In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God, by means of which people become His messenger or servant. The term is used to describe aspects of other religions and belief structures; the word spirit appears either alone or with other words, in the New Testament. Combinations include expressions such as the "Holy Spirit", "Spirit of God", in Christianity, "Spirit of Christ"; the word spirit is rendered as רוּחַ in Hebrew-language parts of the Old Testament. In its Aramaic parts, the term is rûacḥ; the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, translates the word as πνεῦμα. This is the same word, used throughout the New Testament, written in Greek; the English term spirit comes from its Latin origin, how the Vulgate translates both the Old and New Testament concept. The alternative term, "Holy Ghost", comes from Old English translations of spiritus; the Hebrew Bible contains the term "spirit of God" in the sense of the might of a unitary God. This meaning is different from the Christian concept of "Holy Spirit" as one personality of God in the Trinity.
The Christian concept tends to emphasize the moral aspect of the Holy Spirit more than Judaism, evident in the epithet Holy Spirit that appeared in Jewish religious writings only late but was a common expression in the Christian New Testament. According to theologian Rudolf Bultmann, there are two ways to think about the Holy Spirit: "animistic" and "dynamistic". In animistic thinking, it is "an independent agent, a personal power which like a demon can fall upon a man and take possession of him, enabling him or compelling him to perform manifestations of power" while in dynamistic thought it "appears as an impersonal force which fills a man like a fluid". Both kinds of thought appear in Jewish and Christian scripture, but animistic is more typical of the Old Testament whereas dynamistic is more common in the New Testament; the distinction coincides with the Holy Spirit as either a permanent gift. In the Old Testament and Jewish thought, it is temporary with a specific situation or task in mind, whereas in the Christian concept the gift resides in man permanently.
On the surface, the Holy Spirit appears to have an equivalent in non-Abrahamic Hellenistic mystery religions. These religions included a distinction between the spirit and psyche, seen in the Pauline epistles. According to proponents of the History of religions school, the Christian concept of the Holy Spirit cannot be explained from Jewish ideas alone without reference to the Hellenistic religions. However, according to theologian Erik Konsmo, the views "are so dissimilar that the only legitimate connection one can make is with the Greek term πνεῦμα itself". Another link with ancient Greek thought is the Stoic idea of the spirit as anima mundi—or world soul—that unites all people; some believe that this can be seen in Paul's formulation of the concept of the Holy Spirit that unites Christians in Jesus Christ and love for one another, but Konsmo again thinks that this position is difficult to maintain. In his Introduction to the 1964 book Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote: Another Stoic concept which offered inspiration to the Church was that of'divine Spirit'.
Cleanthes, wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zeno's'creative fire', had been the first to hit upon the term pneuma, or'spirit', to describe it. Like fire, this intelligent'spirit' was imagined as a tenuous substance akin to a current of air or breath, but possessing the quality of warmth, it is not a long step from this to the'Holy Spirit' of Christian theology, the'Lord and Giver of life', visibly manifested as tongues of fire at Pentecost and since associated – in the Christian as in the Stoic mind – with the ideas of vital fire and beneficent warmth. The Hebrew language phrase ruach ha-kodesh is a term used in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish writings to refer to the spirit of YHWH; the Hebrew terms ruacḥ qodshəka, "thy holy spirit", ruacḥ qodshō, "his holy spirit" occur. The Holy Spirit in Judaism refers to the divine aspect of prophecy and wisdom, it refers to the divine force and influence of the Most High God, over the universe or over his creatures, in given contexts. For the large majority of Christians, the Holy Spirit is the third member of the Trinity: The "Triune God" manifested as Father and Holy Spirit.
Two symbols from the New Testament canon are associated with the Holy Spirit in Christian iconography: a winged dove, tongues of fire. Each depiction of the Holy Spirit arose from different historical accounts in the Gospel narratives. Called "the unveiled epiphany of God", the Holy Spirit is the One who empowers the followers of Jesus with spiritual gifts and power that enables the proclamation of Jesus Christ, the power that brings conviction of faith; the Holy Spirit (Arabic: روح
The name Suṣhēn or Suṣhēna or Suṣhēnah or Sushane is one of the names of Lord Vishnu cited in the epic Hindu poem Vishnu sahasranāma, an articulated versification of 1,008 names for Vishnu. Other people described in Hindu sacred texts have the name Sushena. Many Hindu or Buddhist people in India, Cambodia, The Maldives and Mongolia are named Suṣhēn or Suṣhēna or Suṣhєn or Suṣhєna. Vaishnavas consider that Vishnu is the supreme god in Hindu triad. Vishnu sahasranama is one of the most sacred and chanted stotras in Hinduism, the version found in the Mahābhārata is the most popular, it lists names. Stanza 58 of the Vishnu sahasranama contains the name suṣhēnah: Authorities have different views of the meaning of the word suṣhēnah in this context; the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankaracharya wrote a definitive Sanskrit commentary on the sahasranāma in the 8th century CE, influential for many schools of Hinduism. His commentary on Stanza 58 included: "Suṣhēnah -- He; the army of Vishnu is called as His Ganā.
They are constituted of great sages and seers and hence, their compelling enchantment."In the 13th century CE, Parasara Bhattar wrote a commentary in Tamil on Vishnu sahasranama from a Vaishnavite viewpoint, giving the opinion that Bhagavan has a body, pure suddha-sattva, the constituents of this pure body are like an army that can win over the jivas and make them join him in mutual enjoyment of Bliss. Sushena was son of one of the central characters of the Mahābhārata, he was a great car-warrior who fought in many battles but was killed by Nakula, one of the Pandava brothers. Sushena was a monkey chief at the siege of Lanka, when Rama formed an alliance with the monkey king Sugriva who placed an army of monkeys at Rama's disposal. Another Sushena mentioned in the Mahābhārata was the able brother of Emperor Janamejaya, son of Maharaja Parikshit of the Kuru Kingdom. In the Ramayana, Sushena was the son of Varuna the God of the sea; the Raja Vaidya of Ravana's Kingdom was named Sushena with the'na' – the ending na of'ta-kara' in the varnamaala of devanagari script.
But the most important meaning of Sushenah, as considered by some scholars explains it as:'su' meaning good or heavenly and'shenah' with the'na' – the ending na of'ta-kara', meaning vaidya or doctor. Sushenah means Good Doctor or Heavenly Doctor –, Vishnu and hence His 540th name in Vishnu Sahasranaama is'Sushenah'
Vertebrate Palaeontology is a basic textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Michael J. Benton, published by Blackwell's, it has so far appeared in four editions, published in 1990, 1997, 2005, 2014. It is designed for paleontology graduate courses in biology and geology as well as for the interested layman; the book is used, has received excellent reviews: "This book is a ′must′ for a biology or geology student and researcher concerned by palaeontology. It succeeds in showing how palaeobiological information is obtained". Review of 3rd edition, Zentrallblatt fur Geologie und Palaontologie, 2007. "One anticipates that Benton's Vertebrate Palaeontology will become the'industry standard', as such it should occupy space on the shelves of all involved in undergraduate teaching". Ivan Sansom, School of Earth Sciences, University of Birmingham. Review of the 2nd edition for the Micropalaeontological Society. "... his expertise in a range of problems of vertebrate paleontology is amazing. As a result the contents of his book well balanced".
Jerzy Dzik, Instytut Palaeobiologii PAN, Warsaw. Review of the 3rd edition for the Journal of Sedimentary Research; the book gives an overall account of every major group of fossil vertebrate. At the rear of the book is a phylogenetic classification which combines both the Linnaean hierarchy and the cladistic arrangement, has been used as a guideline for the Wikipedia pages on living and extinct vertebrate taxa. However, some of Benton's classification differs from that in the Tree of Life Web Project as regards the relationship of early amphibian groups. Benton, M. J. Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd Benton, M. J. Paleontología y evolución de los Vertebrados. Ed. Perfils. ISBN 978-84-87695-16-2. Spanish translation by Aurora Grandal-d'Anglade upon the first edition. Benton, M. J. Paläontologie der Wirbeltiere, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil. German translation by Hans-Ulrich Pfretzschner based upon the third edition. Publisher's Website and Book Overview