Galena is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 470, with a 2016 estimate of 488 inhabitants. Galena was established in 1918, a military airfield was built adjacent to the city during World War II; the city was incorporated in 1971. The Koyukon Athabascans moved as the wild game migrated. In the summer many families floated on rafts to the Yukon River to fish for salmon. There were 12 summer fish camps located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the Nowitna River. Galena was established in 1918 near an Athabascan fish camp called Henry's Point, it became a supply and point for nearby lead ore mines that opened in 1918 and 1919. In 1941 and 1942, during World War II, a military air field was built adjacent to the civilian airport, the two facilities shared the runway and flight line facilities; this air field was designated Galena Air Force Station shortly after the split of the United States Air Force from the United States Army, which occurred as a result of the National Security Act of 1947.
During the 1950s, the construction of additional military facilities at Galena and the nearby Campion Air Force Station, in support of Galena's mission as a forward operating base under the auspices of the 5072nd Air Base Group, headquartered at Elmendorf Air Force Base, near Anchorage, provided improvements to the airport and the local infrastructure, causing economic growth for the area. Following the end of the Cold War, in 1993, operation of Galena Air Force Station was turned over to a contractor, all military personnel were withdrawn with only small groups of active personnel visiting the base on an as-needed basis; the former military facility remains in use as a forward operating location, used by the military. This use came under scrutiny by the Base Realignment and Closure Committee in the late 2000s and was closed October 1, 2010; the Air Force retains responsibility for toxin cleanup in the area and engineers from Eielson Air Force Base in Fairbanks still visit the site on occasion.
The base is now controlled by the City of Galena, the Galena School District and the Alaska Department of Transportation. The Alaska Wing of the Civil Air Patrol was pursuing retaining one of the F-16 fighter hangars as a CAP facility for the CAP Wing in Galena, the "Yukon Squadron"; the City of Galena gained notoriety in 2011 when it was noted in media reports as being the US community which received the most benefits from lobbying efforts. The town evaded bankruptcy by aggressively lobbying for state and federal funds for the GILA boarding school in the town, which produced funds that turned the city's finances around. In May 2013, Galena suffered a freak catastrophic flood when the spring breakup on the Yukon River caused an ice jam 20 miles downstream, backing up the river and affecting 90% of homes in the city; this flood was on the scale of a flood never seen before by Galena residents. In the part of town closest to the river, houses were submerged to the roofs in water, properties on higher ground suffered damage also.
Most of the residents had to evacuate in thanks to the efforts of the local airline, volunteer missionary pilots, the Alaska National Guard. Some of the residents chose to stay behind and took refuge in the few last remaining dry parts of town; the flood dike the Air Force built around the runway managed to keep the river from inundating the runway and GILA. Efforts are underway to help Galena rebuild, with the assistance of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and volunteer groups. Galena is located at 64°44′26″N 156°53′8″W. Galena is located on the north bank of the Yukon River, 45 mi east of Nulato; the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is southwest of Galena. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.0 square miles, of which, 17.9 square miles of it is land and 6.1 square miles of it is water. Galena is inaccessible by road to other parts of Alaska. Residents rely on river cargo in the brief summer season for the bulk of its needs, by air travel to access the outside world.
Galena first appeared on the 1890 U. S. Census as the unincorporated native village of "Notaloten", it would not appear again until 1930. It formally incorporated as a city in 1971; as of the census of 2010, there were 470 people, 190 households, 123 families residing in the city. The population density was 26.3 people per square mile. There were 264 housing units at an average density of 14.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 29.4% White, 0.0% Black or African American, 63.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 6.2% from two or more races. 2.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 29.3% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 20 to 29, 20.8% from 30 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. There were 229 females, 166 of whom were 18 years and over, 241 males, 171 of whom were 18 years and over; the median income for a household in the city was $60,313, the median income for a family was $62,917.
The per capita income for the city was $26,551. About 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line and 18.9% were below 125 percent of the poverty line. The headquarters for the Koyukuk/Innoko/Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge is located in Galena; the City of Galena is incorporated as a first-class city, governed by a city council. The city's mayor is Jon Korta; the Louden Tribal Counc
Fort Yukon, Alaska
Fort Yukon is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. The population, predominately Gwich'in Alaska Natives, was 583 at the 2010 census, down from 595 in 2000. Fort Yukon is the hometown of Alaska Congressman Don Young. Served by Fort Yukon Airport, it is known for having the record highest temperature in Alaska; this area north of the Arctic Circle was occupied for thousands of years by cultures of indigenous people and in historic times by the Gwich’in people. What became the village of Fort Yukon developed from a trading post, Fort Yukon, established by Alexander Hunter Murray of the Hudson's Bay Company, on 25 June 1847. Murray drew numerous sketches of fur trade posts and of people and wrote the Journal of the Yukon, 1847–48, which gave valuable insight into the culture of the Gwich’in at the time. While the post was in Russian America, the Hudson's Bay Company continued to trade there until the American traders expelled it in 1869, following the Alaska Purchase when the Alaska Commercial Company took over the post.
During the Klondike Gold Rush, in the winter of 1897–1898, Fort Yukon received two hundred prospectors from Dawson City, short of supply. A post office was established on July 1898 with John Hawksly as its first postmaster; the settlement suffered over the following decades as a result of several infectious disease epidemics and a 1949 flood. During the 1950s, the United States Air Force established a radar station at Fort Yukon. Since the late 20th century, due in part to its extreme northerly location and its proximity to Fairbanks, it has become a minor tourist destination. On February 7, 1984 a Terrier Malemute-type sounding rocket, with a maximum altitude of 310 miles, was launched from Fort Yukon. Fort Yukon is located at 66°34′2″N 145°15′23″W. Fort Yukon is located on the north bank of the Yukon River at its junction with the Porcupine River, about 145 miles northeast of Fairbanks. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city in Northeastern Alaska has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.0 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water.
It is located 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle, at the confluence of the Yukon and Porcupine Rivers and in the middle of the Yukon Flats. The highest temperature recorded in Alaska occurred in Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915, when it reached 100 °F or 37.8 °C. Until 1971, Fort Yukon held the all-time lowest temperature record at −78 °F or −61.1 °C, it still holds the record for the lowest mean monthly temperature when the notoriously cold month of December 1917 had an average daily temperature of −48.3 °F or −44.6 °C and the minimum averaged −58 °F or −50 °C. The climate regime is a strong continental subarctic climate with severe winters, being less influenced by chinook winds than areas to the west – the winter season absolute maximum being 17 °F or 9.4 °C colder than in Fairbanks. Summer temperatures are exceptionally high for such a northerly area, being far warmer than the tree line threshold. In the Summer Fort Yukon has midnight sun and in December there is no sun at all. Fort Yukon first appeared on the 1880 U.
S. Census as an unincorporated village of 109 residents. Of those, 107 were members of the Tinneh Tribe and 2 were Whites, it did not appear on the 1890 census, but has returned in every successive census since 1900. It formally incorporated in 1959, the year Alaska became a state; as of the census of 2000, there were 595 people, 225 households, 137 families residing in the city. The population density was 85.0 people per square mile. There were 317 housing units at an average density of 45.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.05% Native American, 10.76% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.17% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.34% of the population. There were 225 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.8% were married couples living together, 23.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.37. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,375, the median income for a family was $32,083. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $27,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,360. About 18.0% of families and 18.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. Yukon Flats School District operates the Fort Yukon School. Clarence Alexander Jonathon Solomon Velma Wallis Don Young Hudson Stuck Media related to Fort Yukon, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Anvik is a city, home to the Deg Hit'an people, in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, United States. The name Anvik, meaning "exit" in the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, became the common usage despite multiple names at the time, may have come from early Russian explorers; the native name in the Deg Xinag language is Deloy Ges. The population was 85 at the 2010 census, down from 104 in 2000. Anvik is located at west of the Yukon River at the mouth of the Anvik River, it is 34 miles to the north of Holy Cross. There is a public Anvik Airport with a 2,960-foot gravel runway located one mile southeast of downtown Anvik; the students of Blackwell School have created a clickable interactive map of Anvik. The Anvik Connector is a trail, designated a national side trail, which links the community to the Iditarod Trail 86 miles to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.9 square miles, of which 9.5 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles is water. It is an incorporated place.
Anvik first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as Anvik Station and Village with 95 residents: 94 were members of the Tinneh tribe and 1 was White, it has returned as Anvik since 1890. At the 2000 census, there were 39 households and 23 families residing in the city; the population density was 10.9 per square mile. There were 49 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94 Native American, nine White, one from other races. One reported Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. There were 39 households of which 41.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% were married couples living together, 25.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.43. Age distribution was 34 under the age of 15, 6 from 16 to 18, 9 from 18 to 24, 28 from 25 to 44, 19 from 45 to 64, 8 who were 65 years of age or older.
The average age was 30.14 and the median age was 28.5 years, compared to 32.4 for the entire state. There were 57 males and 47 females; the annual median household income was $21,250, the median family income was $18,125. Males had a median income of $0 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,081. Median rent was $263 and monthly housing and mortgage costs were $833. There were 40.0% of families and 44.2% of the population living below the poverty line, including 45.5% of under eighteens and 50.0% of those over 64. The Iditarod Area School District operates the Blackwell School in Anvik. Ekada, Patricia J. "Athabascan Culture-From the Lower Yukon Area". Anvik at the Community Database Online from the Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs Maps from the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development: 2000, 2010 Anvik Tribal Council Anvik Historical Society Blackwell School in Anvik Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development. "The History of Anvik".
ExploreNorth. Retrieved 2008-03-22. "Anvik, AK Community Profile". AK HomeTownLocator. HTL, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-22. "Anvik, Alaska Detailed Profile". On Board LLC. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-22. "Anvik, Alaska city profile". EPodunk Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-22
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census