Danske Bank A/S is a Danish bank. It was founded 5 October 1871 as Hypothek - og Vexelbank i København. Headquartered in Copenhagen, it is the largest bank in Denmark and a major retail bank in the northern European region with over 5 million retail customers. Danske Bank was number 454 on the Fortune Global 500 list for 2011; the Danske Bank group operates a number of local banks around the Nordic Region as well as across Ireland. The Danske Bank branches in Baltic states began operating in 2008 after Finnish Sampo Bank was acquired by Danske Bank Group in 2007 for €4.05 billion. In 2018 April Danske Bank announced. In 2014, The Estonian Financial Supervision Authority found "large-scale, long-lasting systemic violations of anti-money laundering rules" in the Estonian branch of Danske Bank and notified the Danish authorities on the findings. According to the Estonian Financial Supervision Authority, the activities decreased after they requested the bank to target the violations. In October 2017, Danske Bank confirmed that French authorities were investigating the bank's involvement in money laundering.
On 31 July 2018, Estonia's prosecutor general, Lavly Perling, opened a criminal investigation following allegations that the bank had facilitated large-scale money laundering through its Estonian branch. On 19 September 2018, Danske Bank confirmed that Thomas Borgen, CEO of the bank, would resign due to the money laundering scandal. In September, Denmark's Financial Supervisory Authority reopened its investigation of the bank, the United Kingdom's National Crime Agency announced that it was investigating the use of UK-registered companies. In October, the bank confirmed that the United States Department of Justice had launched a criminal investigation. In November, Danish prosecutors filed four preliminary charges against the bank. In February 2019, the Estonian Financial Supervisory Authority ordered the bank to cease its operations in the country within 8 months. In 2015 Danske Bank established an IT service centre for its group of companies, Danske Group IT Lietuva, in Vilnius.. During the past years, Danske Bank has employed more than 2,300 employees in Lithuania.
In 2019, Danske Bank announced its intentions of ceasing all banking operations in Lithuania, but keeping the local back-office active for internal activities. Danske Bank Sampo Bank, is Danske Bank's Finnish operations. Danske Bank Finland traces its origins back to 1887, to Postisäästöpankki, a bank associated with the national post office, which accepted deposits from the public at post offices. In 1970, the company was renamed Postipankki. In 1997, the company merged with Suomen Vientiluotto to form Leonia Pankki. Leonia Pankki was merged with Sampo Insurance in 1999, in 2001 was renamed Sampo Pankki. In 2007, there was a demerger: Danske Bank acquired Sampo's banking business while Sampo Group retained its insurance business; the purchase of Sampo Pankki by Danske Bank with €4 billion was the largest purchase in cash to date in Finland. Danske Bank's Northern Irish subsidiary was founded as the Northern Banking Partnership in Belfast in 1809, it became Northern Bank in 1970, after merging with the Belfast Banking Company.
Northern Bank was one of the Big Four banks in Ireland. Danske Bank bought the bank from National Australia Bank in December 2004, Northern Bank continued to operate under its own name until it took on the name of its parent company as its trading name in November 2012; the bank is considered one of the leading retail banks in Northern Ireland with 44 branches and three business centres. Danske Bank is one of the four commercial banks in Northern Ireland which are permitted to issue their own banknotes. Danske Bank's Irish subsidiary was known as the National Irish Bank, was the Republic of Ireland branch network of Northern Bank, one of the oldest banks in Ireland. National Irish Bank was created as a separate entity in 1986, at first under the name Northern Bank Limited, when its owners, UK-based Midland Bank, separated Northern Bank's operations in the Republic of Ireland from its Northern Ireland business. In 1987, both banks were acquired by National Australia Bank. In 1988 the Republic of Ireland operation was renamed National Irish Bank Limited whilst Northern Bank Limited remained the name of the Northern Ireland operation.
Nonetheless, a single management team continued to run both banks, which shared many services and back office functions. During this era, the logo of the National Irish Bank was that of the National Australia Bank, except that the red star had been recoloured green, "Irish Bank" was added alongside the word "National"; the original Northern Bank logo had been the Midland Bank griffin. On 10 May 2012, Danske Bank announced that Northern Bank and National Irish Bank would be merged on 1 June 2012, under the Northern Bank management team and the Danske Bank name reversing the separation between the two; the rebrand was completed on 18 November 2012. At the time the bank closed its 27 branches to focus on private clients. On 31 October 2013 Danske Bank announced it would be withdrawing all personal banking services in the Republic of Ireland on a phased basis in the first half of 2014. Danske Bank has set up its own captive technology centre in India called Danske IT Services India Pvt Ltd. Authorities in Denmark, Estonia and the United Kingdom have launched investigations related to large-scale money laundering through Danske Bank.
In 2018 the bank faced a criminal investigation from the
Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces
The Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces is an agency under the aegis of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The agency carries out the cultural policies of the Danish government within the visual and performing arts, literature, museums and cultural heritage, broadcasting and all types of printed and electronic media, it works internationally in all fields, increased internationalisation of Danish arts and cultural life is a top priority. The Danish Agency for Culture was founded on 1 January 2002 when the Danish Heritage Agency, the Danish Arts Agency and the Danish Agency for Libraries and Media merged; the Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces was founded on 1 January 2016 by a fusion of the Danish Agency for Culture and the Danish agency Styrelsen for Slotte & Kulturejendomme. Ancient sites and monuments include burial mounds, rock carvings, runic stones, road tracks, military fortifications, ruins, etc. Underwater sites, including shipwrecks more than a hundred years old, are covered. Construction sites reveal ancient settlements and burial finds.
Many towns have cultural layers from Medieval times to the present. All sites and monuments are protected from destruction under the Danish Museum Act, administered by the Heritage Agency; the Heritage Agency does not own any sites and monuments itself, though it manages the restoration of selected megalithic tombs and Medieval ruins. To the extent that the State owns listed buildings, they are owned and administrated by the Palaces and Properties Agency. There are more than 9,000 listed buildings in Denmark while another 300,000 have been deemed "worthy of preservation"; the Heritage Agency is responsible for listed buildings, while the local authorities are responsible for buildings worthy of preservation. Most listed and preserved buildings are owned. Status as listed is not restricted to old or grand buildings. Eligibility extends to everything from castles and mansions to town halls, farmhouses, factories and filling stations; the State owns 10 museums, 120 are approved to receive State subsidies.
The Heritage Agency does not run any museums itself, but provides funding and supervises all State-subsidised museums and most of the State-owned museums. These museums are subject to the Danish Museum Act and must comply with a number of its requirements in order to receive funding. A State-subsidised museum can be an independent institution or it can be owned by one or more local authorities or by an association designed to run it. A private museum cannot be approved for State subsidies; the National Register of Sites and Monuments is a register of all known sites and archaeological finds. It holds information on more than 165,000 sites, of which some 7,000 are shipwrecks and submarine Stone Age settlements. In 1873, the National Museum of Denmark embarked on a project to map all burial mounds, megalithic tombs, runic stones and other archaeological sites in Denmark; this mapping is the basis of the current digital register. Under the Danish Museum Act, museums have an obligation to report new finds and activities to the Heritage Agency.
This increases the register every year. The register can be accessed here: "Sites and Monuments", it is in Danish only. Museums owned or subsidised by the State must report their collections to two national registers maintained by the Heritage Agency. Both registers are accessible online and hold information on the cultural heritage museums' collections of objects and materials, the works held by art museums. Established in 2004, the register of the cultural heritage museums' collections holds information on two million objects; the register provides a national overview that makes it easier for the museums to coordinate and prioritise their investigations and collections. The central register of works of art in Danish museums and collections was established in 1985 and went online in 1996; the register holds information on 100,000 works by Danish and international artists. In addition, it provides access to a digital edition of Weilbach's Dictionary of Danish artists and international artists who have worked in Denmark.
Link to the Art in Danish Museums database here. Official website Sites and Monuments Register Listed buildings in Denmark Danish Cultural Heritage Register Danish Art Register55°40′40.71″N 12°33′52.94″E
Royal Danish Theatre
The Royal Danish Theatre is both the national Danish performing arts institution and a name used to refer to its old purpose-built venue from 1874 located on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen. The theatre was founded in 1748, first serving as the theatre of the king, as the theatre of the country; the theatre presents opera, the Royal Danish Ballet, classical music concerts, drama in several locations. The Royal Danish Theatre organization is under the control of the Danish Ministry of Culture, its objectives are to ensure the staging of outstanding performances that do justice to the various stages which it controls; the Old Stage is the original Royal Danish Theatre built in 1874. The Copenhagen Opera House, built in 2004. Stærekassen is an Art Deco theatre adjacent to the main theatre, it was used for drama productions. It is no longer used by the Royal Theatre. Royal Danish Playhouse is a venue for "spoken theatre" with three stages, inaugurated in 2008; the Royal Theatre on Kongens Nytorv is a central location in the 1978 Olsen-banden film The Olsen Gang Sees Red.
The Royal Theatre is the location of several important scenes in the 2015 drama film The Danish Girl where Einar begins to acknowledge his feminine side. Copenhagen Opera House Royal Danish Ballet Royal Danish Ballet school Royal Danish Orchestra Edvard Fallesen, General Director of the Royal Danish Theatre from 1876 to 1894 Official website Official website Skuespilhuset The Royal Danish Theatre and HC Andersen
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was laid out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city, has an equestrian statue of him at its centre; the initiative moved the centre of the city from the medieval area around Gammeltorv, at that time a muddy medieval marketplace, to a cobbled new square with a garden complex, inspired by the Royal city planning seen in Paris from the early 17th century. Important buildings facing the square include the Royal Danish Theater from 1874, the Charlottenborg Palace from 1671, the Thott Palace from 1683, the Hotel D'Angleterre and the Magasin du Nord department store. In the beginning of the 17th century, the eastern city gate, Østerport, was located at the eastern ramparts of Copenhagen, Østervold, which ran along the western edge of the area to become Kongens Nytorv with the eastern city gate located at the end of the street Østergade.
Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea. As part of Christian IV's ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Anne's Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Anne's Post, at the site to become Kastellet. In 1627 a customs house was added at the site. In the beginning of the 1640s the old Østervold was abandoned altogether in favour of the new ramparts further north, the location of the King's new square, Kongens Nytorv, was decided in 1647 with the construction of the street Godtersgade in 1647. According to a masterplan from created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups, Kongens Nytorv was to be connected to the sea by a canal. At this time, under the reign of Frederik III, the site was a chaotic area, dominated by remains of the old ramparts and piles of garbage made unpassable when wet weather transformed it into a muddy morass.
Due to the topography and obstructed character of the premises, the site was popularly known as Hallandsåsen, a reference to the horst by the same name which had to be traversed when traveling from Scania and Halland. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to cobble the square; this decision was taken for military reasons, its strategic location with the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square. At the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France. Land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to meet certain standards. Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløvem Christian V's half-brother, completed his Gyldenløve Mansion on the square in the mid-1780s. Admiral Henrik Bjelke constructed another town mansion on the square in the 1670s, it was in 1721 acquired by Ulrik Adolf von Holstein and was from on known as the Holstein Mansion.
The Juel Mansion was completed for the naval officer Niels Juel in 1683. Carl Christian von Gram was the owner of a town mansion of the square. In 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a military drill and ceremony ground for the King's troops until 1908, where the square was re-shaped into its original design; the equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux. Dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939. With direct inspiration from the equestrian statue of Louis XIII erected at the centre of Place des Vosges in Paris in 1639, it depicts the king dressed like a Roman imperator with a Laurel wreathed helmet. At the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. Facing Charlottenborg Palace stand figures of Minerva and Alexander the Great, representing prudence and fortitude, while the opposite side features statues of Herkules and Artemisia, personifications of strength and honour.
Though Lamoureux depicted the horse in a trot-like gait, with inspiration from Marcus Aurelius' horse at the Capitoline Hill, the design caused severe problems due to the soft metal used for the casting. The construction therefore had to be strengthened, Lamoureux introduced a figure of a naked man crouched underneath the horse's hoof, personifying envy but in the same time affording support for the horse's barrel as the weakest point of the statue. However, over the centuries the problems with the statue continued with the horse's front left leg, Professor Einar Utzon-Frank from the Danish Academy of Fine Arts was commissioned to recast the statue in bronze; this happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946. Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning wreath, it is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V. The ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio.
Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted. In 1711, the garden complex was remodelled, before it was given up in 1747 the garden was removed to make room for military drills, with some of the trees being dug alto
Battle of Køge Bay (1677)
The Battle of Køge Bay was a naval battle between Denmark-Norway and Sweden that took place in bay off Køge 1–2 July 1677 during the Scanian War. The battle was a major success for admiral Niels Juel and is regarded as the greatest naval victory in Danish naval history. After losing control of the Baltic Sea in the Battle of Öland the year before, the Swedish navy wanted it back; the Danish fleet, commanded by Niels Juel, had 1,354 cannon and 6,700 men, while the Swedish fleet, commanded by Henrik Horn, had +1,792 cannon and 9,200 men. On 20 May, Sjöblad's squadron from Gothenburg had left, before the rest of the fleet from Stockholm had set sail; this led to the catastrophic defeat at the battle of Möen where Sjöblad's squadron of two ships of the line, six armed merchant ships and a few smaller ships fought against the superior firepower of the Danish fleet, which had about: nine ships of the line, four frigates. In the following battle, Sjöblad's own flagship Amarant was captured and the outcome destroyed the initial Swedish plan and led to the future defeat at Koge Bay.
The remaining Swedish fleet had left Dalarö, near Stockholm, on 9 June 1677. On 13 June it was joined by Kalmar, off Öland, by Andromeda and Gustavus, survivors of Sjöblad's squadron; the Danish fleet had left Copenhagen on 24 June 1677. Lack of wind forced it to anchor off Stevn's Point. At daybreak on 19 June the two fleets sighted each other. At about 8am on 30 June, Horn weighed anchor with a SSW wind and sailed toward the Danish fleet, sending two ships to try to draw Juel out. Both sides kept the Swedes forming a line, followed by the Danes. Juel tried in vain all night to get the weather gauge. On 1 July at daybreak, despite some of his ships having fallen behind, Juel closed, as did the Swedes, fighting began at about 5am. Horn sent in fireships but the Danes towed them aside; as the fleets approached the coast near Stevn's Point, Juel bore away a little in the hope that the Swedes would try to stay to windward and run aground. Indeed, the Swedish warship, ran aground and Horn had to leave ships behind to protect it as he turned 180 degrees.
After the turn, the fleets sailed parallel to each other, but the Swedish fleet had made a gap in their line which Juel utilised to break through, thus isolating several major warships. This was the turning point of the battle; the Swedes lost several smaller ships and about 3,000 men. The Danish fleet did not lose any ships, only damages on the ships and 100 men were killed and 275 wounded; this battle is recognized as Denmark-Norway's greatest naval victory, according to 19th century Danish and Norwegian marine officers, Juel invented the "break-through" tactic, more than a hundred years before the British admiral George Rodney broke the French line in the Battle of the Saintes in the Caribbean sea 1782. The defeat of the Swedish fleet gave Denmark-Norway control of the Baltic sea, thereby the inner supply lines of the Swedish Empire. Admiral Tromp's fleet was ordered to "burn and defile, kill or abduct the people", with the intention of luring Swedish troops away from Scania and thus relieve the land-bound operations.
Although Öland and parts of the coast of Småland were devastated, king Charles XI didn't move any forces from main front in Scania. During the remainder of the war, Denmark dominated at sea after the Netherlands made peace with Sweden in 1678; the Swedish fleet avoided further confrontations and could no longer maintain the line of communication with Swedish Pomerania. Niels Probst, Niels Juel – Vor største flådefører, København, 2005 Jørgen Barfod, Slaget ved Køge Bugt – Den 1. Juli 1677, Køge, 1977
Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors; the new fortifications relied on the existing, medieval fortifications of the city but the fortified area was extended and a defensive ring around the city completed with new edifices facing the sea. The ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Though developed to a final form in the 17th century, the fortifications remained in use until the second half of the 19th century, when they a long time overdue, were decommissioned. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, while the rest of the fortifications were dismantled in the years after its demise; the grounds were to a large extent laid out as parks, forming a green band around the city centre still known as the Fortification Ring, as well as for construction of a number of public buildings, including the new Copenhagen City Hall as well as a number of museums.
Christian IV's modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the medieval fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip and connected to Vestervold by a vaulted dam known as Løngangen. In the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug. Due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain; the uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen. The Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was incorporated as a privileged market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the town was fortified with low earthworks facing Amager.
The rampart was constructed with a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the northern entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city, an advanced post, named Sankt Annæ Skanse was constructed, on the site to become Kastellet; this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, Christian IV decided to expand the area of the fortified city northwards; as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By; the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv. The new Østervold would be a direct extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse, thereby increasing the area of the fortified city with 40%.
However, the 1630s was a time of economic crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by enermy forces in the first half of the 1640s and the Kingdom's existence had been threatened, work on the fortifications was resumed; the new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, with the layout of a bastioned pentagram, was completed in 1661. The British bombing of Copenhagen during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807 made it clear that the city's fortifications were outdated but during the years of economic constraints that followed, no action was taken. In 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened and considerable work was carried out to strengthen the ramparts around the city gates in the event of a German attack.
In 1852, the Line of Demarcation was disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57. In 1868 a law provided for the official abolishment of the demarcation statutes and the disabandonment of the fortifications proper. In 1856-58 the city gates were dismantled; these provisions did not apply to fortifications at Kastellet. Christianshavn's ramparts were extended as late as 1868-1870 with a rampart along the east coast of the newly reclaimed Refshaleø, which only a few years was rented out to the shipyard Burmeister & Wain; the fortifications at Christianshavn remained in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s, the last areas were not made public until 1961; the ramparts consisted of large earthworks with a ditch in front of it. As part of the improvements, numerous bastions were constructed along their course. In 1781, after extensive work on the fortifications in the preceding years, the bastions were given official names according to group: The bastions in Copenhagen were named for officers of note from the siege or other events of the early absolute era, the bastions at Christianshavn were named for powerful animals and at Kastellet.
Since 1669, the bastions at Kastellet had been named for members of the Royal family and the King's lands. Nørrevold ran from Jarmers Tower to a site just
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Den Fjerde in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark–Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, of Scandinavian monarchies. A member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19, he is remembered as one of the most popular and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects. Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth, unmatched elsewhere in Europe, he engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years' War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy, cost Denmark some of its conquered territories. He rebuilt and renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the third child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway and Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
He was descended, through his mother's side, from king John of Denmark, was thus the first descendant of King John to assume the crown since the deposition of King Christian II. At the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect and successor to the throne. At the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old, he succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the royal power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and Christopher Walkendorf, his mother Queen Dowager Sophie, 30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council.
Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy where he had a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume personal control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, an identical copy of his father's from 1559. Twelve days on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup, he was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia, made for him by Dirich Fyring, assisted by the Nuremberg goldsmith Corvinius Saur. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, a daughter of Joachim Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers; the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christian's own designs.
The formation of a national army proved more difficult. Christian had to depend upon hired mercenary troops as was common practice in the times—well before the establishment of standing armies—augmented by native peasant levies recruited for the most part from the peasantry on the crown domains. Up until the early 1620s, Denmark's economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe; this inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave fashionable in Europe. He founded a number of merchant cities, supported the building of factories, he built a large number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style. His sister Anne had married King James VI of Scotland, who succeeded to the English throne in 1603. To foster friendly relations between the two kingdoms, Christian paid a state visit to England in 1606; the visit was judged to be a success, although the heavy drinking indulged in by English and Danes alike caused some unfavourable comments: both Christian and James had an ability to consume great amounts of alcohol, while remaining lucid, which most of their courtiers did not share.
The entertainment, intended to crown the visit- a masque of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba- was described by the audience as a drunken fiasco, where most of the players fell over from the effects of too much wine. Despite Christian's many efforts, the new economic projects did not return a profit, he looked abroad for new income. Christian IV's Expeditions to Greenland involved a series of voyages in the years 1605-1607 to Greenland and to Arctic waterways in order to locate the lost Eastern Norse Settlement and to assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland; the expeditions were unsuccessful due to leaders lacking experience with the difficult Arctic ice and weather conditions. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. An expedition to North America was commissioned in 1619; the expedition was captained by Jens Munk. The ships, searching for the Northwest Passage, arrived in Hudson Bay landing at the mouth of Churchill River, settling at what is now Churchill, Manitoba. However, it was a disastrous voyage, with cold and scurvy killing most of the crew.
In 1618, Christian appointed Admiral Ove Gjedde to lead an expedition establish a Danis