SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Holstentor

The Holsten Gate is a city gate marking off the western boundary of the old center of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck. Built in 1464, the Brick Gothic construction is one of the relics of Lübeck's medieval city fortifications and one of two remaining city gates, the other being the Citadel Gate. Known for its two-round towers and arched entrance, it is regarded today as a symbol of the city. Together with the old city centre of Lübeck it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987; the Holsten Gate is composed of a north tower and a central building. It has four floors, except for the ground floor of the central block, where the gate's passageway is located; the side facing west is called the "field side", the side facing the city the "city side". The two towers and the central block appear as one construction. On the field side, the three units can be differentiated. Here the two towers form semicircles which at their widest point extend 3.5 metres beyond the central block. The towers have conical roofs.

The passageway once had two gates on the field side. A portcullis installed in 1934 does not correspond to the original security installations. Instead, there was once a so-called "pipe organ" at this location, with individual bars which could be lowered separately rather than together as a set, thus it was possible to first lower all but one or two rods, leaving a small gap for their own men to slip through later. There is an inscription over the passageway on both the field side. On the city side it reads, "SPQL" and is framed by the years 1477 and 1871, the former being the supposed date of construction, the latter being the date of the gate's restoration and the founding of the German Reich; this inscription was modeled on stands for Senatus populusque Lubecensis. It was, affixed only in 1871. There was no inscription at this location, it would have been pointless, since the view of the lower parts of the Holsten Gate from the city side was obscured by high walls. There is another inscription on the field side.

The text is "concordia domi foris pax". This inscription is from 1871 and is a shortened form of the text, on the foregate: "Concordia domi et pax foris sane res est omnium pulcherrima". Functionally, the field and the city side have different designs. While the city side is richly decorated with windows, this would be inappropriate on the field side considering the possibility of combat situations. On the field side there are accordingly only a few small windows. In addition, the walls are interspersed with embrasures; the wall thickness on the field side is greater than on the city side: 3.5 metres compared to less than 1 metre. The reasoning during construction may have been to be able to destroy the gate from the city side in an emergency, so that it would not fall into enemy hands as a bulwark; the loopholes and the openings of the gun chambers are directed toward the field side. In each tower there were three gun chambers, one each on the ground and second floors; those on the ground floor have not been preserved.

Since the building has subsided over the centuries, they are now 50 centimetres below ground level, below the new flooring. On the first upper storey there are, in addition to the aforementioned chambers, two slits for small guns which were above and between the three chambers. There are small openings on the third upper storey with forward- and downward-directed slits for firing small arms; the central block has no loopholes. The windows above the passage were designed for dousing invaders with pitch or boiling water; the most striking nonfunctional embellishments are two so-called terracotta stripes which encircle the building. These consist of individual tiles; each tile bears one of three different ornaments: either an arrangement of four heraldic lilies, a symmetrical lattice, or a representation of four thistle leaves. There is no apparent order to these recurring symbols, but each group of eight tiles is always followed by a tile with a different design, it bears either the Lübeck heraldic eagle or a stylized tree.

These shields are flanked by two male figures. The terracotta stripes were repaired during restoration work between 1865 and 1870. Only three of the original tiles are preserved as museum specimens; the new tiles approximate the former design. For example, the design of the heraldic eagle motif is by no means a reflection of the original; the pediment was not faithfully restored, but this is not the fault of the restorers, since in the 19th century it had long been gone and its original appearance was unknown. An old view on an altarpiece in the Lübeck fortress monastery shows a Holsten Gate with five pediment towers, but since this picture shows the Holstentor Gate in the middle of a fantasy landscape of mountains and forests the credibility of the representation is disputed. Today, three towers crown the pediment, it was constructed with red bricks. Both tower interiors have the same design; the ground floor and first upper story have the highest ceilings, while the floors above are much lower.

Two narrow s

Diamond Grill

Diamond Grill is a 1996 semi-fictional biography by Canadian novelist and poet Fred Wah. The book was first published in 1996 based in Edmonton, Alberta. Diamond Grill utilizes a first person narrative; the book won the Howard O’Hagan prize for short fiction and has been described by Wah as a way to explore his "hyphenated identity". The book has been credited with helping to popularize the term "biotext", a term coined by George Bowering; the book describes Wah's experiences of the Diamond Grill, his father's restaurant in Nelson, British Columbia, of the impact of growing up as a child of mixed heritage in the 1950s. Diamond Grill discusses other locations, such as different restaurants, a hospital where his father was once held. Diamond Grill explores several different themes, with racial identity being one of the most predominant; the usage of imagery to explore the book's various themes has been commented on by various academics, with the appearance of the Diamond Grill's swinging doors in the beginning and ending of the novel being described as a way of accentuating the difference between the "Occident and Orient".

In one of Diamond Grill's chapters, Wah talks about how some people had difficulty associating Wah with his last name, as he is only 1/8th Chinese and looks predominantly Caucasian. Elaine Chang argues in her book Reel Asian: Asian Canada on screen that people do not react to an "almost-white" person with an Italian name in the same way that they would if that individual possessed a Chinese one, that this reaction causes some to think "maybe you're not Canadian"; the idea of food as it relates to culture has been commented upon, with Vera Regan stating that Wah uses food as a way to connect his commentary to "tie him to his family, his culture, his identity". Of the book's title, Pauline Butling described that being in the "Diamond Grill" meant to be in " precious and yet contradictory space of interrogation, to be either'colourless or tinted'". Critical reception for the book has been positive, with Canadian Literature praising Diamond Grill's complexity; the Quill & Quire called the book "beguiling" and wrote that it gave them "much to think about on the subject of identity how we and our society collude destructively, in its construction"

Morumbi Shopping

Shopping Morumbi, or Morumbi Shopping, is a shopping centre located in the Itaim Bibi district of São Paulo, Brazil. Located near Morumbi Station in an area with a high concentration of businesses and hotels, the shopping centre is considered to be one of the most popular in the country by magazine Exame. Opened on 3 May 1982, it houses more than 480 stores, including the anchor stores C&A, Renner and Zara, as well as the only Apple Store in São Paulo, it contains a food hall and two recreational areas: Hotzone, a games arcade, Play Space, a play area aimed at young children. On 3 November 1999, a student of medicine, Mateus da Costa Meira, opened fire with a 9mm submachine gun in an evening screening of Fight Club at the cinema located in the shopping centre. Three people were killed and a further four were wounded. Mateus da Costa Meira was sentenced to 120 years in prison; the screen in which the shooting occurred was permanently closed. The cinema closed its three remaining screens in 2012.

Official Website