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Holyrood Abbey

Holyrood Abbey is a ruined abbey of the Canons Regular in Edinburgh, Scotland. The abbey was founded in 1128 by King David I. During the 15th century, the abbey guesthouse was developed into a royal residence, after the Scottish Reformation the Palace of Holyroodhouse was expanded further; the abbey church was used as a parish church until the 17th century, has been ruined since the 18th century. The remaining walls of the abbey lie adjacent to the palace, at the eastern end of Edinburgh's Royal Mile; the site of the abbey is protected as a scheduled monument. Rood is an old Scots language word for the cross. Legend relates that in 1127, while King David I was hunting in the forests to the east of Edinburgh during the Feast of the Cross, he was thrown from his horse after it had been startled by a hart. According to variations of the story, the king was saved from being gored by the charging animal when it was startled either by the miraculous appearance of a holy cross descending from the skies, or by sunlight reflected from a crucifix which appeared between the hart's antlers while the king attempted to grasp them in self-defence.

As an act of thanksgiving for his escape, David I founded Holyrood Abbey on the site in 1128. In the church was preserved, in a golden reliquary, an object said to be a fragment of the True Cross brought by David's mother, St. Margaret, from Waltham Abbey, known thereafter as the Black Rood of Scotland. At the battle of Neville's Cross, in 1346, this precious relic fell into the hands of the English, it was placed in Durham Cathedral, from where it disappeared at the Reformation; the abbey was served by a community of Augustinian Canons Regular from Merton Priory. The layout of the original church at Holyrood, now known only from excavations came from the 1125 church at the priory. In 1177 the papal legate Vivian held council here. In 1189 the nobles and prelates of Scotland met here to discuss raising a ransom for William the Lion; the original abbey church of Holyrood was reconstructed between 1195 and 1230. The completed building consisted of a six-bay aisled choir, three-bay transepts with a central tower above, an eight-bay aisled nave with twin towers at its west front.

Some scholars believe the high vaults to be sexpartite. Such a design was archaic in that period, difficult to execute or maintain. Evidence of the construction qualities of the stonemasons has remained on the S aisle vaults, which are set on an square plan of 4.4 m, but built roughly, with thin flagstones and not much attention to keeping the vertices straight. They were plastered, with exposed thin ribs. Among the chief benefactors of Holyrood during the four centuries of its existence as a religious house were Kings David I and II; the Parliament of Scotland met at the abbey in 1256, 1285, 1327, 1366, 1384, 1389 and 1410. In 1326 Robert the Bruce held parliament here, there is evidence that Holyrood was being used as a royal residence by 1329; the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, which ended the First War of Scottish Independence, was signed by Robert I in the "King's Chamber" at Holyrood in March 1328. The abbey's position close to Edinburgh Castle meant that it was visited by Scotland's kings, who were lodged in the guest house situated to the west of the abbey cloister.

In the mid-15th century, with the emergence of Edinburgh as the main seat of the royal court and the chief city in the kingdom, the Kings of Scots used the accommodation at Holyrood for secular purposes. James II and his twin brother Alexander, Duke of Rothesay, were born there in October 1430. James was crowned at Holyrood in 1437 and building works were carried out before his marriage there in 1449. Between 1498 and 1501, James IV constructed a royal palace at Holyrood, adjacent to the abbey cloister. Royal influence over the abbey further increased when in 1538 Robert Stewart, the infant, illegitimate son of James V, was appointed as commendator of Holyrood. During the War of the Rough Wooing, the invading English armies of the Earl of Hertford inflicted structural damage on Holyrood Abbey in 1544 and 1547. Lead was stripped from the roof, the bells were removed, the contents of the abbey were plundered. In 1559, during the Scottish Reformation, the abbey suffered further damage when a mob destroyed the altars and looted the rest of the church.

With the reformation and the end of monastic services, the east end of the abbey church became redundant. In 1569, Adam Bothwell, the commendator of Holyrood, informed the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland that the east end was in such a state of disrepair that the choir and transept should be demolished; this was done the following year, retaining only the nave, which by was serving as the parish church of the burgh of Canongate. Between 1570 and 1573 an east gable was erected, closing the east end of the former nave, all but two of the windows in the nave were blocked up, the royal tombs were removed to a new royal burial vault in the south aisle and the old east end was demolished; the abbey was extensively remodelled in 1633 for the coronation of Charles I. In 1686, James VII established a Jesuit college within Holyrood Palace; the following year, the Protestant congregation was moved to the new Kirk of the Canongate, the abbey was converted into a Roman Catholic Chapel Royal and the chapel of the Order of the Thistle.

The abbey church was remodelled according to the plans of James Smith, was fitted with elaborate thrones and stalls for the indivi

Jazz Portraits: Mingus in Wonderland

Jazz Portraits: Mingus in Wonderland is a live album by jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus recorded in 1959 and released on the United Artists label in September of that year. The original release was titled a subsequent edition titled Wonderland; the Allmusic review by Scott Yanow awarded the album 4 stars, calling the music "advanced bop that looks toward the upcoming innovations of the avant-garde and is quite exciting". All compositions by Charles Mingus except as indicated"Nostalgia in Times Square" – 12:18 "I Can't Get Started" – 10:08 "No Private Income Blues" – 12:51 "Alice's Wonderland" – 8:54Recorded at the Nonagon Art Gallery in New York City on January 16, 1959 Charles Mingus – bass John Handy – alto saxophone Booker Ervintenor saxophone Richard Wyandspiano Dannie Richmonddrums

Broughton, Oxfordshire

Broughton is a village and civil parish in northern Oxfordshire, about 2 1⁄2 miles southwest of Banbury. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 286; the Domesday Book of 1086 records the place-name as Brohtune and an episcopal register from 1224 records it as Broctona. The name is derived in this case means tūn on a brōc. Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 Thorgautr Lagr held the manor of Broughton. By 1086 the parish of Broughton was part of the hundred of Bloxham, held by tenant-in-chief Berengarii de Todeni, eldest son of Robert de Todeni. Berengar's sister Albreda inherited Broughton, so her husband Robert de Insula was next to manage the profitable manor; the Domesday Book records. By 1444 there were at least three, one of, a fulling mill. By 1685 there was a second fulling mill, both mills supplied the local woollen industry. Fulling and cloth-dyeing remained local industries until early in the 20th century. Broughton Castle is a 14th- to 16th-century country house and the ancestral seat of the Lords Saye and Sele.

It is a Scheduled Grade I listed building. In the 17th century Broughton's agriculture was pasture for cattle and sheep, which has given to the parish such field names as Dairy Ground, Grazing Ground and New Close Pasture. Improved crop rotation in the agricultural revolution increased arable farming in the parish, with crops being diversified in the 18th century to include clover, hops and woad; some of these crops have given place names to the parish such as Sandfine Wood, Sandfine Road and Woadmill Farm. Woad was still grown in 1827. Broughton has a pair of Gothic Revival almshouses that were built in 1859; the Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is in the grounds of Broughton Castle. The church was built about 1300 in a style, transitional from Early English to Decorated Gothic. Clerestories were added to the south aisle late in the 14th century and to the nave in the 15th century; the church was restored in 1877–80 under the direction of George Gilbert Scott. It is a Grade I listed building.

Broughton Rectory was rebuilt in 1694. It was altered three times in the 19th century: firstly by Richard Pace of Lechlade in 1808, with extensions by SP Cockerell in 1820 and HJ Underwood in 1842. Broughton has the Saye and Sele Arms. Ekwall, Eilert. Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Broughton. ISBN 0198691033. Lobel, Mary D. A History of the County of Oxford. Victoria County History. 9: Bloxham Hundred. London: Oxford University Press for the Institute of Historical Research. Pp. 85–102. ISBN 978-0-19722-726-8. Sherwood, Jennifer. Oxfordshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 490–492, 498. ISBN 0-14-071045-0. Haval, Nikhilesh. "St. Mary the Virgin Church, Broughton". Oxfordshire in 360 degrees. Nikreations. Media related to Broughton, Oxfordshire at Wikimedia Commons

Second Amendment sanctuary

Second Amendment sanctuary known as a gun sanctuary, refers to states, counties, or localities in the United States that have adopted laws or resolutions to prohibit or impede the enforcement of certain gun control measures perceived as violative of the Second Amendment such as universal gun background checks, high capacity magazine bans, assault weapon bans, red flag laws, etc. Although other jurisdictions had adopted legislation now characterized as creating Second Amendment sanctuaries, the Carroll County, Maryland Board of Commissioners is thought to be the first body to explicitly use the term "sanctuary" in its resolution on May 22, 2013 and Effingham County, Illinois County Board is thought to have to have popularized the term on April 16, 2018. Examples of the resolutions include the Second Amendment Preservation Ordinance in Oregon and the Second Amendment Protection Act in Kansas; the term "sanctuary" draws its inspiration from the immigration sanctuary cities movement of jurisdictions that have resolved to not assist federal enforcement of immigration laws against illegal aliens.

Although the Obama-era state laws listed below were approved prior to the adoption of the term "sanctuary" in reference to legislation resisting the enforcement of gun control laws they are now characterized as part of the Second Amendment sanctuary movement. On July 9, 2010, Governor Sean Parnell signed the Alaska Firearms Freedom Act, declaring that certain firearms and accessories are exempt from federal regulation; the text can be read here. On September 10, 2013, Governor Parnell signed HB 69, which amended and expanded HB 186; the text can be read here. On March 19, 2014, Governor Butch Otter signed SB 1332 to protect Idaho law enforcement officers from being directed by the federal government to violate citizens' rights under Section 11, Article I of the Idaho Constitution; the text can be read here. HJM 3 was passed in 2009; that text can be read here. On April 16, 2013, Governor Sam Brownback signed the Second Amendment Protection Act; the text can be read here. On March 11, 2010, Governor Dave Freudenthal signed the Wyoming Firearms Freedom Act.

The text can be read here. 1 out of 75 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Scott 5 out of 15 counties and 1 city have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 1 out of 58 counties and 1 city have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Needles City Siskiyou 39 out of 64 counties, 3 cities, 4 towns have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 37 out of 67 counties, 2 cities, 1 town have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions. In 2013, all 67 sheriffs in Florida had signed a letter saying that they will not enforce laws that violate the Constitution or infringe on the rights of the people to own firearms. 23 out of 159 counties and 1 city have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 67 out of 102 counties, 2 cities, 4 townships have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 8 out of 92 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 1 out of 105 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Cherokee 99 out of 120 counties and 6 cities have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 0 out of 16 counties and 1 town have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Paris Town 4 out of 23 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Allegany Carroll Cecil Harford 32 out of 83 counties, 1 city, 4 townships have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions.

On February 25, 2020, the Michigan House of Representatives voted to reaffirm the Second Amendment. The text can be read here. 6 out of 87 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Becker Clearwater Marshall McLeod Roseau Wadena 8 out of 82 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary, safe haven, or other pro-Second Amendment resolutions: 3 out of 93 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Cherry Cheyenne Morrill 10 out of 16 counties have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions. All 17 sheriffs in Nevada and have signed a letter expressing their support for the Second Amendment. 6 out of 21 counties, 25 townships, 5 boroughs have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 26 out of 33 counties, 6 cities, 1 town have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions. The SAFE Act was passed in 2013. After passage, New York counties started passing resolutions opposing the SAFE Act. There are 52 out of 62 counties with such resolutions; the New York State Sheriffs Association sued to block the law.1 out of 62 counties and 2 towns have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: Broadalbin Town Grand Island Town Wyoming 66 out of 100 counties, 1 city, 2 towns have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 19 out of 88 counties and 3 township have adopted Second Amendment sanctuary resolutions: 24 out of 77 counties ha

Star Saga

Star Saga is a series of floppy-based video games which combine a computerized game arbiter with hefty sections of printed text. Released in an era before the availability of the CD-ROM format, the titles make up for the limited storage available at the time by using print to attempt to tell a rich story. In essence, the designers endeavored to blend aspects of paper gamebooks with the complexity of a role-playing video game. Versions of the games were released for the Apple II series of computers. Star Saga: One - Beyond The Boundary, released in 1988, was the first in a short-lived series of science fiction adventure/role-playing games by Masterplay Publishing. Loosely based on the Rekon pen & paper role-playing system, the game series was designed by Andrew C. Greenberg, Rick Dutton, Walter Freitag, Michael Massimilla. In this first title, players leave their homeworlds setting out to explore the vast unknowns of space. Per the official game text: In 2815 A. D. the majority of the human race is afraid of space.

They are cloistered in the Nine Worlds in a region called the Galactic Fringe. Though space travel has been practical since the invention of the dual-axis hyperdrive in 2257, humankind's attempt to colonize "Beyond the Boundary" came to an abrupt halt in 2490; the "Space Plague," a gargantuan epidemic caused by an organism of alien origin, killed more than half the humanoid population of the galaxy, threatened the extinction of civilization, forever changed mankind's attitude towards space. Now, a Space Patrol enforces the "Boundary," that one-way border around the Nine Worlds in order to prevent anything like the "Space Plague" from happening again. Now, anyone may leave the area enclosed by the Boundary, thus far, the Boundary has proven effective in keeping ships from entering the Nine Worlds for three centuries, keeping humanity safe from the unknown. Of course, this does provide for a bit of stagnation, as well. After all, no new discoveries, no new challenges, countless lost opportunities hardly seem compatible with a growing standard of living.

There are those who sense that something is amiss... The second title, Star Saga: Two - The Clathran Menace was the sequel, released in 1989. In this title, a gigantic armada of alien ships scours the galaxy, seeking to eliminate any and all sentient life. Players must explore the accessible reaches of space, hoping to uncover technology with which to oppose this threat; the game background text describes this as: The ominous approach of the survey line of Clathran battle and colony ships was sweeping through the galaxy, identifying and exterminating all in its path. Known collectively as the "Clathran Menace", it meant many things to many people. To most of the human race, it meant nothing, as they were being purposely kept in the dark by their "superiors", so as not to cause any undue panic. What good was it to evacuate a city in the face of impending disaster if the only road out of town wasn't finished? To Professor Lee Dambroke, Dean of the Department of Xenobiology on the university world of Harvard, the "Clathran Menace" was a matter of science and knowledge.

To Laran Darkwatch, mystic Disciple of the Final Church of Man, it was a question of faith. To M. J. Turner, the top pilot in the Space Patrol, or the whole galaxy for that matter, it was a question of pride. All were impressive solid tenets upon which to build a society and a glittering future. Or were they brittle conceits, ready to crumble at the first pressure from the "Clathran Menace"? Although Star Saga was to be released as a trilogy, Masterplay went out of business before the third game was released, leaving only Star Saga: One - Beyond the Boundary and Star Saga: Two - The Clathran Menace; as well as the computer software, Star Saga ships with a large color fold-out map, six colored tokens that players use to move around the map, thirteen booklets containing a total of 888 numbered passages of text. Due to the high volume of text, the oversized game box weighs in at over 3 pounds; the second title expands the number of booklets to fourteen, with over 50,000 individual paragraphs. At the beginning of the game, up to six players choose which character to play as from six sealed character profiles.

Both single and multiplayer hotseat options are available, with players interacting both directly and indirectly with one another over the course of the game. Each character has a different background story and motivating goals, players are encouraged to keep these secret from each other. All players begin with a non-upgraded starship; when playing Star Saga, each player physically plots his or her moves on the map enters these movements and other desired actions into the Star Saga computer program. In response to the entered commands, the program determines the results, updates the character's statistics and inventory, directs the player to read one or more text passages from the accompanying booklets. Upon reading the section, the player discovers the consequences of his or her actions, as well as any new information, gleaned. In some cases, the actual results of a turn will be quite different from those planned, due to events such as interception

Wheel construction

Wheel construction refers to the making of wheels. Construction of wire-spoked wheels is termed as wheelbuilding, so wheel construction refers to construction of non-wire wheels, e.g. wheels of cars and other heavier vehicles. Wheels are constructed in a wide variety of designs using different materials, but in the early 21st century and steel are most used, with steel-made wheels being heavier and more durable than aluminum wheels; the performance of a wheel depends on the technique used to construct it. A wheel is made up of a rim, which connects with the tire, a central disc known as the disc or spider, which connects the wheel to the vehicle. Wheels are of two types: semi-drop center, used in trucks, drop center, used in other vehicles; the wheel is one of the most important inventions, but its inventor and exact date of invention are not yet known. The oldest known wheel was excavated from Mesopotamia, believed to be 5500 years old; this earliest wheel was a potter's wheel, used in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia, invented by Mesopotamians around 3500 BCE.

The earliest known use of the wheel for transportation is in Mesopotamian chariots about 3200 years ago. Egyptians developed wheels with spokes about 2000 years ago, followed by Europeans some 1400 years ago. Another source says the oldest wheel used for transportation, with a radius of 27.5 inches, was discovered in 2002, about 12.5 miles south west of Ljubljana in Slovenia, is believed to be 5200 years old. Most wheels are single-piece wheels, made using casting, rim rolling and/or high light methods. In casting, wheels are made by using a mold; the mold is filled with molten metal. Various types of casting processes result in wheels with different properties. Gravity casting and low-pressure casting are common types of casting. In gravity casting, metal is poured into a mold and gravity alone causes the molten metal to fill the mold; this method is simple and low-cost, but aluminum cast this way will not be as dense as with other casting methods. Wheels constructed by this method are therefore made heavier to achieve equivalent strength.

In this method, molten aluminum is pumped into molds at heightened speed, which increases pressure and prevents formation of bubbles. Low-pressure casting is most common type of wheel casting because of the strength and quality of wheels formed by this method; the forging method is considered best for making single-piece wheels because the wheels made using this method are both lightweight and strong. In this method, a stronger and denser wheel is produced by shaping an aluminum billet under high heat and at about 900 bars of pressure. In this method, simple casting and a special rolling machine are used to construct wheels; the desired wheel is molded by heating its outer portion, with pressure provided by spinning the unfinished wheel, sculpting the wheel using specialized rollers. This method creates a wheel similar in quality at a lower cost. OEM wheels constructed by this method are used in special performance vehicles; this method is used to construct light wheels of racing vehicles. In this method, the material is compressed using rollers along a low-pressure aluminum barrel, which gives it its required shape and form.

Two- or three-piece wheels known as multi-piece wheels, are assembled from pieces constructed separately by the methods mentioned above. Bolts or welding, or both, can be used to assemble the separate parts of such wheels