The Holy Crown of Hungary known as the Crown of Saint Stephen, was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown. No king of Hungary was regarded as having been legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles I of Austria|Charles IV, in 1916; the only kings who were not so crowned were Wladyslaw I, John II/Szapolyai János Zsigmond, Gabriel Bethlen, Joseph II, Franz Joseph. The enamels on the crown are or Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople in the 1070s; the crown was presented by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas to King Géza I of Hungary. It is one of the two known Byzantine crowns to survive, the other being the earlier Monomachus Crown, in Budapest, in the Hungarian National Museum. However, the Monomachus Crown may have had another function, the Holy Crown has been remodelled, uses elements of different origins.
The date assigned to the present configuration of the Holy Crown varies, but is most put around the late 12th century. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, the mantle; the orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary. In popular tradition the Holy Crown was thought to be older, dating to the time of the first King Stephen I of Hungary, crowned in 1000/1001, it was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century, royal power came to be represented not by a crown, but by just one specific object: the Holy Crown; this meant that the Kingdom of Hungary was a special state: they were not looking for a crown to inaugurate a king, but rather, they were looking for a king for the crown. He depicts that "the Holy Crown is for the Hungarians what the Lost Ark is for the Jewish people". Since 2000, the Holy Crown has been on display in the central Domed Hall of the Hungarian Parliament Building; the Crown's shape is larger than a human head. During coronations, the king had to wear a leather'kapa' liner, made to fit, inside the crown.
The weight of the Crown is 2056 g. The gold-silver alloys in the upper and the lower parts of the Crown differ in alloy ratio; the lower part of the Crown is asymmetric. As is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right. According to popular tradition, St Stephen I held up the crown before his death to offer it to the Virgin Mary to seal a divine contract between her and the divine crown. After this, Mary was depicted not only as patrona for the Kingdom of Hungary but as regina; this contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called "Doctrine of the Holy Crown". Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona and De monarchia et Sacra Corona Regni Hungariae. At the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary.
It is superior to the ruling monarch, who rules "in the name of the crown". According to the most accepted theory, represented in the publications of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and of the Hungarian Catholic Episcopal Conference, the Holy Crown of Hungary consists of two main parts: "abroncs" the corona graeca, "keresztpántok" the corona latina, it was created during the reign of Béla III under Byzantine influence. The crowning of Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood; the date is variously given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001. One version of the origin of the crown is written by bishop Hartvik, in which the "Pope" has sent King Stephen I "his blessings and a crown"; the basis for this belief is a biography by bishop Hartvik written around 1100-1110 at the request of King Könyves Kálmán. According to "Hartvik’s legend", St Stephen sent Archbishop Astrik of Esztergom to Rome to ask for or require a crown from the "Pope", but it does not tell the name of the Pope.
No matter how much Astrik hurried, the Polish prince, Mieszko I's envoy was quicker, the crown was prepared for the future Polish king. The Pope had seen a dream during the night, seeing the angel of the Lord telling him there will be another envoy from another nation, asking for a crown for their own king; the angel told the Pope: "There will be another envoy from an unknown folk, who will ask for a crown, please give the crown to them, as they deserve it". The next day Astrik approached the Pope. "Hartvik’s legend" appeared in the liturgical books and breviaries in Hungary around 1200, recalling the then-existing Pope, Pope Sylvester II. The story of how th
Dennis Lee Dixon Jr. is a former American football quarterback. He was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the fifth round of the 2008 NFL Draft, he played college football at the University of Oregon. Dixon had a short professional baseball career, playing for the GCL Braves and the Danville Braves in 2007, he was a member of the Baltimore Ravens practice squad during the 2012 season where they won the Super Bowl. Dixon is a member of the American Flag Football League. Dixon was the starting quarterback for San Leandro High School's football team beginning his sophomore year. In his senior season, Dixon threw for 2,426 yards and 30 touchdowns, leading his team to a 12-1 season in 2002. Dixon completed his high school career with 5,951 yards and 79 touchdowns, guiding San Leandro to a 36-3 record, with his only losses coming in three straight California North Coast Section 4A championship games to perennial powerhouse De La Salle. Dixon was a consensus four-star recruit, was ranked among the top passing and rushing quarterbacks in the nation.
He decided to attend the University of Oregon, stating that "I am going to Oregon with only one purpose, and, to win a national championship."Dixon was a recruited baseball player, was drafted by the Cincinnati Reds in the 20th round of the 2003 Major League Baseball Draft. However, he did not sign because he wanted to get a degree. Dixon opted to grayshirt for the 2003 season and played his freshman season in 2004 behind Kellen Clemens, he appeared in six games, rushing for 40 yards. In his sophomore season of 2005, he was expected to play in a backup role during Clemens's senior season. However, against Arizona, Clemens broke his ankle, Dixon came into the game, though he left with a concussion. With Clemens out for the season, Dixon split time with fellow sophomore quarterback Brady Leaf and guided the Ducks to four regular season wins and a second-place finish in the Pac-10, before dropping a 17-14 loss in the Holiday Bowl against Oklahoma. Prior to his junior season in 2006, Dixon was named full-time starter by head coach Mike Bellotti.
He led the Ducks including a 34-33 comeback victory over the Oklahoma Sooners. After a win over Arizona State, the Ducks lost 48-24 to Cal before Dixon's hometown crowd. After being benched in favor of Brady Leaf, Oregon went on to lose three of their four final games and finished with a 7-6 record. Despite his shortened season, Dixon still finished the season fourth in the conference in total offense. Dixon was named the league’s second-team academic all-conference quarterback. In June 2007, he graduated from Oregon with a degree in a 3.27 grade point average. In 2007, Bellotti again named Dixon, now the starter prior to the season; the season started off for Dixon against Houston, in which Dixon accumulated 141 yards rushing, the most by an Oregon quarterback. The following week against Michigan, Dixon threw for 3 touchdowns and ran for another, generating 368 yards of total offense. Dixon was named USA Today National Player of the Week. In the next two games, he led the Ducks to big wins over Fresno State, Stanford.
Against Cal, Dixon threw his first two interceptions of the season, but led the Ducks down the field in the final minute for a potential tying score before Cameron Colvin fumbled the ball through the end zone in the final seconds for Oregon's first loss of the season. Wins in the following weeks over Pac-10 powers USC and Arizona State pushed Oregon to a #2 ranking in the BCS poll and first place in the Pac-10. During the Arizona State game, he left the game with a knee injury, but was cleared to play two weeks against Arizona. In the first quarter of that game, he ran 39 yards for a touchdown, but a few plays his left knee buckled and he left the game because of the injury, the Ducks went on to lose 34-24, it was revealed that Dixon had torn the ACL in his left knee against Arizona State and aggravated it against Arizona. In the last game of the season against archrival Oregon State, they lost and the Beavers broke the streak of the last 10 years in which the home team had always won. Without Dixon, following an injury to backup Brady Leaf as well as a long list of injuries to the entire Duck team, the Ducks lost the last two games of the season, but went on to defeat South Florida 56-21 in the 2007 Sun Bowl as Dixon watched from the sideline and continued to cheer on his team.
After undergoing surgery to repair his torn ACL, Dixon walked with no apparent limp at the NFL Combine headquarters in Indianapolis in February. Dixon was unable to perform any Combine drills, but worked out at Oregon's Pro Day and held impressive individual workouts later. Following his junior year at Oregon, Dixon was picked by the Atlanta Braves in the fifth round of the 2007 Major League Baseball Draft. Dixon hit.176 in 74 at bats with two Atlanta Braves rookie league teams, returned to Oregon for his senior year during the 2007 season. In the 2008 NFL Draft, Dixon was taken in the fifth round with the 156th overall pick by the Pittsburgh Steelers, it was speculated that he could be used in the manner that the Steelers used Antwaan Randle-El, a college quarterback that turned into an NFL wide receiver. Dixon passed for a combined 12-for-24 in passing attempts in two 2008 preseason games, in addition, he ran for a 47-yard touchdown against the Buffalo Bills. On December 28, 2008, Dixon completed his first official NFL pass to Hines Ward, o
1860 is a 1934 Italian historical film directed by Alessandro Blasetti and starring Giuseppe Gulino, Aida Bellia and Gianfranco Giachetti. The film presages Italian neorealism in that it was shot on location; some scenes were shot at the Cines Studios in Rome. Most contemporaneous historical epics used a star to focus on grand historical characters; this film focuses on a character whom nobody knows or will know. This film illustrates; the film uses non-actors and a rarity for its time and era. The film includes many non-professional actors, Gianfranco Giachetti, Maria Denis, Mario Ferrari, it was the last film of Ugo Gracci. A list of the non-actors includes Aida Bellia and many others; the story is the harried attempt of a Sicilian partisan to reach Garibaldi's headquarters in Northern Italy, to petition the revered revolutionary to rescue part of his besieged land. Along the way, the peasant hero encounters many colorful Italians, differing in class and age, holding political opinions of every type.
The film ends on the battlefield. Gabriella Romani, in an Italica article from 2002, writes: Certainly the film drew upon the Soviet films of Sergei Eisenstein and the Macchiaioli painters, but just as important may be, the "Risorgimento female iconography was produced by nineteenth-century patriotic painters and writers." 1860 on IMDb