Holy Saturday

Holy Saturday, the Saturday of Holy Week known as Holy and Great Saturday, the Great Sabbath, Black Saturday, Joyous Saturday, Hallelujah Saturday, Glorious Saturday or Easter Eve, called "Joyous Saturday" or "the Saturday of Light" among Coptic Christians, is the day after Good Friday. It is the last day of Holy Week in which Christians prepare for Easter, it commemorates the day that Jesus' body lay in the Harrowing of Hell. In Eastern Orthodoxy this day, known as Holy and Great Saturday, is called The Great Sabbath since it is on this day that Christ "rested" physically in the tomb, but it is believed that it was on this day he performed in spirit the Harrowing of Hell and raised up to Paradise, having liberated those, held captive. In the Coptic and Eritrean Orthodox Churches, this day is known as Joyous Saturday, otherwise known as the night of light and joy. In Western traditions, the day is called Holy Saturday, although in the Anglican Communion, the Book of Common Prayer refers to the day as Easter Even.

Although the term Easter Saturday is applied to the Saturday in Easter week, in English-speaking countries it is sometimes applied to Holy Saturday, including in legislation in the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland, by Australian government agencies. In the Catholic tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Sorrows is on this day assigned the title Our Lady of Solitude, referring to her solace and grief at the death of her son Jesus. However, nowhere in Catholic liturgical documents is this day referred to as the feast of Our Lady of Solitude. Matins of Holy and Great Saturday takes the form of a funeral service for Christ; the entire service takes place around the Epitaphios, an icon in the form of a cloth embroidered with the image of Christ prepared for burial. The first part of the service consists of chanting Psalm 118, as usual at both Saturday matins and at funerals, but interspersed with hymns between the verses; the predominant theme of the service is not so much one of mourning, but of watchful expectation: Today Thou dost keep holy the seventh day, Which Thou has blessed of old by resting from Thy works.

Thou bringest all things into being and Thou makest all things new, Observing the Sabbath rest, my Saviour, restoring strength. Near the end of matins, at the end of the Great Doxology, the Epitaphios is taken up and carried in procession around the outside of the church, while the Trisagion is sung, as is done when carrying the body to the cemetery in an Orthodox burial. On Saturday, a vesperal Divine Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great is celebrated, called the First Resurrection Service, named so because chronologically it was composed earlier than the Paschal Canon by St John Damascene, rather than because it occurs earlier liturgically; this is the longest Divine Liturgy of the latest. After the Little Entrance there are 15 Old Testament readings. In the Russian tradition, just before the Gospel reading the hangings, altar cloths and vestments are changed from dark to bright and the deacon performs a censing of the church. In the Greek tradition, the clergy strew laurel leaves and flower petals all over the church to symbolize the shattered gates and broken chains of hell and Jesus' victory over death.

While the liturgical atmosphere changes from sorrow to joy at this service, the faithful continue to fast and the Paschal greeting, "Christ is risen!", is not exchanged until after midnight during the Paschal Vigil since this service represents the proclamation of Jesus' victory over death to those in Hades, but the Resurrection has not yet been announced to those on earth which takes place during the Paschal Vigil. Great Lent was the period of catechesis for new converts in order to prepare them for baptism and chrismation and when there are converts received, that occurs during the Old testament readings during the vesperal divine liturgy. Before the midnight service, the faithful gather in church for the reading of the Acts of the Apostles in its entirety. Preceding midnight the Paschal Vigil begins with the Midnight Office, during which the Canon of Holy Saturday is repeated, toward the end of which the epitaphios is removed from the center of the church and placed on the altar table where it remains until the Ascension.

All of the candles and lights in the church are extinguished, all wait in darkness and silence for the proclamation of the Resurrection of Christ. Prior to the composition of the current Paschal Vigil of St. John of Damascus, this day's vesperal liturgy was the main Easter celebration. 1.^ In Greek practice, this was done at Matins the night before. In the Roman Catholic Church, the chancel remains stripped bare. All Masses are limited; the celebration of the Sacraments is limited: Holy Communion is given only as Viaticum to the dying. The day is the second day of the Paschal fast as outlined in Sacrosanctum Concilium, Article 110, although fasting may not be as stringent as on Good Friday. Many of the churches of the Anglican Communion as well as Lutheran and some other Churches observe most of th

George Springate

George Philip Gregory Springate was a Canadian police officer, football player and Citizenship Judge. Born in Montreal, the son of Walter L. Springate and Eleanor Woodhouse, he received a Bachelor of Arts from Sir George Williams University, he received a Bachelor of Civil Law degree in 1968 and a Bachelor of Common Law degree in 1969 from McGill University. From 1958 to 1969, he was a police officer with the Montreal Police. From 1966 to 1968, he was a member of the McGill Redmen football team. In 1970, he was part of the Grey Cup winning Montreal Alouettes. In total he played 17 games with the Larks over 3 seasons. In 1970, he was elected to the National Assembly of Quebec as a Liberal for the riding of Sainte-Anne, he was re-elected in 1973. In 1974 he was removed from the Liberal Caucus for voting against the French-only language bill along with John Ciaccia. During the Bill 22 crisis, he compared Québec to both Nazi Germany. After leaving the Liberal Party he was elected as an independent candidate in 1976 for the riding of Westmount.

He did not run in 1981, thereafter being disillusioned by the Liberal Party's direction threw his support behind Brian Mulroney to lead the Conservative Party and as the future PM. George Springate was a television sportcaster for CBC Montreal in the 1980s and hosted the local daily current affairs program "MIDDAY". In 1989, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada, he was a teacher in civil law at John Abbott College. He was one of the founding members of the "Police Technology" program at John Abbott College, he was a columnist for The Chronicle, a local Montreal newspaper. In 2000 and again in 2006, he was appointed a Citizenship Judge. In 2008 he was appointed Canada's Senior Citizenship Judge for a five-year term. George was diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer in April 2018 and bravely fought it with his usual dignity and grace, enduring chemo treatments every two weeks. In October the doctors decided that his cancer was too advanced and that he was no longer strong enough to continue with treatment.

Springate died in Ottawa on November 21, 2019 at the age of 81. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec

Territorial evolution of Nevada

The following outline traces the territorial evolution of the U. S. State of Nevada. Historical territorial claims of Spain in the present State of Nevada: Nueva California, 1768–1804 Gran Cuenca, 1776–1821 Alta California, 1804–1821 Adams–Onis Treaty of 1819 Historical international territory in the present State of Nevada: Oregon Country, 1818–1846 Anglo-American Convention of 1818 Historical territorial claims of Mexico in the present State of Nevada: Gran Cuenca, 1821–1848 Alta California, 1821–1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 Historical political divisions of the United States in the present State of Nevada: Unorganized territory created by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848–1850 Compromise of 1850 State of Deseret, 1849–1850 Territory of Utah, 1850–1896 Territory of Nevada, 1861–1864 Nevada Organic Act, March 2, 1861 Western 53 miles of the Utah Territory is transferred to the Territory of Nevada, July 14, 1862 Nevada Enabling Act, March 21, 1864 State of Nevada since 1864 Nevada Statehood, October 31, 1864 Another 53 miles of western Utah Territory is transferred to the State of Nevada, May 5, 1866 Northwestern corner of the Arizona Territory is transferred to the State of Nevada, January 18, 1867 Historical outline of Nevada History of Nevada Territorial evolution of the United States Territorial evolution of Arizona Territorial evolution of California Territorial evolution of Idaho Territorial evolution of Oregon Territorial evolution of Utah State of Nevada website Nevada History