Hollow-point bullet

A hollow-point bullet is an expanding bullet. It is used for controlled penetration. In target shooting, they are used for greater accuracy due to the larger meplat. Hollow point bullets are more accurate and predictable compared to pointed bullets which, despite having a higher ballistic coefficient, are more sensitive to bullet harmonic characteristics and wind deflection. Plastic-tipped bullets are a type of bullet meant to confer the aerodynamic advantage of the spitzer bullet and the stopping power of hollow point bullets; when a hollow-point hunting bullet strikes a soft target, the pressure created in the pit forces the material around the inside edge to expand outwards, increasing the axial diameter of the projectile as it passes through. This process is referred to as mushrooming, because the resulting shape, a widened, rounded nose on top of a cylindrical base resembles a mushroom; the greater frontal surface area of the expanded bullet limits its depth of penetration into the target, causes more extensive tissue damage along the wound path.

Many hollow-point bullets those intended for use at high velocity in centerfire rifles, are jacketed, i.e. a portion of the lead-cored bullet is wrapped in a thin layer of harder metal, such as copper, brass, or mild steel. This jacket provides additional strength to the bullet, increases penetration, can help prevent it from leaving deposits of lead inside the bore. In controlled expansion bullets, the jacket and other internal design characteristics help to prevent the bullet from breaking apart. For bullets designed for target shooting, some such as the Sierra "Matchking" incorporate a cavity in the nose, called the meplat; this allows the manufacturer to maintain a greater consistency in tip shape and thus aerodynamic properties among bullets of the same design, at the expense of a decreased ballistic coefficient and higher drag. The result is a decreased overall accuracy between bullet trajectory and barrel direction, as well as an increased susceptibility to wind drift, but closer grouping of subsequent shots due to bullet consistency increasing the shooter's perceived accuracy.

The manufacturing process of hollow-point bullets produces a flat, uniformly-shaped base on the bullet which increases accuracy by providing a more consistent piston surface for the expanding gases of the cartridge. Match or target hollow-point bullets are designed for precision target use and no consideration is given to their expansion or other terminal ballistic performance; the United States military uses open-tip ammunition in some sniper rifles due to its exceptional accuracy. This ammunition is arguably not prohibited by military convention in that the wounds that it produces are similar to full metal jacket ammunition in practice. A hollow-point boat-tail bullet is a match-grade bullet design that uses the concept of a teardrop-shaped tail to give it a lower drag coefficient and make it produce less turbulence in its wake. Only the base of the bullet has a boat tail-like shape – the meplat is still pointed; some hollow-point boat-tail bullets with longer, more aerodynamic profiles are known as very-low-drag bullets.

Terminal ballistics testing of hollow point bullets is performed in ballistic gelatin, or some other medium intended to simulate tissue and cause a hollow point bullet to expand. Test results are given in terms of expanded diameter, penetration depth, weight retention. Expanded diameter is an indication of the size of the wound cavity, penetration depth shows if vital organs could be reached by the bullet, weight retention indicates how much of the bullet mass fragmented and separated from the main body of the bullet. How these factors are interpreted depends on the intended use of the bullet, there are no universally agreed-upon ideal metrics. Solid lead bullets, when cast from a soft alloy, will deform and provide some expansion if they hit the target at a high velocity. This, combined with the limited velocity and penetration attainable with muzzleloading firearms, meant there was little need for extra expansion; the first hollow-point bullets were marketed in the late 19th century as express bullets, were hollowed out to reduce the bullet's mass and provide higher velocities.

In addition to providing increased velocities, the hollow turned out to provide significant expansion when the bullets were cast in a soft lead alloy. Intended for rifles, the popular.32-20.38-40, and.44-40 calibers could be fired in revolvers. With the advent of smokeless powder, velocities increased, bullets got smaller and lighter; these new bullets needed to be jacketed to handle the conditions of firing. The new full metal jacket bullets tended to penetrate straight through a target causing less internal damage than a bullet that expands and stops in its target; this led to the development of the soft point bullet and jacketed hollow-point bullets at the British arsenal in Dum Dum, near Calcutta around 1890. Designs included the.455" Mk III "Manstopper" cartridges. Although such bullet designs were outlawed for use in warfare, they gained ground among hunters due to the ability to control the expansion of the new high velocity cartridges. In modern ammunition, the use of hollow points is limited to handgun ammunition, which tends to operate at much lower velocities than rifle ammunition (on the order of 1,000 feet per second versus ov

Warp (video games)

A warp known as a portal or teleporter, is an element in video game design that allows a player character instant travel between two locations or levels. Specific areas that allow such travel are referred to as warp zones. A warp zone might be a secret passage, accessible only to players capable of finding it, but they are commonly used as a primary mean of travel in certain games. Warps might be deliberately installed within puzzles, be used to avoid danger in sections of a game that have been accomplished, be something a player can abuse for cheating or be used as a punishment to a player straying from the "correct" path. In some games, a player can only use warps to travel to locations; because of this, a player has to make the journey by normal route at least once, but are not required to travel the same paths again if they need to revisit earlier areas in the game. Finding warp zones might become a natural goal of a gaming session, being used as a checkpoint. Though it is unclear which video game first made use of teleportation areas or devices, the element has been traced back to MUDs, where it allowed connected rooms to not be "topologically correct" if necessary.

The element was popularized by Super Mario Bros. in which secret areas referred to within the game as warp zones allowed players to skip forward through the game. Author Luke Cuddy states that warps are used to keep the players entertained by "allowing them to jump to the next gameplay goal, straight into the action." However, he has criticized them for robbing the player of the sensation of "being in" a virtual world, stating that "y emphasizing destination over the places in between, warping encourages a'quick visit, move-on-to-the-next-place' mentality that frames space as disposable." Warps may weaken the player's knowledge of spatial relationships. Ernest Adams critiques possible unexpected behavior by warp zones: "Teleporters can further complicate matters by not always working the same way, teleporting the player to one place the first time they are used, but to somewhere else the second time, so on, they can be one-way or two-way, teleporting players somewhere with no way to get back, or allowing them to teleport again."Despite the linear simplicity of Super Mario Bros. the game has been described as having a "surprising amount of depth and spatial complexity" in part due to secret warp zones found through the game.

Portal is a critically acclaimed game. Teleportation Teleportation in fiction Wraparound

Anton Shipulin

Anton Vladimirovich Shipulin is a retired Russian biathlete and politician serving as the member of the State Duma since 2019. Absolute champion of European Biathlon Championship 2008; the bronze medallist of the Winter Olympic Games 2010. He was the best Russian biathlon marksman in the same season, he got a medal "For merits before Fatherland" from Russian president after the Winter Olympic Games 2010. Together with Evgeny Ustyugov, Alexey Volkov and Dmitry Malyshko he won the gold medal in the Men´s Relay at the 2014 Winter Olympics, in Sochi, Russia, his sister Anastasiya Kuzmina, is the Olympic champion in the 7.5 km sprint at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. On 25 December 2018, Shipulin announced his retirement from sports after the World Team Challenge. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 2 medals *The mixed relay was added as an event in 2014. 7 medals *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program.

6 medals 11 victories *Results are from UIPMB and IBU races which include the Biathlon World Cup, Biathlon World Championships and the Winter Olympic Games. In January 2019, Shipulin announced that he would be a candidate for the United Russia nomination in the 2019 State Duma by-election in Serov constituency. In the primary on 26 May, Shipulin defeated 5 other candidates, scored 78.13% and won nomination from United Russia. In the by-election on 8 September, Shipulin won, gaining 41.59%. Anton Shipulin at and from IBU Profile on Anton Shipulin, Biathlon’s driven relay man