Generally, some of the seating - sometimes a substantial proportion - would be reserved for subscribers. In 19th century Britain they were common, often being built to cope with urbanisation, frequently they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more privately, with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favourite preachers and they are anomalies in English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there. Historically many Anglican churches were proprietary chapels, over the years they have often been converted into normal parishes. During the first half of the nineteenth century proprietary chapels flourished in Belgravia and they were extra-parochial, and were often run on a commercial basis, supported by pew-rents and sometimes built over wine vaults. An ingratiating preacher, preferably an invalid, a well-nourished verger, and genteel pew-openers did their best to attract the quality. M. O.
St Marys Church, Castle Street, Reading is an extant church which formerly functioned as a chapel within the Anglican Church. St John the Evangelists Church, Chichester is a redundant church which is now in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust but it is used for concerts. St Johns Chapel, Bedford Row was formerly a proprietary chapel
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity. It is related to the crucifix and to the general family of cross symbols. The basic forms of the cross are the Latin cross and the Greek cross, with variants used in heraldry. The cross-shaped sign, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly predates the introduction of Christianity, in both East and West and it goes back to a very remote period of human civilization. It is supposed to have used not just for its ornamental value. It may have represented the apparatus used in kindling fire, and thus as the symbol of sacred fire or as a symbol of the sun, denoting its daily rotation. It has interpreted as the mystic representation of lightning or of the god of the tempest, or the emblem of the Aryan pantheon. Another associated symbol is the cross used in ancient Egypt. It was often depicted in the hands of the goddess Sekhmet, Egyptian Christians adopted it as the emblem of the cross.
Yet another Egyptian symbol is the nfr - meaning, beauty or perfect, in the Bronze Age a representation of the cross as conceived in Christian art appeared, and the form was popularised. The more precise characterization coincided with a general change in customs. The cross came into use in forms on many objects, cinctures, earthenware fragments. De Mortillet believed that use of the sign was not merely ornamental. In the proto-Etruscan cemetery of Golasecca every tomb has a vase with a cross engraved on it, true crosses of more or less artistic design have been found in Tiryns, at Mycenæ, in Crete, and on a fibula from Vulci. According to Swami Vivekananda the Christian cross is the Shivalinga converted into a cross, according to W. E. Vine, the cross was used by worshipers of Tammuz, an Ancient Near East deity of Babylonian origin who had the cross-shaped taw as his symbol. In which there was not only a straight and erected piece of Wood fixed in the Earth, but a transverse Beam fastned unto that towards the top thereof.
A symbol similar to the cross, the staurogram, was used to abbreviate the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament manuscripts such as P66, P45 and P75, the extensive adoption of the cross as Christian iconographic symbol arose from the 4th century. Another early depictions of the cross as a Christian symbol is the Alexamenos graffito. e, in his book De Corona, written in 204, Tertullian tells how it was already a tradition for Christians to trace repeatedly on their foreheads the sign of the cross
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
Abraham, originally Abram, is the first of the three patriarchs of Judaism. His story features in the texts of all the Abrahamic religions and Abraham plays a prominent role as an example of faith in Judaism, Christianity. The biblical narrative revolves around the themes of posterity and land, Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land originally given to Canaan, but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward who might inherit the land after Abraham, Abraham marries Keturah and has six more sons, but on his death, when he is buried beside Sarah, it is Isaac who receives all Abrahams goods, while the other sons receive only gifts. Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons, Abram and Haran, Haran was the father of Lot, and died in his native city, Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah, who was barren, with Abram and Lot, departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205.
Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and the substance and souls that they had acquired, and traveled to Shechem in Canaan. There was a famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households. On the way Abram told his wife Sarai to say that she was his sister, God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with great plagues, for which he tried to find the reason. Upon discovering that Sarai was a woman, Pharaoh demanded that they and their household leave immediately. When they came back to the Bethel and Hai area and this became a problem for the herdsmen who were assigned to each familys cattle. But Lot chose to go east to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God. During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam, Abrams nephew, the Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodoms armies.
Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target, one person who escaped capture came and told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he immediately assembled 318 trained servants, Abrams force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were already worn down from the Battle of Siddim. When they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a plan by splitting his group into more than one unit. Not only were able to free the captives, Abrams unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah. They freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, upon Abrams return, Sodoms king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the kings dale
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines often contain idols, relics, or other objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, or in the home, a shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located buildings and in the temples designed specifically for worship, such as a church in Christianity. A shrine here is usually the centre of attention in the building, in such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine. In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella, historically, in Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, and in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can commonly be found within the home or shop. This shrine is usually a structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity that is part of the official religion.
Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu. Usually a small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine, Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head, Chinese shrines must stand directly on the floor. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many gardens, following various religions, including historically. Shrines are found in most, though not all, Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, though not all, forms of Christianity, Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary, for it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required. Another use of the shrine in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – especially larger – churches used by parishioners when praying privately in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars, Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, and may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them, they were used to aid or give a visual focus for prayers. Side altars, where Mass could actually be celebrated, were used in a way to shrines by parishioners
For the spirit house used by the Dakelh people of British Columbia, see Spirit house. Most houses and businesses have a spirit house placed in an auspicious spot, the location may be chosen after consultation with a Brahmin priest. The spirit house is normally in the form of a house or temple. The house is intended to provide a shelter for spirits that could cause problems for the if not appeased. The shrines often include images of people and animals, votive offerings are left at the house to propitiate the spirits. More elaborate installations include an altar for this purpose, di Penates Erawan Shrine Hokora Kamidana Lak Mueang Nat Thai folklore Tutelary deity Media related to Spirit houses at Wikimedia Commons The Thai Spirit House
Beads are among the earliest human ornaments and ostrich shell beads in Africa date to 10,000 BC. Over the centuries various cultures have made beads from a variety of materials from stone, the English word bead derives from the Old English noun bede which means a prayer. in. gr/files/1/2016/thira3. jpg dating from the 17th c. BC The exact origins of prayer beads remain uncertain, but their earliest historical use probably traces to Hindu prayers in India, Buddhism probably borrowed the concept from Hinduism. The statue of a holy Hindu man with beads dates to the third century BC, the number of beads varies by religion or use. Islamic prayer beads, called Misbaha or Tasbih, usually have 99 or 33 beads and Hindus use the Japa Mala, which usually has 108 beads, or 27 which are counted four times. Bahai prayer beads consist of either 95 beads or 19 beads, the Sikh Mala has 108 beads. Roman Catholics use the Rosary with 54 and additional five beads, Eastern Orthodox Christians use a knotted Rosary with 100 knots, although prayer ropes with 50 or 33 knots can be used.
The Greek komboloi has an odd number of one more than a multiple of four. From the most recently discovered fresco pictures in Akrotiri of Santorini, the Desert Fathers of the 3rd to 5th centuries, used pebbles or knotted ropes to count prayers, typically the Jesus Prayer. The invention is attributed to Anthony the Great or his associate Pachomius the Great in the 4th century, the Catholic Encyclopedia mentions strings of beads, presumably for prayer, found in the tombs of Saint Gertrude of Nivelles and Saint Norbert and Saint Rosalia. A more explicit reference is that in 1125 William of Malmesbury mentioned a string of gems that Lady Godiva used to count prayers and these strings of beads were known as paternosters and were presumably used to count repetitions of the Lords Prayer. Later, Roman Catholics and eventually Anglicans prayed the rosary with strings of 54 plus an additional five beads, the prayers are accompanied by meditation on the Mysteries, events in the life and ministry of Jesus.
This traditional Catholic form of the rosary is attributed to Saint Dominic, Catholics use prayer beads to pray chaplets. The Eastern Orthodox Church uses prayer ropes with 33,50 or 100 knots, the loops of knotted wool, called chotki or komboskini to pray the Jesus Prayer. Although among the Orthodox, their use is restricted to monks and bishops. Among Russian Old Believers, a rope made of leather, called lestovka, is more common. Ethiopian and Coptic prayer rope employ numbers such as 41,64, the first two numbers represent the number of lashes inflicted on Jesus and Marys age upon her Assumption. The set consists of 33 beads arranged in four groupings of symbolic significance and these Anglican Rosaries continue to be promoted via internet websites but it is not known whether they have been adopted by any Protestant group in any formal sense
The icon corner, or red corner, is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians. The analogous concept in Western Christianity is the home altar, the Book of Acts and the Epistles of the Apostle Paul record that in the early Church, Christians used to meet in the homes of the faithful. This tradition of the House Church continues to this day in Eastern Christianity, the home is considered to be a microcosm of the Church. The parents are the clergy of the church, and the children are the laity. The wedding ceremony is analogous to Ordination, and the house is blessed with a rite that is based upon the Consecration of a Church, once a year, the priest will come to bless the house with Theophany Water. An Orthodox Christian is expected to pray constantly, according to Bishop Kallistos Ware, n Orthodox spirituality, no separation between liturgy and private devotion. Thus the house, just like the Temple, is considered to be a place. An icon corner is normally oriented to face east and it is often located in a corner to eliminate worldly distractions and allow prayer to be more concentrated.
Here is where the icons that the family owns should be located, normally including at least icons of Christ, the Theotokos, an oil lamp normally hangs in front of the icons. The careful trimming of the lamp to keep it burning at all times is interpreted as symbolic of the daily care faithful Christians should take over their souls. Ideally, the corner is located so that it is visible when one first enters the house from the main entrance. Traditionally, when first entering the house, an Orthodox Christian would venerate the icons before greeting the members of the house, a traditional Orthodox family will gather together every day for morning and evening prayers. Sometimes, at the end of the prayers, the head of the household will take the censer and cense the icons. Often, in addition to the corner, a family will hang a small portal icon by the door. Icon corner on OrthodoxWiki Compare, Herrgottswinkel
Anglican prayer beads
Anglican prayer bead sets consist of thirty-three beads divided into groups. There are four groups consisting of seven beads with additional separate, the groupings are called weeks, in contrast to the Dominican rosary which uses five groups of ten beads called decades. The beads between are usually larger than the weeks beads are called cruciform beads, when the loop of beads is opened into a circular shape, these particular beads form the points of a cross within the circle of the set, hence the term cruciform. Next after the cross on Anglican prayer bead sets is a single bead termed the invitatory bead, the beads used are made of a variety of materials, such as precious stones, coloured glass, or even dried and painted seeds. Anglican prayer bead sets are made with a variety of crosses or, the Celtic cross and the San Damiano cross are two which are often used. He or she may conclude by saying the Lords Prayer on the invitatory bead and/or a final prayer on the cross as in the examples below, the entire circle may be done thrice, which signifies the Holy Trinity.
Mary, The Imagination of Her Heart, Praying the Rosary, An Introduction for Episcopalians. The Anglican Use of the Rosary, Kristin M. Seibt, Betty Kay. Holding Your Prayers in Your Hands, Praying the Anglican Rosary, society of St. John the Evangelist, ed. The Mysteries of the Rosary, A Short Treatise, the Anglican Rosary for Children, Prayers for the Young at Heart. A Bead and a Prayer, A Beginners Guide to Protestant Prayer Beads, Bead One, Too, A Guide to Making and Using Prayer Beads. Christian Prayer Beads Central Anglican Prayer Beads
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as branches of Christianity or denominational families. Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another, several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term denomination to describe themselves, the Catholic Church does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church. This view is rejected by other Christian denominations, Protestant denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide.
Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity, Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world, unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other, sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs and this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as an autonomous branch of the Christian Church, major synonyms include religious group, Church. Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church, a related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices. Protestant leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus Christ, from whom other denominations broke away.
These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism, Christianity can be taxonomically divided into five main groups, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism
A Butsudan, sometimes spelled Butudan, is a shrine commonly found in temples and homes in Japanese Buddhist cultures. If there are used, a Butsudan enshrines the Gohonzon icon during religious observances. In case of no doors, either a sheet of brocade or white cloth is placed over to render its sacred space. Traditional Japanese beliefs associate the Butsudan to be either a house of the Buddha, in some Buddhist sects, when a Butsudan is replaced or repaired by the family, a re-enshrinement ceremony follows. A butsudan usually contains an array of subsidiary religious accessories, called butsugu, such as candlesticks, incense burners, some Buddhist sects place ihai memorial tablets, ash of the deceased or Kakocho death registers for deceased relatives either within or near the butsudan. The defined space which occupies the Butsudan is referred to as Butsuma, the arrangement and types of items in and around the butsudan can vary depending on the sect. Other auxiliary items often found near the butsudan include tea and food, a rin gong or singing bowl often accompanies the butsudan, which can be rung during liturgy or recitation of prayers.
Members of some Buddhist sects place ihai or tablets engraved with the names of deceased family members within or next to the butsudan, other Buddhist sects, such as Jōdo Shinshū, usually do not have these, but may instead have pictures of the deceased placed near the butsudan. The butsudan is placed upon a larger cabinet in which are kept important family documents. Crested Kimono and Love in the Japanese Business Family, Todd T. Butsudan in Espin, Orlando An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, pg.178. Japanese Religions at Home and Abroad, Home Buddhas, Historical Processes and Modes of Representation of the Sacred in the Japanese Buddhist Family Altar, Japanese Religions 35, 63-86 Nelson, John K