Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Nordre Toldbod is a waterfront area in Copenhagen, located at the north end of Larsens Plads and just south of Kastellet. It takes its name after the house or toldbod which used to be located in the area. Among the modern buildings in the area are the headquarters of Mærsk, the area is adjacent to Churchill and Langelinie Parks. In Copenhagen, customs duties have been collected from ships since the 13th century, in 1617, the Royal Anchor Forge came into use as a custom house but when the kings grand plans for St. In 1628, it was moved back across the harbour where a new house had been constructed on a filled site north of the city. The entrance to the harbour was blocked with a barrier at night which marked the boundary between the northern and southern custom house areas. King Christian VI ordered the construction of a new house which was completed on the same site in 1734 to a Baroque design by Johan Cornelius Krieger. The quay at Nordre Toldbod served as the place where foreign monarchs and it was the place where the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen was received, with great festivity, on 17 September 1838, when he returned home after four decades in Rome.
The last decades of the 19th century brought change to the area, the new Free Port was inaugurated just north of Kastellet in 1884. Christian VIs custom house at the boundary between Søndre and Nordre Toldbod was torn down in 1891 to make way for a new warehouse for goods in transit, in 1973 the majority of the buildings in the area were torn down. Most of the land was sold to A. P. Møller-Mærsk which built a new head office designed by Ole Hagen on the corner of Nordre Toldbod and Esplanaden between 1974 and 1979. To the south of that, a new building for the Customs Department was constructed to a design by Niels, the latter has been taken over by the Danish Energy Agency. Vilhelm Dahlerups building from 1868 for the Port Authority marks the boundary of the quayside space at Nordre Toldbod. The design was inspired by Italian Renaissance architecture and the building consisted of two stories with a small one-story appendix topped by a balustrade on each side. The original building was extended with a floor by Einar Madvig.
The building is now the office of By & Havn. Located just south of the Port Authority Building, the main entrance to the Nordre Toldbod area is a gate with gate pillars topped by lions. Just inside the gate, the road passes between two long one-story buildings with 8-arch arcades facing the traffic
Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was largely the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors, the ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, Christian IVs modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip, in the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug, due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain.
The uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen, the Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was laid out and incorporated as a market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city and this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By, the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv.
The new Østervold would be an extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse. However, the 1630s was a time of crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by forces in the first half of the 1640s. The new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, in 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened, in 1852, the Line of Demarcation was partially disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Gammelholm is a predominantly residential neighbourhood in the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by the Nyhavn canal, Kongens Nytorv, Holmens Kanal, Niels Juels Gade, the new neighbourhood was planned by Ferdinand Meldahl and has been referred to as Meldahls Nine Streets. In the beginning of the 16th century land reclamations annexed the island to Zealand and in 1510, under the reign of Hans of Denmark, a ropewalk at the site is first mentioned in 1555 and an anchor forge was built in 1563. When King Christian IV commenced his modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen, he extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm to the beach. The moat in front of the rampart was expanded to form the Holmen Canal, in the first decades of the 17th century, Christian IV built a considerable amount of housing for higher-ranked naval personnel at Bremerholm. This prompted a demand for a church, leading to the conversion of the anchor forge, now located on the far side of the Holmen Canal.
In 1631 the barracks at Bremerholm were supplemented by Nyboder in the far north of Copenhagen which was built to satisfy the demand for housing for lower-ranked crew members of the nacys vessels, around the same time, a large prison was inaugurated at Bremerholm. Much of the work in the shipyards was based on forced labour carried out by convicts from the facility. The rope walk came to mark the boundary between the square and rest of Bremerholm, together and Nyholm remained for a long time the largest employer in Denmark. In 1778 the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden relocated from Amaliegade to the garden behind Charlottenborg Palace and it was at Gammelholm that the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 broke out. In 1859 the Navy decommissioned their last operations at Gammelholm, at the same time the Canal of Holmen was filled and converted into a prominent new street. Construction in the began in 1861 and was completed in 1876. Apart from the buildings, a number of new institutions. A new building for the Royal Danish Theatre, which had been located nearby since 1754, was built on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and the filled Holmens Kanal.
A new building designed by Meldahl and Ludvig Fenger for the Royal Mint was completed in 1873 on land which was previously part Botanical Garden which had left the area in 1879. Gammelholm was planned with broad streets inspired by Paris, an inspiration Meldahl relied on elsewhere, typically of the time, the residential buildings were not designed by architects but the master builders who constructed them. The area was built up with blocks with elegant, richly decorated Historicist fronts facing the street but drab. Lots were sold at high prices and developers therefore utilized space to the utmost
Dead end (street)
A dead end, known as a cul-de-sac, is a street with only one inlet/outlet. While historically built for reasons, one of its modern uses is to calm vehicle traffic. The term dead end is understood in all varieties of English, some of these are used only regionally. In the United States and other countries, cul-de-sac is often not a synonym for dead end and refers to dead ends with a circular end. See below for regionally used terms, Dead ends existed in towns and cities long before the automotive 20th century, particularly in Arab and Moorish towns. The earliest example was unearthed in the El-Lahun workers village in Egypt, the village is laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to a grid, but irregular. Dead-end streets appeared during the period of Athens and Rome. The 15th century architect and planner Leon Battista Alberti implies in his writings that dead-end streets may have been used intentionally in antiquity for defense purposes, the same opinion is expressed by an earlier thinker, when he criticized the Hippodamian grid.
But for security in war the opposite, as it used to be in ancient times, for that is difficult for foreign troops to enter and find their way about when attacking. In the UK, their existence is implied by an 1875 law which banned their use in new developments. In the earlier periods, traffic was excluded from residential streets simply by gates or by employing the cul-de-sac and it was in the UK that the cul-de-sac street type was first legislated into use, with The Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906. Unwins applications of the cul-de-sac and the related crescent always included pedestrian paths independent of the road network, the 1906 Act defined the nature of the cul-de-sac as a non-through road and restricted its length to 500 feet. Garden cities in the UK that followed Hampstead, such as Welwyn Garden City all included culs-de-sac, the US Federal Housing Authority recommended and promoted their use through their 1936 guidelines and the power of lending development funds. In Canada, a variation of Stein’s Radburn 1929 plan that used crescents instead of culs-de-sac was built in 1947 in Manitoba, Wildwood Park, the Varsity Village and Braeside, subdivisions in Calgary, Alberta used the Radburn model in the late 1960s.
Although dead end streets, i. e. Doxiadis has additionally argued their important role in separating man from machine, originally unplanned dead ends have been created in the centers of cities that are laid on a grid by blocking through traffic. A recent variation of limiting traffic is the closure by using retractable bollards which are activated by designated card holders only. However, not only do they stop cars, they stop ambulances and other emergency vehicles, Dead ends are created in urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential areas. This design improvement, which selectively excludes one mode of transport while permitting others and its application retains the dead ends primary function as a non-through road, but establishes complete pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles. Being smaller than other such as destroyers and frigates, missile boats are popular with nations interested in forming a navy at lower cost. They are similar in concept to the boats of World War II, in fact. The doctrine behind the use of boats is based on the principle of mobility over defence. This trend culminated in the giant battleships of World War II, endurance was limited to 1,000 nautical miles at 12 knots and the vessels had fuel and supplies for only five days at sea. 112 Komar-class vessels were produced, while over 400 examples were built of the following Osa-class missile boat, being relatively small and constructed of wood, the Komar-class boats had a very small radar cross-section. Its sophisticated radar enabled the boat, with its low radar reflectivity, to detect a larger enemy ship before the latter was aware of its presence, fire its missiles. Soviet naval architects had designed them with these characteristics to give the small boats this advantage against much larger American naval ships should they attempt to attack the Russian coast, the boats were designed for coastal operations, with limited endurance.
The Soviet-built boats prompted a NATO response, which became more intense after the sinking of Eilat, the Germans and French worked together to produce their own missile boat, resulting in the La Combattante class. Built until 1974, a total of 68 Combattante IIs were launched, the design was immediately followed by the Combattante III which added 9 metres to hull length but kept the same armament,43 of this type were produced. Several other countries produced their own versions of the Combattante, notably Israel with the Saar 3, the two key operations in which these vessels played an active role were Operation Trident and Operation Python. The attacks destroyed half of the Pakistani Navy and most of Pakistans naval fuel reserves in the fuel storage tanks which cleared the way for the decisive victory of the Indian Armed Forces. The first of these became known as the Battle of Latakia. During this and battles, some fifty Gabriels and a number of Styx missiles were fired, seven Syrian ships were sunk.
At the Battle of Bubiyan in 1991 Iraqi missile boats were destroyed by British air-to-surface missiles, such as the German Gepard class and Finnish Hamina class are equipped with surface-to-air missiles and countermeasures. The size of boats has increased, with some designs now at corvette size,800 tonnes including a helicopter. In April 1996 during Israels Operation Grapes of Wrath, IDF naval forces used Saar 4 and Saar 4.5 boats to shell the Lebanese coast with 76 mm fire, in conjunction with artillery and air attacks. Iran and North Korea have some of the largest numbers of boats in operation today
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746 until his death. He was the son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Frederick was born on 31 March 1723 at Copenhagen Castle. He was the grandson of King Frederick IV of Denmark and the son of Crown Prince Christian, on 12 October 1730, King Frederick IV died and Fredericks father ascended the throne as King Christian VI. Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene were deeply devoted to Pietism, although not unfamiliar with religious sentiments, Frederick grew into a hedonist who enjoyed the pleasures of life such as wine and women. His mother ironically referred to him as Der Dänische Prinz because he occasionally spoke Danish, Fredericks propensity for debauchery accelerated his marriage negotiations. He was married at Altona, Holstein, on 11 December 1743 to Princess Louise of Great Britain, daughter of King George II and they were the parents of six children, but one was stillborn.
Meanwhile, Frederick continued to enjoy liaisons with others. During the years 1746-51, the king had a favorite named Madam Hansen who bore him five children, the Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Tørrisen Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin. This was probably third June 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were opposed to the Masons, but unlike the Prussian king. As an active Freemason, he set up on 24 June 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway, on 6 August 1746 – the day before his parentss silver marriage festivities– his father died at Hirschholm Palace, the royal familys summer retreat. Christian VI was interred in Roskilde Cathedral and Louise immediately ascended Denmark-Norways throne, being anointed in Frederiksborg Palaces Chapel the following year. The personal influence of Frederick was limited, making him one of absolute rulers who least made for the states strength and these men marked his reign by the progress of commerce and the emerging industry of gunpowder plant and cannon foundry in Frederiksværk, built by Johan Frederik Classen.
They avoided involving Denmark in the European wars of his time, in the same period the Royal Frederiks Hospital and the Royal Orphanage was created, a school intended for poor boys that still exists today, opened in Christianshavn on 1 October 1753. On 29 June 1753 Frederick V created Denmarks first lottery, called the Royal Copenhagen Lottery - a lottery that exists to this day as Klasselotteriet, one of his main tasks was to take care that his dissolute Majesty didnt damage the Royal households reputation with his constant orgies. Frederick purchased what would become known as the Danish West Indies from the Danish West India Company in 1754. Louise died suddenly on 19 December 1751 at Christiansborg Palace, predeceasing her husband by fourteen years and causing great impact on the family and the courts life. She was buried with great pomp at Roskilde Cathedral, at the time of her death, she was pregnant with her sixth child, who died
Philip de Lange
Philip de Lange was a leading Dutch-Danish architect who designed many different types of building in various styles including Dutch Baroque and Rococo. Philip de Lange was probably born near Strasbourg and was trained as a mason in the Netherlands and he arrived in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1729 where he quickly gained a reputation as an architect and master builder. De Lange married twice, first with Jacomine Pieters in the Hague, de Lange created a large number of works of various types including civil and military buildings, country houses, factories and parks. The Dutch Baroque influence in his work can, for example, be seen in the premises he built for Ziegler. While initially he appears to have been struck by Ewert Janssens earlier work, he seems to have been influenced by Elias Häusser. Like Krieger, he participated strongly in creating fine bourgeois dwellings in Copenhagen and his most notable achievements include the Headquarters of the Asiatic Company in Christianshavn, the Masting Crane on Holmen and Stephen Hansens Mansion in Helsingør.
He adapted Glorup Manor on Funen to the Baroque style adding a magnificent mansard roof, for almost 30 years, de Lange was the leading master builder at the Holmen Naval Station. Among other things, he constructed 24 Nyboder two-storey houses from 1754 to 1756, de Lange is remembered above all for his fine, simple buildings in the classical Rococo style. A good example is Damsholte Church on the island of Møn, architecture of Denmark Wedell Mansion Elling, Philip de Lange. 1931,48 pp. Rikke Tønnes, Stephen Hansens palæ - Bygherren - Arkitekten Philip de Lange - Livet i og omkring et helsingørsk handelshus, Arkitektens Forlag,1997,228 pp
Gunboat Sheds, Copenhagen
The Gunboat Sheds is a row of 32 black-painted wooden sheds located on the east coast of Frederiksholm, part of Holmen, in Copenhagen, Denmark. Built in the first half of the 19th century for the base which used to occupy the grounds. The gunboats were used in the last stage of the English Wars, the small gunboats were employed against the conventional Royal British Navy. Built to provide protection for the gunboats when they were not in use. Each shed could accommodate two gunboats, when the gunboats were replaced by more modern vessels, the sheds remained in use for storing motor boats and other smaller vessels. They were listed in 1964 but had fallen into a state of neglect by the time the Navy left Holmen in 1996 and they were sold in 1998 and in 1999 to Søtoftegård A/S and Keops A/S. The new owners undertook a restoration and adapted the buildings for use as office space with the assistance of PLH Architects. On 18 August 2006 a fire destroyed five sheds in the middle of the row, since the renovation, the sheds have housed small businesses mainly in the creative sector, such as advertising agencies, media houses and architectural practises.
The tenants include KHR Arkitekter and the short-lived newspaper Dagen was based there, the street Kanonbådsvej is named after the sheds
Copenhagen Opera House
The Copenhagen Opera House is the national opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. It is one of the most expensive houses ever built with construction costs well over US$500 million. It is located on the island of Holmen in central Copenhagen, the A. P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation donated the Opera House to the Danish state in August 2000. Architect Henning Larsen and engineers Ramboll and Buro Happold and Theatre Consultant Theatreplan designed the facility, the acoustics were designed by Arup Acoustics and Speirs and Major Associates designed the architectural lighting. A. P. Møller had the say in the design of the building, adding steel to the glass front. Construction began in June 2001 and was completed on October 1,2004 and it opened on January 15,2005, in the presence of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, and Queen Margrethe II. The tenor Plácido Domingo made a gala guest appearance as Sigmund in Wagners Die Walküre on April 7,2006, in a production by Kasper Bech Holten), the Denmark leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place here.
The Opera is located in Copenhagen just opposite the main castle Amalienborg at the shore of the harbour, the specific part of the island where the Opera was built is named Dokøen, which means the Dock Island. Just a few meters west of the opera, one can see an old dock. The house is administered by the Royal Danish Theatre and is one of the best-equipped in the world and it has a main stage with five other stages directly connected, where large setups can be moved easily in and out. The theatre can seat between 1492 and 1703, depending on the size of the orchestra, the 1492 seats are all individually angled in order to provide the best experience. The orchestra pit is one of the largest in any house, with room for 110 musicians. However, the overhang is very slight and the authorities have permitted this to happen, if the orchestra is small or absent, the pit can be covered and additional seats can be added to the auditorium. Just like the old Royal Danish Theatre in Copenhagen, The Queen has her own box on the side of the auditorium.
Guided tours cover most of the building, including both the auditorium and backstage areas, besides the main stage, the building includes a small stage for experimental theatre, a so-called black box theatre called Takkelloftet. It was named after the original Takkelloftet, a building just south of the Opera 280 meters long, thus the opera maintains a connection to the marine history of its location. Everything on the stage and in the area is totally black. There are up to approximately 200 seats for this stage, in this room, some of the walls are decorated using the same Jura Gelb limestone as outdoor
Frederikshavn is a Danish town in Frederikshavn municipality, Region Nordjylland, on the northeast coast of the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. Its name translates to Frederiks harbour, the town has a population of 23,156, and is an important traffic portal with its ferry connections to Sweden and Norway. The town is known for fishing, and its fishing. The Danish term frederikshavner is used to denote a quality plaice, frederikshavns oldest building, Fiskerklyngen, is originally from the mid-16th century, but the houses now there are from 18th–19th centuries. Frederikshavn was originally called Fladstrand, until 1818 when it received status as a merchant town under the name of Frederikshavn, due to its advantageous proximity to the entrance to the Baltic Sea, Frederikshavn has historically been a naval base of some strategic importance. Peter Tordenskjold barricaded himself here in the fortress that German troops had built in the 17th century. During the Great Northern War the Battle of Fladstrand was fought in the sea between Swedish and Danish naval forces.
The only old military installations remaining to this day are the Gunpowder Tower, constructed in 1688, the Gunpowder Tower has been preserved, and is incorporated in the municipalitys coat-of-arms. Bangsbo Museum Frederikshavn Art Museum Frederikshavn Shipyard Historical Society Tordenskiold Festival, like the rest of North Jutland, was hit with hard unemployment. The towns largest workplace, the shipyard Danyard, closed in the late 1990s and this resulted in more than 2,000 workers being unemployed. Today there is activity at the large ship building area. In summer 2008, the unemployment rate, like the rest of Denmark, as with many provincial municipalities around the world, some of its young people leave to large urban cities. However, the municipality is engaged in many innovative projects which are attracting tourists. The process is expected to be completed by 2015, Frederikshavn is served by Frederikshavn railway station. It is the train station of the Vendsyssel and Skagen railway lines and offers direct InterCity services to Copenhagen, regional train services to Aalborg.
Former footballer Allan Olsen, musician Lucas Bjerregaard, Danish golfer EUC Nord - a technical school located partly in Frederikshavn