Curtain wall (architecture)
A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, utilized to keep the weather out and the occupants in. Since the curtain wall is non-structural, it can be made of lightweight materials, thereby reducing construction costs; when glass is used as the curtain wall, an advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall façade does not carry any structural load from the building other than its own dead load weight; the wall transfers lateral wind loads that are incident upon it to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, absorb sway induced by wind and seismic forces acting on the building, withstand wind loads, support its own dead load weight forces. Curtain wall systems are designed with extruded aluminum framing members, although the first curtain walls were made with steel frames; the aluminum frame is infilled with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits such as daylighting.
However, the effects of light on visual comfort as well as solar heat gain in a building are more difficult to control when using large amounts of glass infill. Other common infills include: stone veneer, metal panels and operable windows or vents. Curtain walls differ from storefront systems in that they are designed to span multiple floors, taking into consideration design requirements such as: thermal expansion and contraction. Buildings have long been constructed with the exterior walls of the building supporting the load of the entire structure; the development and widespread use of structural steel and reinforced concrete allowed small columns to support large loads. The exterior walls could be non-load bearing and thus much lighter and more open than the masonry load-bearing walls of the past; this gave way to increased use of glass as an exterior façade, the modern-day curtain wall was born. Early prototype versions of curtain walls may have existed in buildings of timber construction before the 19th century, should columns have been used to support the building rather than the walls themselves when large panels of glass infill were involved.
When iron began to be used extensively in buildings in late 18th-century Britain such as at Ditherington Flax Mill, when buildings of wrought iron and glass such as The Crystal Palace were built, the building blocks of structural understanding were laid for the development of curtain walls. Oriel Chambers and 16 Cook Street, both built in Liverpool, England, by local architect and civil engineer Peter Ellis, are characterised by their extensive use of glass in their facades. Towards the courtyards they boasted metal-framed glass curtain walls, which makes them two of the world's first buildings to include this architectural feature; the extensive glass walls allowed light to penetrate further into the building, utilizing more floor space and reducing lighting costs. Oriel Chambers comprises 43,000 sq ft set over five floors without an elevator, which had only been invented and was not yet widespread. An early example of an all-steel curtain wall used in the classical style is the Kaufhaus Tietz department store on Leipziger Straße, built in 1901.
Some of the first curtain walls were made with steel mullions, the polished plate glass was attached to the mullions with asbestos- or fiberglass-modified glazing compound. Silicone sealants or glazing tape were substituted for the glazing compound; some designs included an outer cap to hold the glass in place and to protect the integrity of the seals. The first curtain wall installed in New York City, in the United Nations Secretariat Building, was this type of construction. Earlier modernist examples are the Hallidie Building in San Francisco. During the 1970s, the widespread use of aluminium extrusions for mullions began. Aluminum alloys offer the unique advantage of being able to be extruded into nearly any shape required for design and aesthetic purposes. Today, the design complexity and shapes available are nearly limitless. Custom shapes can be manufactured with relative ease; the Omni San Diego Hotel curtain wall in California (developed by JMI Realty, designed by architectural firm Hornberger and Worstel, is an example of a unitized curtain-wall system with integrated sunshades.
The vast majority of ground-floor curtain walls are installed as long pieces between floors vertically and between vertical members horizontally. Framing members may be fabricated in a shop, but installation and glazing is performed at the jobsite. Similar to a stick system, a ladder system has mullions which can be split and either snapped or screwed together consisting of a half box and plate; this allows sections of curtain wall to be fabricated in a shop reducing the time spent installing the system on site. The drawbacks of using such a system is reduced structural performance and visible joint lines down the length of each mullion. Unitized curtain walls entail factory fabrication and assembly of panels and may include factory glazing; these completed units are installed on the building structure to form the building enclosure. Unitized curtain wall has the advantages of: speed.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago)
The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a skyscraper condo-hotel in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The building, named after businessman and current U. S. President Donald Trump, was designed by architect Adrian Smith of Skidmore and Merrill. Bovis Lend Lease built the 98-story structure, which reaches a height of 1,388 feet including its spire, its roof topping out at 1,171 feet, it is next to the main branch of the Chicago River, with a view of the entry to Lake Michigan beyond a series of bridges over the river. The building received publicity when the winner of the first season of The Apprentice reality television show, Bill Rancic, chose to manage the construction of the tower over managing a new Trump National Golf Course and resort in Los Angeles. Trump announced in 2001 that the skyscraper would become the tallest building in the world, but after the September 11 attacks that same year, he scaled back the building's plans, its design underwent several revisions; when topped out in 2009, it became the fourth-tallest building in the US.
It surpassed the city's John Hancock Center as the building with the highest residence in the world, held this title until the completion of the Burj Khalifa. The design of the building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel and condominiums; the 339-room hotel opened for business with limited accommodations and services on January 30, 2008 full accommodation and services on April 28. The building topped out in late 2008 and construction was completed in 2009; as of 2015, the hotel is among three in Chicago with an elite five-star Forbes Travel Guide rating. Sixteen was one of five restaurants in Chicago with at least a Michelin Guide two-star rating in 2016 and one of three five-star Forbes-rated restaurants in the city until it closed in 2018; the spa is one of six with at least a four-star Forbes rating in the Chicago area in 2015. The tower sits at 401 North Wabash Avenue in the River North Gallery District, part of the Near North Side community area of Chicago.
The building occupies the site vacated by the Chicago Sun-Times, one of the city's two major newspapers, its location within the River North Gallery District places it in a neighborhood that has had a high concentration of art galleries since the 1980s. The site, at the foot of Rush Street, is on the north side of the Chicago River just west of the Wrigley Building and the Michigan Avenue Bridge, just east of Marina City and 330 North Wabash; the building is close to numerous Chicago landmarks. Parts of the building are visible throughout the city, the entire length of the building is visible from boats on the river, as well as from locations to the east along the river, such as the mouth of Lake Michigan, the Lake Shore Drive Overpass, the Columbus Drive Bridge; the building is across the Chicago River from the city's business district. It is a block away from the southern end of the Magnificent Mile portion of Michigan Avenue; the restaurant, Terrace 16, has a clear view of the Chicago River's entrance to Lake Michigan and of the four buildings completed in the 1920s that flank the Michigan Avenue Bridge.
The design of the building incorporates three setback features designed to provide visual continuity with the surrounding skyline, each reflecting the height of a nearby building. The first setback, on the east side of the building, aligns with the cornice line of the Wrigley Building to the east; the third setback, on the east side, relates to 330 North Wabash building. However, some views distort the alignment of the second setback; the setbacks and rounded edges of the building combat vortex formation. The body of the building is raised 30 feet above the main Wabash entrance and 70 feet above the Chicago River; the building's Permasteelisa curtain wall uses clear low-emissivity coated glass and a curved wing-shaped polished stainless-steel mullion system that projects 9 inches from the glass line. It incorporates brushed clear anodized aluminum; the building has 2,600,000 square feet of floor space, rises to 98 stories, houses 486 luxury residential condominiums. These include studio apartments, a mixture of suites with one to four bedrooms, five-bedroom penthouses.
The tower features a luxury hotel condominium with 339 guest rooms. The building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel, condominiums; the 3rd through 12th floors house lobbies, retail space, the parking garage. The 17th floor through the 27th-floor mezzanine contain hotel condominiums and executive lounges; the 28th through 85th floors have residential condominiums, the 86th through 89th floors have penthouses. A 1.2-acre riverfront park and riverwalk, along a 500-foot space in the area adjacent to the building to the east, was opened in the first half of 2010. The park facilitates public assembly and entertainment activity while linking the building with river commuters. In 2011, the riverfront park landscaping surrounding the building, referred to as Trump Plaza and Riverwalk or sometimes just Trump Plaza, became the subject of controversy. In 2010, the Plaza had earned special recognition at the Mayor Daley's Landscape Awards; the press release noted the landscaping "for their magnificent new civic landscape, a poetic interpretation of native Illinois that
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
340 on the Park
340 on the Park is a residential tower in the Lakeshore East development of the neighborhood of New Eastside/ East Loop Chicago and was completed in 2007. The building surpassed 55 East Erie as the tallest all-residential building in Chicago, it is the second-tallest all-residential building in Chicago at 672 feet with 62 floors. The architectural firm Solomon Cordwell Buenz designed the tower and it was built by Magellan Development; the structural engineering firm Magnusson Klemencic Associates designed the building using post-tensioning in order increase the floor-to-ceiling heights. James McHugh Construction Co installed post-tensioning tendons supplied by Amsysco Inc; the tower is located in the Lakeshore East complex which, when completed, will house thousands of residents. 340 on the Park is set flush next to Randolph Street, allowing unobstructed views of Millennium Park, Grant Park, The Park at Lakeshore East and Lake Michigan. The tower's design allows for nearby buildings to maintain some views of the park.
340 on the Park has become the first residential tower in the Midwestern United States to achieve Silver LEED certification for its "green" design, including a large winter garden for residents. Additional benefits include a connection to the Chicago Pedway system, low-flow water fixtures for both residential and public spaces, energy-efficient fixtures such as lights and mechanical equipment; the north side of the building is contoured so that views from The Buckingham next to the building are not interfered with. Residents of 340 on the Park are zoned to schools in the Chicago Public Schools. Ogden School Wells Community Academy High School List of buildings List of skyscrapers List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in the United States World's tallest structures Official 340 On the Park website Emporis listing Solomon Cordwell Buenz website
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
Wilson Brothers & Company
Wilson Brothers & Company was a prominent Victorian-era architecture and engineering firm established in Philadelphia, noted for its structural expertise. The brothers designed or contributed engineering work to hundreds of bridges, railroad stations and industrial buildings, including the principal buildings at the 1876 Centennial Exposition, they designed churches, schools and private residences. Among their surviving major works are the Pennsylvania Railroad, Connecting Railway Bridge over the Schuylkill River, the main building of Drexel University, the train shed of Reading Terminal, all in Philadelphia; the firm's founders were Joseph Miller Wilson and civil engineer, John Allston Wilson, civil engineer, Frederick Godfrey Thorn and civil engineer. Youngest brother Henry W. Wilson, civil engineer, joined the firm in 1886, was promoted to partner in 1899. All three Wilson brothers attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY. Joseph studied metallurgy at the University of Pennsylvania.
Joseph worked in the construction department of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1860 to 1876, designing bridges and railroad structures, including several commuter stations on the Main Line. For a PRR subsidiary, he designed the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad Passenger Terminal in Washington, DC, the station in which U. S. President James A. Garfield was assassinated in 1881; the National Gallery of Art now occupies its site at 6th Street & Constitution Avenue on the National Mall. John did engineering work including the PRR and the Reading Railroad. Wilson Brothers & Company was founded on January 1, 1876. For the 1876 Centennial Exposition, Henry Petit and Joseph M. Wilson co-designed the Main Exhibition Building—the largest building in the world, 1,876 feet in length and enclosing 21-1/2 acres; the pair designed Machinery Hall, oversaw construction of the other principal buildings. Joseph co-authored a 3-volume history of the Philadelphia World's Fair. Joseph's commission for Philadelphia's Presbyterian Hospital, may be related to work on Presbyterian churches, nursing homes and an orphanage.
The firm's extensive work for financer Anthony J. Drexel, the city's wealthiest citizen and a Roman Catholic, may have led to subsequent commissions for convents and Catholic hospitals. In Philadelphia, the firm designed the headquarters for the Baldwin Locomotive Works. In 1881, the PRR hired the firm to design its main passenger terminal at Broad & Filbert Streets in Center City Philadelphia, directly west of City Hall; this was one of the first steel-framed buildings in America to use masonry not as structure, but as a curtain wall. The station was admired. Eleven years the Wilson Brothers' Gothic Revival station was incorporated into Frank Furness's far larger Broad Street Station; the Wilsons designed its new train shed, at the time, the largest single-span train shed in the world. In 1885, the Wilsons designed a high-ceilinged, 2-story banking house for Drexel & Company, on the southeast corner of 5th & Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia. Four years Drexel wished to expand, but Independence National Bank next door refused to sell.
In response, Joseph Wilson designed the Drexel Building, a 10-story, H-shaped addition that surrounded Independence National Bank on the east and south sides, permanently depriving the neighbor of sunlight. The iron-skeletoned addition was built atop Drexel's banking house, was one of the first examples of X-bracing. One of the buildings demolished for this was Library Hall, the Library Company of Philadelphia's headquarters, design by William Thornton. In an ironic turn of events, the Drexel Building itself was demolished in 1959, a replica of Library Hall was built on its original site by the American Philosophical Society. Following the deaths of the two older brothers, the firm continued as Wilson and Richards. Pennsylvania Railroad, Connecting Railway Bridge over Schuylkill River, Philadelphia, PA Bryn Mawr Station, Bryn Mawr, PA Wynnewood Station, Wynnewood, PA Haverford Station, Haverford, PA Bryn Mawr Hotel, Bryn Mawr, PA Ardmore Station, Ardmore, PA Broad Street Station, Philadelphia, PA Wayne Railroad Station, Jct. of N. Wayne Ave. and Station Rd. Wayne, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed.
Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge over Delaware River, Trenton, NJ Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge over Susquehanna River, west of Harrisburg, PA Train shed for expanded Broad Street Station, Philadelphia, PA. Reading Railroad Overpass Spring Garden Pumping Station, East River Drive, Fairmount Park Presbyterian Hospital Joseph D. Potts house alterations, formally WXPN-FM, now the University of Pennsylvania Press A. J. Holman and Company, 1222-26 Arch St. NRHP-listed. St. Andrew Episcopal Church, now St. Andrew & St. Monica Episcopal Ch