Altrincham is a town in Trafford, Greater Manchester, south of the River Mersey 8 miles southwest of Manchester city centre, 3 miles southwest of Sale and 10 miles east of Warrington. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 52,419. Part of Cheshire, Altrincham was established as a market town in 1290, a time when the economy of most communities was based on agriculture rather than trade, there is still a market in the town. Further socioeconomic development came with the extension of the Bridgewater Canal to Altrincham in 1765 and the arrival of the railway in 1849, stimulating industrial activity in the town. Outlying villages were absorbed by Altrincham's subsequent growth, along with the grounds of Dunham Massey Hall the home of the Earl of Stamford, now a tourist attraction with three Grade I Listed Buildings and a deer park. Altrincham today is an affluent commuter town because of its transport links; the town has a strong middle-class presence. It is home to Altrincham F. C. and three ice hockey clubs: Manchester Storm, Altrincham Aces and Trafford Tornados.
Local evidence of prehistoric human activity exists in the form of two Neolithic arrowheads found in Altrincham, further afield, a concentration of artefacts around Dunham. The remains of a Roman road, part of one of the major Roman roads in North West England connecting the legionary fortresses of Chester and York, run through the Broadheath area; as it shows signs of having been repaired, the road was in use for a considerable period of time. The name Altrincham first appears as "Aldringeham" meaning "homestead of Aldhere's people"; as as the 19th century it was spelt both Altrincham and Altringham. Until the Normans invaded England, the manors surrounding Altrincham were owned by the Saxon thegn Alweard; the earliest documented reference to the town is from 1290, when it was granted its charter as a Free Borough by Baron Hamon de Massey V. The charter, which exists and is held by Trafford MBC, allowed a weekly market to be held, it is possible that de Massey established the town to generate income through taxes on trade and tolls.
This suggests that Altrincham may have been a planned market town, unusual during the Middle Ages, when most communities were agricultural. Altrincham was chosen as the site of the planned town rather than Dunham – which would have been protected by Dunham Castle – because its good access to roads was important for trade. Altrincham Fair became St James's Fair or Samjam in 1319 and continued until 1895. Fair days had their own court of Pye Powder, presided over by the mayor and held to settle disputes arising from the day's dealings. By 1348 the town had 120 burgage plots – ownership of land used as a measure of status and importance in an area – putting it on a par with the Cheshire town of Macclesfield and above Stockport and Knutsford; the earliest known residence in Altrincham was "the Knoll", on Stamford Street near the centre of the medieval town. A 1983 excavation on the demolished building, made by South Trafford Archaeological Group, discovered evidence that the house dated from the 13th or 14th century, that it may have contained a drying kiln or malting floor.
During the English Civil War, men from Altrincham fought for the Parliamentarian Sir George Booth. During the war, armies camped on nearby Bowdon Downs on several occasions. In 1754, a stretch of road south of Altrincham, along the Manchester to Chester route, was turnpiked. Turnpikes were toll roads. Further sections were turnpiked in 1765 from Timperley to Sale, 1821 from Altrincham to Stockport; the maintenance of roads passed to local authorities in 1888, although by most turnpike trusts had declined. The connection of the Bridgewater Canal to Altrincham in 1765 stimulated the development of market gardening, for many years Altrincham was noted for its vegetables. By 1767, warehouses had been built alongside the canal at Broadheath, the first step in the development of Broadheath as an industrial area and the beginning of Altrincham's industrialisation; the canal was connected in 1776 to the River Mersey, providing the town not only with a water route to Manchester, but to the Irish Sea. Moves to connect the town to the UK's railway network gained pace in 1845, when the Act of Parliament for the construction of the Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Railway was passed.
The first train left Altrincham early on 20 July 1849. The MSJAR had two stations in the town: Altrincham, on Stockport Road, Bowdon – though not in Bowdon – on Lloyd Street/Railway Street. Both were replaced in 1881 by Bowdon railway station on Stamford New Road; the London and North Western Railway's station at Broadheath, on the town's northern edge, was opened in 1854, while a further connection was created on 12 May 1862 by the Cheshire Midland Railway, who opened their line from Altrincham to Knutsford. With its new railway links and the surrounding areas became desirable places for the middle classes and commuters to live. Professionals and industrialists moved to the town. While some travelled daily by coach, the less well–to–do commuted by express or "flyer" barges from Broadheath. Between 1851 and 1881 the population increased from 4,488 to 11,250. Broadheath's industrial area, covering about 250 acres, was founded
A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events; the church building reflects this status, there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented. In England, the parish church is the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. Nearly every part of England is designated as a parish, most parishes have an Anglican parish church, consecrated. If there is no parish church, the bishop licenses another building for worship, may designate it as a parish centre of worship; this building is not consecrated, but is dedicated, for most legal purposes it is deemed to be a parish church. In areas of increasing secularisation or shifts in religious belief, centres of worship are becoming more common, larger churches are sold due to their upkeep costs.
Instead the church may use community centres or the facilities of a local church of another denomination. While smaller villages may have a single parish church, larger towns may have a parish church and other smaller churches in various districts; these churches do not have the legal or religious status of'parish church' and may be described by a variety of terms, such as chapel of ease or mission church. The parish church will be the only one to have a full-time minister, who will serve any smaller churches within the parish. In cities without an Anglican cathedral, the parish church may have administrative functions similar to that of a cathedral. However, the diocese will still have a cathedral. In the Catholic Church, as the seat of worship for the parish, this church is the one where the members of the parish must go for baptisms and weddings, unless permission is given by the parish priest for celebrating these sacraments elsewhere. One sign of this is; the Church of Scotland, the established Presbyterian church uses a system of parish churches, covering the whole of Scotland.
In Massachusetts, towns elected publicly funded parish churches from 1780 until 1834, under the Constitution of Massachusetts. Toward the end of the 20th century, a new resurgence in interest in "parish" churches emerged across the United States; this has given rise to efforts like the Slow Church Movement and The Parish Collective which focus on localized involvement across work and church life. Roman Catholic parish church Church of England parish church
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. Part of Warwickshire, Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, it is the second largest city in the West Midlands region, after Birmingham. Coventry is 19 miles east-southeast of Birmingham, 24 miles southwest of Leicester, 11 miles north of Warwick and 94 miles northwest of London. Coventry is the most central city in England, being only 11 miles south-southwest of the country's geographical centre in Leicestershire; the current Coventry Cathedral was built after the majority of the 14th century cathedral church of Saint Michael was destroyed by the Luftwaffe in the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940. Coventry motor companies have contributed to the British motor industry; the city has two universities, Coventry University in the city centre and the University of Warwick on the southern outskirts. On 7 December 2017, the city won the title of UK City of Culture 2021, after beating Paisley, Stoke-on-Trent and Sunderland to the title.
They will be the third title holder, of the quadrennial award which began in 2013. The Romans founded a settlement in Baginton, next to the River Sowe, another formed around a Saxon nunnery, founded c. AD 700 by St Osburga, left in ruins by King Canute's invading Danish army in 1016. Earl Leofric of Mercia and his wife Lady Godiva built on the remains of the nunnery and founded a Benedictine monastery in 1043 dedicated to St Mary. In time, a market was established at the settlement expanded. Coventry Castle was a bailey castle in the city, it was built in the early 12th century by 4th Earl of Chester. Its first known use was during The Anarchy when Robert Marmion, a supporter of King Stephen, expelled the monks from the adjacent priory of Saint Mary in 1144, converted it into a fortress from which he waged a battle against the Earl. Marmion perished in the battle, it was demolished in the late 12th century and St Mary's Guildhall was built on part of the site. It is assumed. By the 14th century, Coventry was an important centre of the cloth trade, throughout the Middle Ages was one of the largest and most important cities in England.
The bishops of Lichfield were referred to as bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, or Lichfield and Coventry. Coventry claimed the status of a city by ancient prescriptive usage, was granted a charter of incorporation in 1345, in 1451 became a county in its own right; the plays that William Shakespeare witnessed in Coventry during his boyhood or'teens' may have influenced how his plays, such as Hamlet, came about. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coventry became one of the three main British centres of watch and clock manufacture and ranked alongside Prescot, in Lancashire and Clerkenwell in London; as the industry declined, due to competition from Swiss Made clock and watch manufacturers, the skilled pool of workers proved crucial to the setting up of bicycle manufacture and the motorbike, machine tool and aircraft industries. In the late 19th century, Coventry became a major centre of bicycle manufacture; the industry energised by the invention by James Starley and his nephew John Kemp Starley of the Rover safety bicycle, safer and more popular than the pioneering penny-farthing.
The company became Rover. By the early 20th century, bicycle manufacture had evolved into motor manufacture, Coventry became a major centre of the British motor industry; the research and design headquarters of Jaguar Cars is in the city at their Whitley plant and although vehicle assembly ceased at the Browns Lane plant in 2004, Jaguar's head office returned to the city in 2011, is sited in Whitley. Jaguar is owned by Tata Motors. With many of the city's older properties becoming unfit for habitation, the first council houses were let to their tenants in 1917. With Coventry's industrial base continuing to soar after the end of the Great War a year numerous private and council housing developments took place across the city in the 1920s and 1930s; the development of a southern by-pass around the city, starting in the 1930s and being completed in 1940, helped deliver more urban areas to the city on rural land. Coventry suffered severe bomb damage during the Second World War. There was a massive Luftwaffe air raid that the Germans called Operation Moonlight Sonata, part of the "Coventry Blitz", on 14 November 1940.
Firebombing on this date led to severe damage to large areas of the city centre and to Coventry's historic cathedral, leaving only a shell and the spire. More than 4,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, along with around three quarters of the city's industrial plants. More than 800 people were killed, with thousands injured and homeless. Aside from London and Plymouth, Coventry suffered more damage than any other British city during the Luftwaffe attacks, with huge firestorms devastating most of the city centre; the city was targeted due to its high concentration of armaments, munitions and aero-engine plants which contributed to the British war effort, although there have been claims that Hitler launched the attack as revenge for the bombing of Munich by the RAF six days before the Coventry Blitz and chose the Midlands city because its medieval heart was regarded as one of the finest in Britain. Following the raids, the majority of Coventry's historic buildings could not be saved as they were in ruinous states or were deemed unsafe for any future use.
Several structures were demolished to make way for
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Sir Ninian Comper was a Scottish-born architect. He was one of the last of the great Gothic Revival architects, noted for his churches and their furnishings, he is well known for his stained glass, his use of colour and his subtle integration of Classical and Gothic elements which he described as unity by inclusion. Comper was born in Aberdeen, the eldest of five children of Ellen Taylor of Hull and the Reverend John Comper, Rector of St John's, Aberdeen, he was educated at Kingston College, Glenalmond School in Perthshire and attended a year at the Ruskin School of Art in Oxford. On moving to London, he was articled to Charles Eamer Kempe, in 1883 to George Frederick Bodley and Thomas Garner, his fellow-Scot William Bucknall took him into partnership in London in 1888 and Ninian was married to Grace Bucknall in 1890. Bucknall and Comper remained in partnership until 1905, his ecclesiastical commissions include a line of windows in the north wall of the nave of Westminster Abbey. He designed the main building for infants for St Mary & St John School on Hertford Street in Oxford, now called the Comper Foundation Stage School.
In 1936–38 he designed "one of his most famous and original churches": St Philip's Church at Cosham near Portsmouth. Comper is noted for re-introducing the'English altar', an altar surrounded by riddel posts. Comper designed a number of remarkable altar screens, inspired by medieval originals. Wymondham Abbey, has one of the finest examples. Only one major ecclesiastical work of Comper's is in the United States, the Leslie Lindsey Chapel of Boston's Emmanuel Episcopal Church; the work is an all-encompassing product of and testimony to Comper's design capability, comprising the entire decorative scheme of the chapel designed by the architectural firm of Allen & Collins. Comper designed its altar, altar screen, lectern, dozens of statues, all its furnishings and appointments, most notably the stained glass windows; the chapel commemorates Leslie Lindsey and Stewart Mason, her husband of ten days, who were married at Emmanuel Church and perished when the Lusitania was torpedoed in 1915. From 1912 Ninian and Grace lived in London at The Priory, Beulah Hill, a house designed by Decimus Burton, where he entertained friends such as John Betjeman.
He had a studio nearby at Knights Hill, close to the world's first Gothic Cemetery at West Norwood. After the studio was destroyed in World War II it was relocated to a building in his garden, used by his son, Nicholas Comper, to design aircraft. Comper was knighted by King George VI in 1950. On 22 December 1960 he died in The Hostel of God in Clapham, his body was brought back to Norwood for cremation at West Norwood Cemetery. His ashes were interred beneath the windows he designed in Westminster Abbey. Basic biographical details of Bucknall & Comper at the Dictionary of Scottish Architects Biographical Database. "Huddersfield Parish Church History". Huddersfield Parish Church. Retrieved 23 February 2010. "The Comper Jewel in the Highlands of Scotland". The Church of St Michael and All Angels. Retrieved 23 February 2010. Shawn Tribe. "Sir J. Ninian Comper and the Sisters of Bethany". Retrieved 22 July 2013. "Westminster Abbey stained glass windows - the nave". Archived from the original on 7 August 2007.
Retrieved 23 February 2010
St Mary's Church, Selly Oak
St. Mary's Church, Selly Oak is a Church of England parish church in Selly Oak, England; the parish of St. Mary was from part of the parish of St. Laurence, Northfield in 1862; the church is set back from the main Bristol Road and is approached from the south by a drive, ending at a lychgate at the entrance to the churchyard. There is an entrance from the north in Lodge Hill Road. St Mary's foundation stone was laid on 12 July 1860 by Joseph Frederick Ledsam, the Bishop of Worcester, the Right Reverend Henry Philpott, consecrated the church on 12 September 1861; the church was funded by Joseph Frederick Ledsam. The architect Edward Holmes designed the building in a Gothic Revival interpretation of Decorated Gothic, it is built of coursed sandstone, enlivened both inside and out by being laid in courses of two different shades. The walls are of brick, faced externally with Bromsgrove stone, with Bath stone used for the tracery and spire; the nave and aisle arches and columns are executed in Bath stone, the arches having Weoley Castle stone voussoirs introduced alternately with Bath stone.
Bands of Weoley Castle stone run horizontally around the inside of the church. The chancel roof was decorated with flowers in gold and colours, painted on a blue ground between the rafters; the north-west tower has a broach spire 150 feet high, topped by a weathercock. The church is cruciform, the nave has a clerestory and north and south aisles with four-bay arcades; the clerestory windows are unusual, being quatrefoils set in groups of three. Internally the walls are plastered, the plastering is punctuated by horizontal bands of sandstone. In the transepts and nave the roof timbers are exposed and in the chancel they are gilded and painted in heraldic colours of red, green and gold; the parish of St Stephen, Selly Park was formed from part of St. Mary's parish in 1871; the parishes were in the Anglican Diocese of Worcester until 1905, when they became part of the newly created Anglican Diocese of Birmingham. In 1893 a mission church was established and in 1906 a new church of St Wulstan's Church, Selly Oak was built.
A parish was formed out of St Mary's for this new church in 1911. For St Mary's centenary in 1961 the interior was reordered and redecorated under the direction of the architect Stephen Dykes Bower. At the same time painted, sculpted rood was removed from the chancel arch and transferred to Holy Trinity parish church, Shropshire. Since 1982 the building has been Grade II listed In the 1980s a set of olive wood Stations of the Cross was installed. There are nine stained glass windows by Hardman & Co.. East window; the Ascension, 1861, given by George Elkington in memory of his first wife Mary. West window; the Transfiguration, 1861, given by J. F. Ledsam. Above the window a small grisaille in memory of T. C. Humphries and his wife Eugenie. South west window. Mary and Martha, 1872, given by the Elkington family in memory of Margaret Morgan, second wife of George Elkington. South aisle south window; the Good Samaritan, 1866, in memory of George Elkington. South transept west window. Christ and Mary Magdalene, in memory of Hyla Elkington, died 1901.
South transept south window. Worship of the Kings. In memory of John Meredith of Harborne, died 1851, his wife Jane. South transept east window. Peter and John at the Tomb. In memory of Hyla Elkington. Lady Chapel north window. Healing and Resurrection, given by Edward Holmes in memory of his wife Anne. Baptistry. Blessing the Children, given by J. F. Ledsam in memory of F. G. Ledsam. At the church's consecration on 12 September 1861 the tower had only one bell. Five more were added in 1864, creating a ring of six, first rung on 29 September 1864. In 1887 the parish commemorated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria by adding two more bells, increasing them to a ring to eight, first rung on 20 June 1887. In 1922 the bells were found to be unsafe to ring, they were silent for a decade until enough money was raised for rectification work. In 1932 Gillett & Johnston of Croydon re-founded all eight bells and they were re-hung; the tenor now weighs 12 long cwt 1 qr 17 lb in and is tuned to the musical note G.
The Master of the Ringers for many years from the 1930s was William B. Cartwright, a local solicitor. Two of the bells are inscribed. No. 1 Bell — Treble: IN MEMORIAM FILIÆ ET S. M. VICTORIÆ ANNUM QUINQUAGESIMA REGNANTIS D. D. JOEL MERRETT. No. 8 Bell — Tenor: + BEATUS POPULUS QUI SCIT JUBILATIONEM. An organ was installed in 1862 for the opening of the church built by Halmshaw of Camp Hill. In the 1870s it was moved to the south side of the chancel. In 1902 Nicholson and Company of Worcester rebuilt it. Between 1925 and 1930 it was restored by Bird of Selly Park. In 1958 it was restored again, this time by Nicholson & Co, the console was moved to the north side of the chancel. Between 1925 and 1930 it was restored by Bird of Selly Park, it was dedicated by the Right Reverend John Leonard Wilson, the fourth Bishop of Birmingham on 4 June 1958 at a recital by Sir George Thalben-Ball, the Birmingham City Organist. Sheffield Organs made further tonal improvements in 1996 and 1999. Frank Frederick Cuisset ca.
1869–71 –???? Mr. Evans ca. 1880 William Humphreys 1932–34 Leonard Gibbons 1934
Norman Coke-Jephcott FRCO FAGO, FRCCO, FTCL was an English composer and organist based both in his native England and the United States of America. Norman Coke-Jephcott was born in Coventry on 17 March 1893, he was educated at Bablake School. He was awarded his Fellowship of the Royal College of Organists in 1911, he was admitted Fellow of the American Guild of Organists in 1912. In 1945 he was admitted to the Fellowship in the Canadian College of Organists and in the same year received the honorary degree of the D. Mus. from Ripon College in the same year. He was made a Fellow of Trinity College, London in 1947. Regarded by his colleagues as one of the world's greatest masters in organ improvisation, he had to his credit over twenty published works. Assistant organist at Holy Trinity Church, Coventry 1909-1911 Organist at Holy Cross Church, New York 1911 - 1915 Organist at the Church of the Messiah, New York 1915 - 1923 Organist at Grace Church 1923 - 1932 Organist and Master of the Choristers at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York 1932 - 1953 His compositions include: Bishop's Promenade Surely the Lord is in this Place Classical Fugue on a subject by Paul Vidal Fantasie on a National Air Improvisation on an Irish Air