Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
U.S. Route 159
U. S. Highway 159 is a 83.6-mile-long auxiliary route of US 59. It travels from Nortonville, Kansas at US 59 to New Point, Missouri at US 59; the highway permits through traffic on US 59 to bypass the cities of Atchison and Saint Joseph, Missouri. US-159 begins at US-59 in Nortonville, it joins with U. S. Route 73 in Horton; the two highways overlap to the Nebraska border, passing through Hiawatha before leaving the state north of Reserve. US 159 clips the far southeastern corner of Nebraska, it enters south of Falls City concurrently with U. S. Route 73. In Falls City, US 159 turns east, it leaves the state at the Missouri River bridge in Rulo. US 159 enters northwestern Missouri near Big Lake, it crosses Interstate 29 near Fortescue before ending at US 59 near New Point. Its total length in Missouri is 16 miles; when the route was commissioned in 1934, U. S. Route 159 only went between Nortonville and Horton, Kansas. In 1945, it was extended north to Craig, Missouri via Nebraska. After 1975, the route in Missouri was altered to go east from the Fortescue area to what is now its current terminus near New Point, Missouri.
The old route which went to Craig is now Route 111. In 2013, a new bridge over the Missouri River, located about 650 feet south of the old Rulo Bridge, opened to traffic. U. S. Route 59 U. S. Route 259 Endpoints of U. S. Highway 159
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Missouri's 6th congressional district
Missouri's 6th congressional district takes in a large swath of land in northern Missouri, stretching across nearly the entire width of the state from Kansas to Illinois. Its largest voting population is centered in the northern portion of the Kansas City metropolitan area and the town of St. Joseph; the district includes nearly all of Kansas City north of the Missouri River. The district takes in all or parts of the following counties: Adair, Atchison, Caldwell, Chariton, Clinton, Daviess, De Kalb, Grundy, Holt, Linn, Mercer, Platte, Schuyler, Worth. Notable representatives from the district include governors John Smith Phelps and Austin A. King as well as Kansas City Mayor Robert T. Van Horn. In 1976, Jerry Litton was killed on election night as he flew to a victory party after winning the Democratic nomination for United States Senate; the visitors center at Smithville Lake is named in Litton's memory. George W. Bush beat John Kerry in this district 57%-43% in 2004; the district is represented by Republican Sam Graves, who has held the seat since 2001.
Graves held on to his seat what was expected to be a tough 2008 election, defeating former Kansas City mayor Kay Waldo Barnes by 22 percentage points. The 6th was not safe for either party. However, in recent years, it has trended Republican, mirroring the conservative bent of the more rural areas of Missouri that voted for Yellow Dog Democrats. After Missouri lost a Congressional seat following the 2010 Census, the 6th was expanded to include most of Missouri north of the Missouri River, stretching from border to border from Kansas to Illinois; the biggest geographic addition will be northeast Missouri, most of, in the northern half of the old 9th district. The 6th lost Cooper and Howard counties to the 4th district, Gladstone in southwestern Clay County to the 5th district. Missouri's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present https://web.archive.org/web/20131013222920/http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Andrew County, Missouri
Andrew County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 17,291, its county seat is Savannah. The county was organized January 29, 1841 and named for Andrew Jackson Davis, a lawyer and prominent citizen of St. Louis. Andrew County is part of the St. Joseph, MO–KS Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Kansas City, Kansas City metropolitan area; the following material is inscribed on a plaque erected by the State Historical Society of Missouri and State Highway Commission in 1960, now located by the Andrew County Courthouse: Andrew County, organized 1841, is one of six counties in the Indian Platte Purchase Territory annexed to Missouri in 1837. Named for Andrew Jackson Davis, a St. Louis editor, the county was first settled in the middle 1830s. Pioneers were from Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky and other parts of Missouri. Savannah, the county seat, was laid out in 1841. First called Union, it was renamed for Savannah, Georgia.
The Platte County Railroad reached there in 1860, today's Chicago, Great Western in the late 1880s. The town grew as a shipping trading center in the post Civil War era. Divided during the Civil War, Andrew County sent troops to both sides. In August 1861, 1,500 soldiers from Andrew County and other counties joined the pro-Southern Missouri State Guard at Camp Highly in eastern Andrew County while others joined a large Union cap in adjacent Gentry County. In 1861, Union troops seized "Northwest Democrat," a pro-Southern newspaper, in Savannah and troops from Camp Highly seized the "Plain Dealer," a Union newspaper. Raiding guerrilla bands overran the county through 1863. Andrew County's glacial plains support fertile livestock and fruit farms; the One Hundred and Two River, along with the Platte River, are located in the county. Its western border is formed by the Missouri rivers. In 1804 the Lewis and Clark Expedition camped on an island at the mouth of the Nodaway River. Members of fur trader W. Price Hunt's 1811 Astorian expedition wintered near the river’s mouth as well.
Among the towns located in Andrew County are Amazonia, once on the Missouri River, now inland, laid out in 1857 near the site of Nodaway City, an early river port. The Andrew County Museum & Historical Society celebrates the history of Andrew County through exhibits, programs and special events; the museum and society collects, preserves and interprets documents and artifacts to promote the appreciation and preservation of the county's history and bring history to life in Andrew County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 436 square miles, of which 433 square miles is land and 3.7 square miles is water. Nodaway County Gentry County DeKalb County Buchanan County Doniphan County, Kansas Holt County Interstate 29 Interstate 229 U. S. Route 59 U. S. Route 71 U. S. Route 169 Route 48 As of the census of 2000, there were 16,492 people, 6,273 households, 4,635 families residing in the county; the population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 6,662 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 98.38% White, 0.42% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,273 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.70% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families. 22.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,688, the median income for a family was $46,067.
Males had a median income of $32,955 versus $22,586 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,375. About 6.40% of families and 8.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Avenue City R-IX School District – Cosby Avenue City Elementary School North Andrew County R-VI School District – Rosendale North Andrew County Elementary School North Andrew County Middle School North Andrew County High School Savannah R-III School District – Savannah Amazonia Elementary School Helena Elementary School John Glenn Elementary School Minnie Cline Elementary School Savannah Middle School Savannah High School Rolling Hills Consolidated Library -- Savannah Branch All of Andrew County is a part of Missouri’s 9th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Delus Johnson. All of Andrew County is a part of Missouri’s 12th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Dan Hegemen. All of Andrew County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressiona