The Domain, Sydney
The Domain is a heritage-listed 34-hectare area of open space located on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. Separating the central business district from Woolloomooloo, The Domain adjoins the Royal Botanic Gardens and is managed by the Royal Botanic Gardens Trust, a division of the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, an agency of the Government of New South Wales; the Domain is a popular venue for outdoor concerts, open-air events, large political gatherings and rallies and is used daily by the people of Sydney for exercise and relaxation. Along with the Royal Botanic Gardens, The Domain was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. By July 1788, six months after the First Fleet had landed in Sydney Cove, Governor Arthur Phillip had established "a farm of 4 hectares of corn" by a stream which still flows through the present palm grove into appropriately named Farm Cove.
Phillip did not determine what its purpose would be. He said it should be free of leaseholds but allowed people to use it anyway, as did subsequent Acting Government and Governors; the site received the first plants and seeds brought by Phillip from Rio de Janeiro and the Cape of Good Hope. Further up the valley of the stream that flowed into Farm Cove, Governor Phillip set aside an open area for the Governor's exclusive use known as the ‘Phillip Domain’, it covered the area east of the Tank Stream to the head of Woolloomooloo Bay. By September 1788 8 hectares were cleared for crops. By 1789 agricultural activity had been relocated to Rose Hill due to much greater crop success there, poor soil/results at Farm Cove; the Farm Cove area was leased out for private farming for the next twenty years. Between 1800 and 1807 grants of land were made under Governors Paterson and others to private farmers in Farm Cove's east; the main botanic garden function was transferred to Rose Hill between 1800 and 1810 under Governor King.
Despite a ditch being dug to define its boundary in 1792 the Domain was encroached upon by others in subsequent years. Governor Bligh determined it should be the Governor's Domain in 1807 and the boundaries the southern boundary, were changed. From 1807 Bligh resumed 8 hectares as The Domain and converted former private farm grants on the eastern side of Farm Cove to public land incorporated back into the Governor's Domain. Farming activity decreased, buildings were demolished near Government House and carriage roads around Bennelong Point and Farm Cove were constructed, along with the planting of a shrubbery and laying out of walks. Bligh's attempts to reclaim The Domain was among the many causes of the ‘Rum Rebellion’ of 26 January 1808; the southern part of The Domain was not set aside as a public park until 1810. As soon as he arrived in 1810, Bligh's successor Governor Macquarie built stone walls around the Government House garden and the Government Domain, separating them from Hyde Park.
The traditional foundation date of the Botanic Gardens is taken as the date of completion of Mrs Macquarie's Road, on 13 June 1816. By 1817 the Domain was enclosed and the road system completed including several gates to regulate horse-drawn traffic; the Domain itself was opened as a public area in the 1830s. The Inner Domain, the area closest to Government House, was consumed by the Government Gardens while the area now known as the Domain was the Outer Domain. Macquarie improved the garden, building a protecting wall on the harbour side and constructing and landscaping a road running around The Domain, north of the Government gardens/nursery at some distance from the shore, bridging over Farm Cove Creek to Mrs Macquarie's Chair on Mrs Macquarie's Point in the east. Swamp mahogany trees were planted to line this road the earliest "Street trees" planted in the colony. Another 1813-1816 planting was of the black booyong west of the palm grove. On the completion of these works the area was inaugurated as a Botanic Garden in 1816.
In 1821 the Government House stables, designed by Government Architect Francis Greenway, was completed in The Domain's north near Macquarie and Bridge Streets. Despite the Domain being whittled away in subsequent years it remained an important buffer to the Gardens; the native vegetation was cleared and the gullies of Phillip Precinct filled. During the 1830s the expansive green space of the Domain was now opened to the public, who strolled and picnicked there; the Domain west of Macquarie Street was sold to pay for the construction of new Government House and Circular Quay. Throughout the 19th century, the south-western part of the Domain was taken up by government and public buildings, including the Hyde Park Barracks, the Sydney Mint, Sydney Hospital, Parliament House, the State Library of New South Wales and the Land Registry Office; the Art Gallery of New South Wales was built on the eastern side of The Domain. In 1831 the public use of The Domain was formally invited by Governor Darling, became accepted policy.
In the 1830s the Lower Garden area at the head of Farm cove was developed and the shoreline laid out in an ornamental fashion with serpentine paths. Between 1837 and 1845 Government House built in The Domain's north. Cricket matches, played in Hyde Park since the early 19th century, moved to the Domain in the 1850s. New South Wales had beaten Victoria by
The Headless Chickens was a New Zealand band. Going against the grain of the Dunedin sound that dominated the Flying Nun Records roster at the time, the Headless Chickens made extensive use of electronic instruments in their music; the Headless Chickens recorded three albums, Stunt Clown, Body Blow, Greedy, plus various EPs for Flying Nun Records in the 1980s and 1990s. The band first became known in New Zealand; the prize money from the award went into the funding for their innovative 1988 debut album Stunt Clown. The 1988 CD release of Stunt Clown compiled the vinyl release of this name with the 1986 Headless Chickens EP. A second album, Body Blow, appeared in 1991, it was during this time with McDonald that the Headless Chickens would attract their widest audience. Two versions of Body Blow were released, with the revised and expanded 1993 version going double platinum in New Zealand; this album spawned the single "Cruise Control" which became a hit in New Australia. "Cruise Control" was notable for its sampling for elements of Shona Laing's 1973 single "1905" and The Crocodiles' 1980 single "Tears".
At the time, the band's use of electronic elements and sampling in a "rock" setting was out of the ordinary and had an influence on many other N. Z. bands. The follow-up 1997 Greedy album took several years to complete, during that time several band members left, including singer McDonald. Greedy contained the track "George" which became a No. 1 hit single in their home country. The Headless Chickens split up soon after the release of Greedy. In 2002 Flying Nun Records released a 2CD best-of compilation named ChickensHits. In July 2008 it was announced that the band would reform to play the Homebake Festival in Sydney, Australia on 6 December; the line-up would feature both Chris Fiona McDonald. They played further concerts in Australia and New Zealand and were scheduled to play at the Auckland Big Day Out in January 2009. On 27 January 2018, bassist Grant Fell died of cancer at the age of 56; the group have appeared on many compilations and soundtracks since 1990 in both New Zealand and Australia.
The following is a list of these albums. AudioCulture profile Headless Chickens on Flying Nun
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Jebediah are an Australian alternative rock band formed in 1994 in Perth, Western Australia. They were formed by Chris Daymond on lead guitar, Kevin Mitchell on lead vocals and rhythm guitar, Vanessa Thornton on bass guitar, they were joined a year by Kevin's older brother, Brett Mitchell, on drums. After winning the National Campus Band Competition, the group were brought to national attention when their 1996 single "Jerks of Attention" received heavy airplay on Australian alternative radio station, Triple J –, followed by their breakthrough debut album, Slightly Odway; the band released four studio albums by 2004: three entered the top ten on the ARIA Albums Chart. After touring to celebrate their tenth anniversary, the band went on hiatus in 2005. Kevin Mitchell continued solo work under Bob Evans. Kevin appeared on a self-titled album in July 2010 by the Basement Birds, a supergroup which he formed with fellow musicians, Kavyen Temperley, Josh Pyke and Steve Parkin. Jebediah reconvened in 2010 and released their fifth studio album, Kosciuszko, in the following year, which charted in the ARIA top ten.
Jebediah was formed in Perth in 1994 by Chris Daymond on lead guitar, Almin Fulurija on drums, Kevin Mitchell on vocals and rhythm guitar, Vanessa Thornton on bass guitar. They are named after Jebediah Springfield, the fictional founder of Springfield on the American TV cartoon series, The Simpsons. Daymond and Mitchell had met in a theatre class at Leeming High School in their final year, while Daymond and Thornton knew each other from childhood and had been members of Hybrid. By early 1995, Kevin's older brother, Brett Mitchell, replaced Fulurija because the latter would not turn up to practice sessions, Brett had been a drummer with various groups including The Jerk Offs. In May that year Jebediah performed their first gig, for a Leeming High School formal, at the Perth Sheraton Hotel, where they played cover versions of material by Green Day, Pearl Jam and The Smashing Pumpkins, one original, they won the Western Australian semi-finals of the 1995 Australian National Campus Band Competition and in October they won the national final in Lismore.
This led to an opening slot on the Summersault Music Festival before high-profile bands, Beastie Boys, Foo Fighters and Sonic Youth. Brett explained in a 2011 interview: "In the early days, everything was just a bit of a shock... to us. In August 1996 Jebediah issued their debut five-track extended play, produced by Chris Dickie. According to Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, Twitch contained "quirky tracks like'Mister Masonic' and'Tracksuit' and was a strong taster for the band's fuzzy pop". In April that year they had signed to Murmur, a subsidiary label of Sony Music, on the basis of their live performances, they followed with a national tour alongside Snout, Automatic. In 2004 Daymon recalled "our first EP came out through Murmur. Right from the start we never self-financed any of our early material... Thinking about it now, over the years, a lot of being in a band – for us – is touring and playing the shows. At the West Australian Music Industry Awards of 1996 they won their first WAMi for Best Stage Presence.
Twitch debuted at number one on the local Perth singles chart. It appeared on the ARIA Singles Chart in the top 100. Jebediah's first single, "Jerks of Attention", was released in December 1996 and appeared on the ARIA Singles Chart top 100 in the following month, it received national airplay on the Triple J radio network. The group's appearances at Homebake and the Big Day Out concerts as well as support slots for Soundgarden, The Presidents of the United States of America and You Am I, further raised their public profile. Another single, "Leaving Home", was issued in June and reached the top 50; the group won two WAMi awards in 1997: Most Popular Band and Most Popular Song for "Jerks of Attention". In September Jebediah issued their first studio album, Slightly Odway, with Neill King producing; the album's title is "a comment on the odd way they feel they approach life as well as music". It remained in the top 50 for 54 weeks. Popular tracks included "Leaving Home" and the third single, "Military Strongmen".
Odway reached number two on the ARIA alternative charts, within four months it was certified gold. Jonathan Lewis of Allmusic felt it showed them "as a talented young band, despite the flimsy songwriting and the lack of light and shade on the album". While Greg Lawrence at WHAMMO.com.au noted that it provides "a mature, complete range – from the early-penned punk mayhem of'Blame' to the delicacy of the'Twilight=Dusk', from the dark tones of'Jerks of Attention' to the bright strains of radio hit'Leaving Home'. The album does a great job of capturing the amazing live dynamic of the band"."Leaving Home" was rated number 10 in the Triple J Hottest 100 music poll for 1997. Odway received a double-platinum certificate, with two more top 50 singles, "Teflon" and "Harpoon", adding to the group's chart success. Murmur label mates, Something for Kate, provided a cover version of "Harpoon" on the EP. Murmur issued a split-EP with both versions of "Harpoon" bac
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities; the university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington; the university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. In 2018-19, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sydney as one of the world's top 25 most reputable universities, its graduates as the top 5 most employable in the world and first in Australia. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty; the university has educated seven Australian prime ministers, two Governors-General of Australia, nine state governors and territory administrators, 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices.
Sydney has produced 110 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. The University of Sydney is a member of the Group of Eight, CEMS, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state secular university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country", it would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, before the plan was adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom. By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy; this seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889.
This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy. A significant figure from 1927 to 1958, termed'Sydney's best known academic', was the Professor of Philosophy at the University John Anderson. A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed Atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many to the point of being censured by the state parliament in 1943; the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities. At one stage, newspaper reporters descended on the university to cover brawls, secret memos and a walk-out by David Armstrong, a respected philosopher who held the Challis Chair of Philosophy from 1959 to 1991, after students at one of his lectures demanded a course on feminism.
The philosophy department split over the issue to become the Traditional and Modern Philosophy Department, headed by Armstrong and following a more traditional approach to philosophy, the General Philosophy Department, which follows the French continental approach. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989 the following bodies were incorporated into the university in 1990: Sydney Branch of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music Cumberland College of Health Sciences Sydney College of the Arts of the Institute of the Arts Sydney Institute of Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Institute of Nursing Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Guild Centre of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. Prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College; the Orange Agricultural College was transferred to the University of New England under the Act, but transferred to the University of Sydney in 1994, as part of the reforms to the University of New England undertaken by the University of New England Act 1993 and the Southern Cross University Act 1993.
In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University. In February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St John's College to develop the Sydney
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
The Living End
The Living End are an Australian punk rock band, which formed in 1994. Since 2002 the line up consists of Scott Owen and Andy Strachan; the band rose to fame in 1997 after the release of their double A-sided single, "Second Solution" / "Prisoner of Society", which peaked at No. 4 on the ARIA Singles Chart. They have released six studio albums and two reached the No. 1 spot on the ARIA Albums Chart: self-titled album and State of Emergency. They have gained chart success in the United States and United Kingdom. At ARIA Music Awards ceremonies they have been nominated 27 times and have won five awards: Highest Selling Single for "Second Solution / Prisoner of Society", Breakthrough Artist – Album and Best Group for The Living End, Best Rock Album for White Noise, the same category for The Ending Is Just the Beginning Repeating. Australian musicologist Ian McFarlane described the group which "emerged as one of the country's premier rock acts. By blending a range of styles with great success, The Living End has managed to produce anthemic choruses and memorable songs in abundance".
In October 2010 their debut album was listed in the book, 100 Best Australian Albums. The Living End were formed in 1994 by Chris Cheney and Scott Owen, who had met years earlier in primary school through their older sisters and began performing together from 1990 while attending Wheelers Hill Secondary College in Melbourne. Cheney and Owen had their first public gig at The Rob Roy in Melbourne in 1991. Cheney was a fan of rockabilly group Stray Cats and this prompted Owen, who played piano, to switch to double bass; the pair formed The Runaway Boys, which performed Stray Cats and The Clash material. That group were named after a track, of the same name, from the Stray Cats self-titled debut album; the Runaway Boys played in the local rockabilly music scene but expanded their audience by performing in regional towns and backing popular Melbourne cover band Mercury Blue at the Wheelers Hill Hotel/Pub. Cheney recalled "e played to all the jivers and rock'n' rollers... And we drifted into Melbourne's rockabilly scene".
As Cheney and Owen persevered, the band went through several drummers, while they were still attending school. By 1994 Cheney and Owen were writing their own material and decided to change the band's name to The Living End – a reference to the film, Rock Around the Clock. According to Cheney "It's an old'50s term, meaning'far out','the greatest'... We were still into the whole'50s thing, but we wanted a neutral name, one that didn't suggest any one style of music". With Cheney on lead guitar and lead vocals, Owen on double bass and backing vocals, the group settled on Joe Piripitzi as their drummer. Cheney considered Piripitzi to be ideal due to his charismatic appearance. During that year they recorded a track, "Headlines", co-written by Cheney and Owen; the group sent a T-shirt and demo tape to Green Day guitarist and lead vocalist, Billie Joe Armstrong, landed a support slot for Green Day's 1995 Australian tour. After that tour, The Living End recorded additional tracks for their debut extended play, which received moderate support from community radio stations.
It included "Headlines" from the previous year. Ed Nimmervoll, an Australian musicologist, described the EP's sound: "they turned their back on'50s rock revivalism and adapted that instrumentation to original songs steeped in UK punk". In November 1995, the trio recorded their second EP, It's for Your Own Good, which appeared in the following June; the six-track EP was co-produced by Lindsay Gravina, Mike Alonso and The Living End for the Rapido label. It included their first radio airplay hit, "From Here on In", placed on high rotation by national youth radio network, Triple J. Shortly after, Piripitzi was fired, he was replaced on drums by Travis Demsey. With Demsey the group appeared at major festivals: the Falls Festival. Demsey's drum style was compared with The. "From Here on In" was used on the soundtrack for the 1998 film, Occasional Course Language. The Living End toured Australia for a year in August 1997 they recorded new material to sell at their live shows, their double A-sided single, "Second Solution" / "Prisoner of Society", was issued in January the following year.
That month they had supported The Offspring on the Australian leg of their tour. "Second Solution" / "Prisoner of Society" peaked at No. 4 on the ARIA Singles Chart, was certified double-platinum by ARIA for shipment of 140,000 copies. At the ARIA Music Awards of 1998 it won the Highest Selling Single category, it lasted a record-breaking 47 weeks in the Top 50. In October 1998 it peaked at No. 28 on the New Zealand Singles Chart. It was featured in the game, Guitar Hero World Tour. "Second Solution" was used in the soundtrack for the 2002 movie, which starred Trevor Fehrman, Matthew Lawrence, Mary Tyler Moore. Early in 1998 "Prisoner of Society" was issued as a separate single in the United Kingdom and, the following year, in the US; the single appeared in the top 200 of the UK Singles Chart, peaked at No. 23 on the Billboard's Alternative Songs Chart. The band signed with Modular Recordings for the release of their debut self-titled album, which appeared on 12 October 1998, was co-produced by Gravina with the trio.
It peaked at No. 1 on the ARIA Albums Chart, became the then