by Aesop and others, new forms of the fable were to appear elsewhere in Europe. The French fabulist Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian gives his story of Laveugle et le paralytique a completely different urban setting in Asia. The poem is prefaced by a saying of Confucius that the sharing of trouble lightens it, there were two translations of this fable into English.
The other translation, by the Canadian poet Sarah Ann Curzon, was more diffuse, the sceptical Polish bishop Ignacy Krasicki told a story with a completely different ending in his Fables and Parables. There the blind man pays no heed to his lame guide until, after various mishaps, they fall over a precipice. A lame beggar riding on the back of a man takes the story to an even further remove in The Cat and the Moon. The argumentative pair co-operate as they out the holy well of Saint Colman but are never reconciled
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Saint Thomas Aquinas O. P. was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an influential philosopher and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is known as the Doctor Angelicus. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio and he was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism, of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, the works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologiae and the Summa contra Gentiles. His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Churchs liturgy. Thomas Aquinas is considered one of the Catholic Churchs greatest theologians, Pope Benedict XV declared, This Order.
Acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the praises of the Pontiffs. The English philosopher Anthony Kenny considers Aquinas to be one of the dozen greatest philosophers of the western world, Thomas was most probably born in the castle of Roccasecca, located in Aquino, old county of the Kingdom of Sicily, c.1225. According to some authors, he was born in the castle of his father, though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger II, he held the title miles, Thomass mother, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family. Landulfs brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and it was here that Thomas was probably introduced to Aristotle and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy. There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry and music was Petrus de Ibernia, at the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the recently founded Dominican Order.
Thomass change of heart did not please his family, in an attempt to prevent Theodoras interference in Thomass choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome, and from Rome, to Paris. Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomass release, which had the effect of extending Thomass detention, Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order. Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas, who remained determined to join the Dominicans, at one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and that night two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate. By 1244, seeing all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the familys dignity. In her mind, an escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans
Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead OM FRS was an English mathematician and philosopher. In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics and his most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica, which he wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Beginning in the late 1910s and early 1920s, Whitehead gradually turned his attention from mathematics to philosophy of science and he developed a comprehensive metaphysical system which radically departed from most of western philosophy. Today Whiteheads philosophical works – particularly Process and Reality – are regarded as the texts of process philosophy. For this reason, one of the most promising applications of Whiteheads thought in recent years has been in the area of ecological civilization, cobb, Jr. Alfred North Whitehead was born in Ramsgate, England, in 1861. His father, Alfred Whitehead, was a minister and schoolmaster of Chatham House Academy, Whitehead himself recalled both of them as being very successful schoolmasters, but that his grandfather was the more extraordinary man.
Whiteheads mother was Maria Sarah Whitehead, formerly Maria Sarah Buckmaster, Whitehead was apparently not particularly close with his mother, as he never mentioned her in any of his writings, and there is evidence that Whiteheads wife, had a low opinion of her. Whitehead was educated at Sherborne School, considered one of the best public schools in the country and his childhood was described as over-protected, but when at school he excelled in sports and mathematics and was head prefect of his class. In 1880, Whitehead began attending Trinity College and his academic advisor was Edward John Routh. He earned his BA from Trinity in 1884, and graduated as fourth wrangler, in 1890, Whitehead married Evelyn Wade, an Irish woman raised in France, they had a daughter, Jessie Whitehead, and two sons, Thomas North Whitehead and Eric Whitehead. Eric Whitehead died in action serving in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I at the age of 19. In 1910, Whitehead resigned his Senior Lectureship in Mathematics at Trinity, toward the end of his time in England, Whitehead turned his attention to philosophy.
Though he had no advanced training in philosophy, his work soon became highly regarded. After publishing The Concept of Nature in 1920, he served as president of the Aristotelian Society from 1922 to 1923, in 1924, Henry Osborn Taylor invited the 63-year-old Whitehead to join the faculty at Harvard University as a professor of philosophy. During his time at Harvard, Whitehead produced his most important philosophical contributions, in 1925, he wrote Science and the Modern World, which was immediately hailed as an alternative to the Cartesian dualism that plagued popular science. A few years later, he published his seminal work Process and Reality, the Whiteheads spent the rest of their lives in the United States. Alfred North retired from Harvard in 1937 and remained in Cambridge, the two volume biography of Whitehead by Victor Lowe is the most definitive presentation of the life of Whitehead. However, many details of Whiteheads life remain obscure because he left no Nachlass, Whitehead was known for his almost fanatical belief in the right to privacy, and for writing very few personal letters of the kind that would help to gain insight on his life
The hypothesis was formulated by the chemist James Lovelock and co-developed by the microbiologist Lynn Margulis in the 1970s. Even so, the Gaia hypothesis continues to attract criticism, and today some scientists consider it to be only weakly supported by, or at odds with, in 2006, the Geological Society of London awarded Lovelock the Wollaston Medal in part for his work on the Gaia hypothesis. Gaian hypotheses suggest that organisms co-evolve with their environment, that is, they influence their environment. This is not the work of an individual but a collective of Russian scientific research that was combined into this peer reviewed publication and it states the coevolution of life and the environment through “micro–forces” and biogeochemical processes. An example is how the activity of bacteria during Precambrian times have completely modified the Earth atmosphere to turn it aerobic. Less accepted versions of the claim that changes in the biosphere are brought about through the coordination of living organisms.
In some versions of Gaia philosophy, all lifeforms are considered part of one single living planetary being called Gaia, in this view, the atmosphere, the seas and the terrestrial crust would be results of interventions carried out by Gaia through the coevolving diversity of living organisms. The Gaia hypothesis posits that the Earth is a complex system involving the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrospheres. The hypothesis contends that this system as a whole, called Gaia, Gaia evolves through a cybernetic feedback system operated unconsciously by the biota, leading to broad stabilization of the conditions of habitability in a full homeostasis. Many processes in the Earths surface essential for the conditions of life depend on the interaction of living forms, especially microorganisms and this, he suggests tended to screen out ultraviolet until the formation of the ozone screen, maintaining a degree of homeostasis. These epochs are evidence against the ability of the pre Phanerozoic biosphere to fully self-regulate, processing of the greenhouse gas CO2, explained below, plays a critical role in the maintenance of the Earth temperature within the limits of habitability.
The CLAW hypothesis, inspired by the Gaia hypothesis, proposes a feedback loop that operates between ocean ecosystems and the Earths climate, Lovelock has stated that this could bring an extremely accelerated global warming, but he has since stated the effects will likely occur more slowly. The model demonstrates that beneficial feedback mechanisms can emerge in this toy world containing only self-interested organisms rather than through classic group selection mechanisms, Daisyworld examines the energy budget of a planet populated by two different types of plants, black daisies and white daisies. The colour of the influences the albedo of the planet such that black daisies absorb light and warm the planet, while white daisies reflect light. As the model runs the output of the sun increases, meaning that the temperature of an uninhabited gray planet will steadily rise. In contrast, on Daisyworld competition between the leads to a shifting balance of daisy populations that tends to favour a planetary temperature close to the optimum for daisy growth.
It has been suggested that the results were predictable because Lovelock, ocean salinity has been constant at about 3. 5% for a very long time. Salinity stability in oceanic environments is important as most cells require a rather constant salinity, the constant ocean salinity was a long-standing mystery, because no process counterbalancing the salt influx from rivers was known
Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts OM, CH, ED, PC, KC, FRS was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924. Smuts subsequently lost the 1948 election to hard-line Afrikaners who created apartheid and he continued to work for reconciliation and emphasised the British Commonwealth’s positive role until his death in 1950. He led a Boer Commando in the Second Boer War for the Transvaal, during the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa. From 1917 to 1919, he was one of the members of the British Imperial War Cabinet. He became a marshal in the British Army in 1941. He was the man to sign both of the peace treaties ending the First and Second World Wars. A statue of him stands in Parliament Square and he was born on 24 May 1870, at the family farm, near Malmesbury, in the Cape Colony.
His parents, Jacobus Smuts and his wife Catharina, were prosperous, traditional Afrikaner farmers, long established, Jan was quiet and delicate as a child, strongly inclined towards solitary pursuits. During his childhood, he went out alone, exploring the surrounding countryside, this awakened a passion for nature. As the second son of the family, rural custom dictated that he would remain working on the farm, however, in 1882, when Jan was twelve, his elder brother died, and Jan was sent to school in his brothers place. Jan attended the school in nearby Riebeek West and he made excellent progress here, despite his late start, and caught up with his contemporaries within four years. He moved on to Victoria College, Stellenbosch, in 1886, at Stellenbosch, he learned High Dutch and Ancient Greek, and immersed himself further in literature, the classics, and Bible studies. His deeply traditional upbringing and serious outlook led to isolation from his peers. However, he made outstanding academic progress, graduating in 1891 with double First-class honours in Literature and Science.
During his last years at Stellenbosch, Smuts began to cast off some of his shyness and reserve, and it was at time that he met Isie Krige. On graduation from Victoria College, Smuts won the Ebden scholarship for overseas study and he decided to travel to the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom to read law at Christs College, Cambridge. Smuts found it difficult to settle at Cambridge, he felt homesick and isolated by his age, worries over money contributed to his unhappiness, as his scholarship was insufficient to cover his university expenses
Alfred W. Adler was an Austrian medical doctor and founder of the school of individual psychology. His emphasis on the importance of feelings of inferiority—the inferiority complex—is recognized as an element which plays a key role in personality development. Alfred Adler considered human beings as a whole, therefore he called his psychology Individual Psychology. Adler was the first to emphasize the importance of the element in the re-adjustment process of the individual. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Adler as the 67th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Alfred Adler was born at Mariahilfer Straße 208 in Rudolfsheim, a village on the fringes of Vienna, and today part of Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus. He was third of the seven children of a Hungarian-born, Jewish grain merchant, others contend that he was the second of the children. Alfreds younger brother died in the bed next to him, when Alfred was only three years old, Alfred was an active, popular child and an average student who was known for his competitive attitude toward his older brother, Sigmund.
Early on, he developed rickets, which kept him from walking until he was four years old, at the age of four, he developed pneumonia and heard a doctor say to his father, Your boy is lost. At that point, he decided to be a physician and he was very interested in the subjects of psychology and philosophy. After studying at University of Vienna, he specialized as an eye doctor and his clients included circus people, and it has been suggested that the unusual strengths and weaknesses of the performers led to his insights into organ inferiorities and compensation. In 1902 Adler received an invitation from Sigmund Freud to join an informal group that included Rudolf Reitler. The group, the Wednesday Society, met regularly on Wednesday evenings at Freuds home and was the beginning of the psychoanalytic movement, a long-serving member of the group, Adler became president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society eight years later. He remained a member of the Society until 1911, when he and a group of his supporters formally disengaged from Freuds circle and this departure suited both Freud and Adler, since they had grown to dislike each other.
During his association with Freud, Adler frequently maintained his own ideas which diverged from Freuds. While Adler is often referred to as a pupil of Freuds, in fact this was never true, they were colleagues, in 1929 Adler showed a reporter with the New York Herald a copy of the faded postcard that Freud had sent him in 1902. He wanted to prove that he had never been a disciple of Freuds, Adler founded the Society for Individual Psychology in 1912 after his break from the psychoanalytic movement. Adlers group initially included some orthodox Nietzschean adherents and their enmity aside, Adler retained a lifelong admiration for Freuds ideas on dreams and credited him with creating a scientific approach to their clinical utilization
A holon is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. The word was coined by Arthur Koestler in his book The Ghost in the Machine, Koestler was compelled by two observations in proposing the notion of the holon. The first observation was influenced by Nobel Prize winner Herbert A, the second observation was made by Koestler himself in his analysis of hierarchies and stable intermediate forms in non-living matter, living organisms, and social organizations. He concluded that, although it is easy to identify sub-wholes or parts, Koestler proposed the word holon to describe the hybrid nature of sub-wholes and parts within in vivo systems. From this perspective, holons exist simultaneously as self-contained wholes in relation to their sub-ordinate parts, Koestler says holons are autonomous, self-reliant units that possess a degree of independence and handle contingencies without asking higher authorities for instructions. These holons are subject to control from one or more of these higher authorities. A holon is a system that is an evolving self-organizing dissipative structure, composed of other holons and it is sometimes discussed in the context of self-organizing holarchic open systems.
Holons range in size from the smallest subatomic particles and strings, all the way up to the multiverse, individual humans, their societies and their cultures are intermediate level holons, created by the interaction of forces working upon us both top-down and bottom-up. O. Wilson, Frederick Turner and Arthur Koestler, since a holon is embedded in larger wholes, it is influenced by and influences these larger wholes. And since a holon contains subsystems, or parts, it is influenced by. Information flows bidirectionally between smaller and larger systems as well as rhizomatic contagion, cancer may be understood as such a breakdown in the biological realm. A hierarchy of holons is called a holarchy, the holarchic model can be seen as an attempt to modify and modernise perceptions of natural hierarchy. Ken Wilber comments that the test of holon hierarchy is that if all instances of a type of holon cease to exist. Wilbers concept is known as the doctrine of the fundamental and the significant, a hydrogen atom is more fundamental than an ant, but an ant is more significant.
The doctrine of the fundamental and the significant is contrasted by the radical rhizome oriented pragmatics of Deleuze and Guattari, a significant feature of Koestlers concept of holarchy is that it is open ended both in the macrocosmic as well as in the microcosmic dimensions. This aspect of his theory has important implications. For example, if we take string theory to be legitimate and those are just the present limits of the reach of the human mind in the two dimensions. Humans will cross those limits eventually, because they do not encompass the whole of reality, in other words, the human quest for knowledge is an unending journey with innumerable grand sights ahead but with no possibility of reaching the journeys end
Richard Buckminster Bucky Fuller was an American architect, systems theorist, author and inventor. Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as Spaceship Earth, ephemeralization and he developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were named by scientists for their structural and mathematical resemblance to geodesic spheres, Fuller was the second World President of Mensa from 1974 to 1983. Fuller was born on July 12,1895, in Milton, the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews and he spent much of his youth on Bear Island, in Penobscot Bay off the coast of Maine. He often made items from materials he found in the woods and he experimented with designing a new apparatus for human propulsion of small boats. Later in life, Fuller took exception to the term invention, Fuller earned a machinists certification, and knew how to use the press brake, stretch press, and other tools and equipment used in the sheet metal trade.
Fuller attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts, and after that studying at Harvard College. He was expelled from Harvard twice, first for spending all his money partying with a vaudeville troupe, by his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment. Between his sessions at Harvard, Fuller worked in Canada as a mechanic in a textile mill, and as a laborer in the meat-packing industry. He served in the U. S. Navy in World War I, as a radio operator, as an editor of a publication. After discharge, he worked again in the packing industry. In 1917, he married Anne Hewlett, Buckminster Fuller recalled 1927 as a pivotal year of his life. His daughter Alexandra had died in 1922 of complications from polio, Fuller dwelled on her death, suspecting that it was connected with the Fullers damp and drafty living conditions. This provided motivation for Fullers involvement in Stockade Building Systems, a business which aimed to provide affordable, in 1927, at age 32, Fuller lost his job as president of Stockade.
The Fuller family had no savings, and the birth of their daughter Allegra in 1927 added to the financial challenges, Fuller drank heavily and reflected upon the solution to his familys struggles on long walks around Chicago. During the autumn of 1927, Fuller contemplated suicide, so that his family could benefit from an insurance payment. Fuller said that he had experienced a profound incident which would provide direction and he felt as though he was suspended several feet above the ground enclosed in a white sphere of light. A voice spoke directly to Fuller, and declared, From now on you need never await temporal attestation to your thought and you do not have the right to eliminate yourself
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press is a publishing house established on January 13,1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing. In 2005, it published 220 new titles and it is a member of the Association of American University Presses. Its current director is William P. Sisler and the editor-in-chief is Susan Wallace Boehmer, the press maintains offices in Cambridge, near Harvard Square, in New York City, and in London, England. The Display Room in Harvard Square, dedicated to selling HUP publications, HUP owns the Belknap Press imprint, which it inaugurated in May 1954 with the publication of the Harvard Guide to American History. The John Harvard Library book series is published under the Belknap imprint, Harvard University Press distributes the Loeb Classical Library and is the publisher of the I Tatti Renaissance Library, the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, and the Murty Classical Library of India. It is distinct from Harvard Business Press, which is part of Harvard Business Publishing, Harvard University Press books Hall, Max.
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