Gerhard VI, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg
Gerhard VI was the Count of Holstein-Rendsburg from 1382, and Duke of Schleswig as of 1386. Gerhard VI was born around 1367, the son of Count Henry II from the Rendsburg line of the House of Schauenburg and Ingeborg of Mecklenburg. After the death, in 1381 or 1384, of his father, on 15 September 1386 King Olav III of Denmark enfeoffed him with the Duchy of Schleswig, after his uncle Nicholas had resigned from that function. In 1390 Gerhard and his brother and uncle inherited Holstein-Kiel, including the merged Plön, after their uncle Nicholas had died in 1397 the brothers divided their possessions, the elder keeping Schleswig and Holstein-Rendsburg, and Albert II receiving Holstein-Segeberg as secundogeniture. In 1403 Gerhard regained Segeberg by way of reversion upon Alberts death in action against Ditmarsh, the Duchy of Schleswig and the County of Holstein-Rendsburg were under one ruler. He fell in the Battle on the Hamme on 4 August 1404 during another attempt to subjugate Ditmarsh, in 1391 Gerhard married Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of Magnus II of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
They had the children, Henry IV, Duke of Schleswig, Count of Holstein Ingeborg Helvig, married Dietrich of Oldenburg, mother of Christian I
Duchy of Schleswig
The region is called Sleswick in English. Roman sources place the homeland of the Jute tribe north of the river Eider and that of the Angles to its south, who in turn abutted the neighbouring Saxons. During the early Viking Age, Haithabu - Scandinavias biggest trading centre - was located in this region and its construction, and in particular its great expansion around 737, has been interpreted as an indication of the emergence of a unified Danish state. In May 1931 scientists of the National Museum of Denmark announced the finding of eighteen Viking graves with the remains of eighteen men in them, the discovery came during excavations in Schleswig. The skeletons indicated that the men were bigger proportioned than twentieth-century Danish men, each of the graves was laid out from east to west. Researchers surmised that the bodies were entombed in wooden coffins originally, towards the end of the Early Middle Ages, Schleswig formed part of the historical Lands of Denmark as Denmark unified out of a number of petty chiefdoms in the 8th to 10th centuries.
The southern boundary of Denmark in the region of the Eider River, the Treaty of Heiligen was signed in 811 between the Danish King Hemming and Charlemagne, by which the border was established at the Eider. During the 10th century there were wars between East Francia and Denmark. In 1027, Conrad II and Canute the Great again settled their mutual border at the Eider. In 1115, king Niels created his nephew Canute Lavard - a son of his predecessor Eric I - Earl of Schleswig, in the 1230s, Southern Jutland was allotted as an appanage to Abel Valdemarsen, Canutes great-grandson, a younger son of Valdemar II of Denmark. Feuds and marital alliances brought the Abel dynasty into a connection with the German Duchy of Holstein by the 15th century. The latter was a subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire. The title Duke of Schleswig was inherited in 1460 by the kings of Norway who were regularly elected kings of Denmark simultaneously. This was an anomaly – a king holding a ducal title, the title and anomaly survived presumably because it was already co-regally held by the kings sons.
Between 1544 and 1713/20 the ducal reign had become a condominium, with the royal House of Oldenburg, a third branch in the condominium, the short-lived House of Haderslev, was already extinct in 1580 by the time of John the Elder. On the west coast the Danish diocese of Ribe stopped about 5 km north of the present border and this line corresponds remarkably well with the present border. In the 17th century a series of wars between Denmark and Sweden—which Denmark lost—devastated the region economically, however the nobility responded with a new agricultural system that restored prosperity. In the period 1600 to 1800 the region experienced the growth of manorialism of the common in the rye-growing regions of eastern Germany
Nyborg is a city in central Denmark, located in Nyborg Municipality on the island of Funen and with a population of 16,528. Nyborg is one of the 14 large municipalities created on 1 January 2007 and this change boosted the population of Nyborg Municipality from around 18,000 to 31,009. Nyborg was first mentioned in 1193 in the history of Denmark as Nyborg Castle, which exists today. In the 17th century, Nyborg was one of three major, fortified towns in Denmark, together with Fredericia and Copenhagen, each was placed near an important body of water - in Nyborgs case, the Great Belt. In 1659 the city was captured by the Swedes and relieved by a fleet sent by the Dutch, Denmarks allies. In 1867 the fortress was abolished and the town expanded beyond the ramparts, much of the towns southern ramparts were destroyed in this process and converted into residential areas. The western and much of the ramparts still exist and form the scene of an annual theatre known as Nyborg Voldspil. From 1183 to 1413 it was the place for Danehoffet.
Nyborg is therefore considered Denmarks capital during this period, christian II of Denmark was born at Nyborg Castle. In 2005, plans about expanding Nyborg Harbour came to life and Nyborg Harbour, Nyborg church - or Church of Our Lady, which is the real name - was built between 1388–1428 and was dedicated to Jesus mother, Mary, on the opening during Pentecost 1428. The church has two organs, the main organ, built in 1973 by organ builder Poul-Gerhard Andersen. The crucifix is the piece of inventory in the church. The Gothic crucifix is decorated with leaves, symbolizing the crucifix as a tree of life. Kołobrzeg, Poland Sandnes, Norway Mariestad, Sweden Nyborg municipality Nyborg Council History of Nyborg in Danish Site for Østfyn municipality
Boizenburg is a municipality in the Ludwigslust-Parchim district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the bank of the Elbe,53 km west of Ludwigslust,25 km northeast of Lüneburg and 50 km east of Hamburg. It is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region, Boizenburgs historical old town stretches along the Elbe, has a harbour and offers heritage baroque timberframe and brick buildings. As per the dictates of the Yalta Conference, Boizenburg was placed just a few kilometers behind the perimeter of the Iron Curtain, the German name Boyceneburg was first documented in 1158. The written form changed to Boiceneburg and Boizeneburg, the old Low German name for the town and river likely stems from the Slavic boj for war. Boizenburg suffered during the Thirty Years War and its old castle was burnt down by Swedish troops in 1628, in 1709 the church and 160 or more medieval dwellings were incinerated by a fire. The Town Hall was rebuilt in 1712 and the layout of the town was redesigned by Prussian architects sent from Schwerin and they focused on incorporating efficiency of movement with fire-resistance, better sanitation and public space.
During the Napoleonic Wars French troops were quartered in Boizenburg in 1807, a battle was fought with the retreating French army near Boizenburg in 1813. From 1815 to 1918, Boizenburg was part of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1826 a highway was built, connecting Hamburg and subsequently Boizenburg. In 1846 the railway between Berlin and Hamburg was constructed, Boizenburg was included with its own train station along this important route. The shipbuilding yard Lemmsche founded in 1793 became highly industrialized in 1852 and produced many wooden, the shipbuilders Thomsen & Co supported the German war effort during World War II. In 1973 the SED reactivated the shipbuilding facilities for the production of smaller ships for the USSR. After being privatized in 1989, the yard was declared bankrupt in 1997, today smaller independent companies are active in the old ship yard. The Boizenburg Tile Factory established by Hans Duensing in 1903, became Europes largest tile manufacturer by 1937, after being re-established in 1991, it remains one of the towns main employers.
Artistic impressions of the work produced in Boizenburg—particularly in the Art Nouveau style - can be found at the Erstes Deutsches Fliesen Museum. During the communist East German era, residents of Boizenburg were kept under close scrutiny by the Stasi, many deemed politically untrustworthy had their property confiscated during a state-sponsored terror campaign code-named Operation Vermin. One of the advantages of Boizenburgs isolation during the Cold War, is the natural landscape of the Elbe Valley region stretching to the North, South. Much of the architecture and infrastructure in the old city remained perfectly untouched during the DDR regime, in addition to significant restoration projects, new installations such as the modern redesign of the harbor and the addition of a topiary garden have greatly added to the Old Towns charm
Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
The Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein were titles of the Frankish Empire. The dynastic family came from the County of Schauenburg near Rinteln on the Weser in Germany, together with its ancestral possessions in Bückeburg and Stadthagen, the House of Schauenburg ruled the County of Schauenburg and the County of Holstein. The comital titles of Holstein were subject to the lord, the Dukes of undivided Saxony till 1296. The County of Schaumburg originated as a county, which was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. It was named after Schauenburg Castle, near Rinteln on the Weser, Adolf I probably became the first Lord of Schauenburg in 1106. In 1110, Adolf I, Lord of Schauenburg was appointed by Lothair, Duke of Saxony to hold Holstein and Stormarn, including Hamburg, as fiefs. In a battle with Denmark, Adolf became prisoner of the king Valdemar II, in 1227 Adolf IIIs son, Adolf IV, recovered the lost lands from Denmark. Holstein and Schauenburg Holstein Schauenburg After 1261 the previously jointly ruling brothers Gerhard I, Gerhard I received the Counties of Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg, whereas John received the County of Holstein-Kiel.
After the death of John I, his sons Adolphus V, in 1273 they partitioned Holstein-Kiel and John II continued ruling over Kiel, Adolphus V the Pomeranian received Segeberg. After the death of Adolphus V, Holstein-Segeberg was reincorporated into Holstein-Kiel, the eldest brother John was Canon at the Hamburg Cathedral. After the death of Gerhard II his sons Gerhard IV and his younger half-brother John III the Mild inherited and ruled in Holstein-Plön together, in 1316 the brothers militarily seized the possessions of John II the One-Eyed in Holstein-Kiel, whose sons had been killed. John III the Mild, before a second-born co-ruling count in Plön, received Kiel from the deposed John II the One-Eyed, Gerhard IV continued ruling Holstein-Plön as sole count. After the death of John IIIs nephew Gerhard V, Count of Holstein-Plön in 1350, who had succeeded Gerhard IV, members of the Rendsburg family branch were often simply titled as Counts of Holstein after 1390. For the Pinneberg family branch, usually residing in the County of Schaumburg, after Alberts death in 1403 Segeberg reverted to Rendsberg.
After King Christian I of Denmark, House of Oldenburg had been chosen as heir to the County of Holstein-Rendsburg Christian ascended to the throne in 1460. In 1474 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, elevated Christian I from Count of Holstein-Rendsburg to Duke of Holstein, for his succession in the Duchy of Holstein see List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein#House of Oldenburg. The Schauenburg line in the Counties of Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg persisted until its extinction in the line in 1640. This line is known as Holstein-Schauenburg
Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history, lasting from the 6th to the 10th century CE. The Early Middle Ages followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Early Middle Ages largely overlap with Late Antiquity. The term Late Antiquity is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, the period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration. The period has been labelled the Dark Ages, a characterization highlighting the relative scarcity of literary and cultural output from this time, especially in Northwestern Europe. However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to survive, many of these trends were reversed in the period. In 800 the title of emperor was revived in Western Europe by Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire greatly affected European social structure, Europe experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system, which introduced such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plow.
Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, although Northern Europe was greatly affected by the Viking expansion, starting in the 2nd century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, and population. Archaeologists have identified only 40 percent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks from the 3rd century as from the first, estimates of the population of the Roman Empire during the period from 150 to 400 suggest a fall from 65 million to 50 million, a decline of more than 20 percent. Some scholars have connected this de-population to the Dark Ages Cold Period, Early in the 3rd century Germanic peoples migrated south from Scandinavia and reached the Black Sea, creating formidable confederations which opposed the local Sarmatians. In Dacia and on the north of the Black Sea the Goths. The arrival of the Huns in 372–375 ended the history of these kingdoms, the Huns, a confederation of central Asian tribes, founded an empire with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy.
They had mastered the art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Goths sought refuge in Roman territory, agreeing to enter the Empire as unarmed settlers, however many bribed the Danube border-guards into allowing them to bring their weapons. The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a fighting unit. The Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain the formation in combat, while cavalry tended to scatter when faced with opposition. While a barbarian army could be raised and inspired by the promise of plunder, the legions required a government and taxation to pay for salaries, constant training, equipment. The decline in agricultural and economic activity reduced the empires taxable income, in the Gothic War, the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople. The general decline in discipline led to the use of smaller shields, not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, who was on the way with reinforcements
The Saxons were a group of Germanic tribes first mentioned as living near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany, in the late Roman empire. They were soon mentioned as raiding and settling in many North Sea areas, as well as pushing south inland towards the Franks. Significant numbers settled in parts of Great Britain in the early Middle Ages. Many Saxons however remained in Germania, where they resisted the expanding Frankish Empire through the leadership of the semi-legendary Saxon hero, the Saxons earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia, an area approximately that of modern Holstein. This general area included the probable homeland of the Angles, along with the Angles and other continental Germanic tribes, participated in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain during and after the 5th century. The British-Celtic inhabitants of the isles tended to refer to all of these collectively as Saxons. It is unknown how many Saxons migrated from the Continent to Britain, the Saxons may have derived their name from seax, a kind of knife for which they were known.
The seax has a symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word Saxon. The Elizabethan era play Edmund Ironside suggests the Saxon name derives from the Latin saxa, Their names discover what their natures are, More hard than stones, in the Celtic languages, the words designating English nationality derive from the Latin word Saxones. The most prominent example, a loanword in English, is the Scottish Gaelic Sassenach and it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sasunnach meaning, Saxon, from the Latin Saxones. Scots- or Scottish English-speakers in the 21st century usually use it as a term for an English person. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1771 as the date of the earliest written use of the word in English. Sasanach, the Irish word for an Englishman, has the same derivation, as do the words used in Welsh to describe the English people, Cornish terms the English Sawsnek, from the same derivation.
In the 16th century Cornish-speakers used the phrase Meea navidna cowza sawzneck to feign ignorance of the English language, England in Scottish Gaelic is Sasainn. Other examples include the Welsh Saesneg, Irish Sasana, Breton saoz, and Cornish Sowson, the label Saxons was applied to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to southeastern Transylvania. From Transylvania, some Saxons migrated to neighbouring Moldavia, as the name of the town, Sas-cut, sascut is located in the part of Moldavia that is today part of Romania. The Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the term Saxony over the centuries to denote now the country of Germany
House of Schaumburg
The House of Schaumburg was a dynasty of German rulers. 1485, it was known as the House of Schauenburg. The Schaumburgs were named after Schauenburg Castle, near Rinteln on the Weser, Adolf I probably became the first Lord of Schauenburg in 1106. In 1110, Adolf I, Lord of Schauenburg was appointed by Lothair, Duke of Saxony to hold Holstein and Stormarn, including Hamburg, as fiefs. Holstein was occupied by Denmark after the Battle of Stellau, but was reconquered by the Count of Schauenburg, after the death in 1640 of Count Otto V without children, the House of Schaumburg became extinct. The County of Holstein-Pinneberg was merged with the Duchy of Holstein
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. The Baltic Sea is connected by waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal. Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea and they were collected in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør, in the Great Belt at Nyborg. In the Little Belt, the site of intake was moved to Fredericia, the narrowest part of Little Belt is the Middelfart Sund near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers widely agree that the physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill. The Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö, it is used by the Øresund Bridge, including the Drogden Tunnel.
By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg, another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. Its the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, and a limit to the Belt Sea. The shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology, the remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen and in species. While Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people called the Suebi, the origin of the latter name is speculative. Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt and he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder.
Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Pytheas and it is possible that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia in On the Ocean by Pytheas. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean near belt of sea, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning white, fair. This root and its meaning were retained in both Lithuanian and Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian, yet another explanation is that the name originally meant enclosed sea, bay as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe the name derives from the god Balder of Nordic mythology, in the Middle Ages the sea was known by variety of names
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. Its territorial center was in the district of Herzogtum Lauenburg and originally its eponymous capital was Lauenburg upon Elbe. This land was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 and it is now part of the Lower Saxon Harburg. The Amt Neuhaus proper, including areas on both sides of the Elbe, which was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814, this is all part of Lower Saxon Lüneburg. Now it is part of todays Lower Saxon Cuxhaven, in 1203, King Valdemar II of Denmark conquered the area comprising Saxe-Lauenburg, but it reverted to Albert I, Duke of Saxony in 1227. In 1260, Albert Is sons Albert II and John I succeeded their father, in 1269,1272 and 1282, the brothers gradually divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas along the Elbe river, thus preparing a partition. The last document, mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295.
A deed of 20 September 1296, mentions the Vierlande, the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing, John II, the eldest brother, wielded the electoral privilege for the Lauenburg Ascanians, rivalled by their cousin Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg. In 1314, the dispute escalated into the election of two hostile German kings, the Habsburg Frederick III, the Fair, and his Wittelsbach cousin Louis IV, only Louis the Bavarian finally asserted himself as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Golden Bull of 1356, conclusively named the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg as electors and this acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lübeck, thus providing a safe passage for freight between the cities. Eric III only retained a life tenancy, in 1401, Eric III died without issue. The Lauenburg Elder Line was thus extinct in the male line, in the same year, Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric and John, forcefully captured the pawned areas without making any repayment, before Lübeck could take possession of them.
Lübeck acquiesced for the time being, in 1420, Eric V attacked Prince-Elector Frederick I of Brandenburg and Lübeck allied with Hamburg in support of Brandenburg. Armies of both opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station. From the 14th century, Saxe-Lauenburg termed itself as Lower Saxony, Saxony as a naming for the area comprising the older Duchy of Saxony in its borders before 1180 still prevailed. The naming of Lower Saxony became more colloquial and the Saxon Circle was renamed into Lower Saxon Circle, in 1659, Duke Julius Henry decreed in his general disposition to esteem the woodlands as heart and dwell of the Principality of Lower Saxony. Magnus did not promote the spreading of Lutheranism in the rest of his duchy, in 1566, Francis I appointed the Superintendent Franciscus Baringius as the first spiritual leader of the church in the duchy, not including Hadeln. Francis I conducted a thrifty reign and resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II once having exploited all his means in 1571
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel, other cities are Lübeck. Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark. The term Holstein derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe, Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii. The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagnes Saxon campaigns in the eighth century. Since 811, the frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig, around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the part of Schleswig. This would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, the administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen. The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a popular movement in Holstein. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and this movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig.
The ensuing conflict is called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. e. Not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen and these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled