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Homebuilt aircraft

Homebuilt aircraft known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. These aircraft may be constructed from plans, or from assembly kits. In the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, homebuilt aircraft may be licensed Experimental under FAA or similar local regulations. With some limitations, the builder of the aircraft must have done it for their own education and recreation rather than for profit. In the U. S. the primary builder can apply for a repairman's certificate for that airframe. The repairman's certificate allows the holder to perform and sign off on most of the maintenance and inspections themselves. Alberto Santos-Dumont was the first to offer for free construction plans, publishing drawings of his Demoiselle in the June 1910 edition of Popular Mechanics; the first aircraft to be offered for sale as plans, rather than a completed airframe, was the Baby Ace in the late 1920s. Homebuilt aircraft gained in popularity in the U.

S. in 1924 with the start of the National Air Races, held in Ohio. These races required aircraft with useful loads of 150 lb and engines of 80 cubic inches or less and as a consequence of the class limitations most were amateur-built; the years after Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight brought a peak of interest between 1929 and 1933. During this period many aircraft designers and pilots were self-taught and the high accident rate brought public condemnation and increasing regulation to amateur building; the resulting federal standards on design, stress analysis, use of aircraft-quality hardware and testing of aircraft brought an end to amateur building except in some specialized areas, such as racing. In 1946 Goodyear restarted the National Air Races, including a class for aircraft powered by 200 cubic inch and smaller engines; the midget racer class spread nationally in the U. S. and this led to calls for acceptable standards to allow recreational use of amateur-built aircraft. By the mid-1950s both the U.

S. and Canada once again allowed amateur-built aircraft to specified limitations. Homebuilt aircraft are small, one to four-seat sportsplanes which employ simple methods of construction. Fabric-covered wood or metal frames and plywood are common in the aircraft structure, but fiberglass and other composites as well as full aluminum construction techniques are being used, techniques first pioneered by Hugo Junkers as far back as the late World War I era. Engines are most the same as, or similar to, the engines used in certified aircraft. A minority of homebuilts use converted automobile engines, with Volkswagen air-cooled flat-4s, Subaru-based liquid-cooled engines, Mazda Wankel and Chevrolet Corvair six-cylinder engines being most common; the use of automotive engines helps to reduce costs, but many builders prefer dedicated aircraft engines, which are perceived to have better performance and reliability. Other engines that have been used include motorcycle engines. A combination of cost and litigation in the mid-1980s era, discouraged general aviation manufacturers from introducing new designs and led to homebuilts outselling factory built aircraft by five to one.

In 2003, the number of homebuilts produced in the U. S. exceeded the number produced by any single certified manufacturer. The history of amateur-built aircraft can be traced to the beginning of aviation. If the Wright brothers, Clément Ader, their successors had commercial objectives in mind, the first aircraft were constructed by passionate enthusiasts whose goal was to fly. Aviation took a leap forward with the industrialization that accompanied World War I. In the post-war period, manufacturers needed to find new markets and introduced models designed for tourism. However, these machines were affordable only by the rich. Many U. S. aircraft designed and registered in the 1920s onward were considered "experimental" by the CAA, the same registration under which modern homebuilts are issued Special Airworthiness Certificates. Many of these were prototypes, but designs such as Bernard Pietenpol's first 1923 design were some of the first homebuilt aircraft. In 1928, Henri Mignet published plans for his HM-8 Pou-du-Ciel.

Pietenpol constructed a factory, in 1933 began creating and selling constructed aircraft kits. In 1936, an association of amateur aviation enthusiasts was created in France. Many types of amateur aircraft began to make an appearance, in 1938 legislation was amended to provide for a Certificat de navigabilité restreint d'aéronef. 1946 saw the birth of the Ultralight Aircraft Association which in 1952 became the Popular Flying Association in the United Kingdom, followed in 1953 by the Experimental Aircraft Association in the United States and the Sport Aircraft Association in Australia. The term "homebuilding" became popular in the mid-1950s when EAA founder Paul Poberezny wrote a series of articles for the magazine Mechanix Illustrated where he explained how a person could buy a set of plans and build their own aircraft at home; the articles gained the concept of aircraft homebuilding took off. Until the late 1950s, builders had kept to wood-and-cloth and steel tube-and-cloth design. Without the regulatory restrictions faced by production aircraft manufacturers, homebuilders introduced innovative designs and construction techniques.

Burt Rutan introduced the canard design to the homebuilding world and pioneered the use of composite construction. Metal construction in kitplanes was taken to a new level by Richard VanGrunsv

William Shubrick

William Branford Shubrick was an officer in the United States Navy. His active-duty career extended from 1806 to 1861, including service in the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War. Born at "Belvedere Plantation," Bull's Island, South Carolina, to Mary Branford and Colonel Thomas Shubrick, William was the sixth son and ninth child of the family of sixteen, his father served in the Continental Army under Generals Nathanael Greene and Benjamin Lincoln during the American Revolutionary War. Two of his sons joined four sons including William chose naval career, he studied at Harvard College in 1805-1806 before being commissioned a midshipman on June 20, 1806 at the age of sixteen joining his older brother, John Templer Shubrick. He started his active service on the Mediterranean Squadron in USS Wasp in May 1807, it was aboard this ship where he met his lifelong friend James Fenimore Cooper, assigned to the Wasp in November 1809. At the end of 1809, Shubrick transferred to the Atlantic Squadron to Argus and sailed along the Atlantic coast of the United States.

Shubrick was promoted to lieutenant on January 5, 1812 on the eve of the War of 1812. After duty in Hornet, he was assigned to Constellation. While that frigate was at Norfolk, Virginia, on 22 June 1813 he led a party of bluejackets in beating off a British attack against Craney Island, he subsequently was awarded the Congressional medal for service in Constitution during her capture of HMS Cyane and Levant. During the subsequent decades before the Mexican–American War, Shubrick commanded, in turn and Natchez. At the outbreak of the war with Mexico, Shubrick requested sea duty and, in Independence, sailed for the California coast to relieve Commodore John D. Sloat in command of American Naval forces there. However, Commodore James Biddle brought his East India Squadron to Monterey, California, on 2 January 1847 only a week after Shubrick's arrival, assumed command. In April, Shubrick sailed for the coast of Mexico to head the blockade of Mazatlán. Early in June, Shubrick was recalled to California where Biddle restored him to overall command on 19 July and sailed for the East Coast.

Under Shubrick, the Navy conducted the closing operations of the war on the Pacific coast. Highlights were the capture of occupation of Mazatlán in November. San Blas fell in January 1848; the following spring, Shubrick headed home and took command of the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 1849. Beginning in 1853, he headed the Bureau of Construction and Repair, between 1854 and 1858, he chaired the Lighthouse Board. In October 1858, Shubrick sailed in command of the fleet sent to South American waters to support diplomatic efforts to resolve differences with Paraguay resulting from the firing upon USS Water Witch; when the Civil War struck, Shubrick was the navy's most senior active service officer hailing from the South. He remained loyal to the Union. In December 1861, a law was passed by Congress according to which all navy officers were to retire after reaching sixty-two years or accumulating forty five years of service, he was promoted to Rear Admiral on the retired list on 16 July 1862 and for ten years served as Chairman of the United States Lighthouse Board where he was a member since 1852.

He died in Washington, D. C. on 27 May 1874. In September, 1815, Shubrick married Harriet Cordelia Wethered. Three of his brothers were officers in the United States Navy: John Templar Shubrick, Edward Rutledge Shubrick, Irvine Shubrick. Several ships in the U. S. Navy have been named USS Shubrick for him. Cooper, James Fenimore. History of the navy of the United States of America. Stringer & Townsend, New York. P. 508. OCLC 197401914. Url Cooper, James Fenimore. Lives of distinguished American naval officers. Carey and Hart, Philadelphia. P. 436. OCLC 620356. Url1 Hamersly, Lewis R.. The Records of Living Officers of the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps. J. B. Lippincott & Co. Philadelphia. P. 27. OCLC 3577674; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. USS Shubrick

Trace (precipitation)

In meteorology, a trace denotes an amount of precipitation, such as rain or snow, greater than zero, but is too small to be measured by standard units or methods of measurement. The designation of a trace rather than zero is used to indicate that precipitation did fall, but not enough to be measured reliably; this is important for both weather forecasting and climatological purposes, because precipitation amounts too small to be measured can have significant societal impacts. The term "trace" is used in two related contexts; the first is in weather forecasting and record-keeping of rain and other precipitation, where a trace denotes an amount of precipitation, greater than zero, but is too small to be measured by standard units or methods of measurement. This can be as little as just a few raindrops or snowflakes, or be enough to wet or coat the ground, but will not be enough to register via standard measurements with a rain gauge or other measuring device; the second is in the amount of snow on the ground at a given time.

If less than a measurable amount is present on the ground, or if less than half of the ground is covered with snow, this can be denoted by a trace. A trace is indicated by a capital letter "T" or the word "trace" in place of a numerical amount of accumulation. A trace measurement is not considered equivalent to any numerical value, so adding together several trace amounts will still be considered equal to a trace in most cases. For frozen precipitation, a trace can indicate a light accumulation, or it can indicate a larger amount of snowfall, ice pellets, or other frozen precipitation, continuously melting as it hits the ground. A trace of snow is sometimes referred to as a "dusting". Meteorologists and other atmospheric scientists distinguish between a trace and zero accumulation in forecasts and climatological records for several reasons. First, for accumulation of freezing rain and other icy precipitation a trace amount can result in hazardous conditions such as slippery roads. Secondly, some areas receive a significant amount of snowfall in "trace" amounts: some areas of northern Canada receive up to 80% of their snowfall in trace amounts.

This can lead to unrealistic totals over time compared to the actual amount of snow. To address this issue, trace snowfall is sometimes treated as equivalent to small numerical amounts for certain climatological purposes. In areas where imperial units are used, liquid precipitation is measured in intervals of 0.01 inches, while snow, ice pellets, most other precipitation types are measured in intervals of 0.1 inches. Freezing rain is sometimes measured in intervals of 0.1 inches and other times intervals of 0.01 inches, depending on the measuring device. In areas where metric units are used, rain is measured in intervals of 0.2 millimetres, while other precipitation is measured in intervals of 0.2 centimetres. Anything less than these amounts is referred to as a trace. Freezing fog Snow flurry

New Birth Missionary Baptist Church

New Birth Missionary Baptist Church is a megachurch in unincorporated DeKalb County, near Lithonia. It has embraced a Pentecostal theology not found in African-American Baptist churches; the church was founded in 1939 in Scottdale as Travelers Rest Baptist Church. In 1983, it adopted its current name. Eddie Long took over as pastor in 1987. At the time, the church had only 300 members. Since his installation, membership has grown to 25,000. In 2002, New Birth was chosen to host the live recording of Dorinda Clark-Cole, was chosen by the family of rapper and R&B superstar Lisa Left Eye Lopes to host the funeral for the rapper, killed in a car accident in La Ceiba, Honduras. In 2003, New Birth planted; that church no longer exists, has since sold its building. Mecklenburg County records show the church defaulted on its payments to Evangelical Christian Credit Union for a $10 million loan. On August 15, 2004 the church opened a branch called "New Birth Memphis" in Tennessee; the church has since closed and New Birth Memphis no longer exists.

In the future years, there were more churches such as New Birth Metro, New Birth Knoxville, New Birth Oakland, New Birth California. In 2006, the church was chosen by the family of Martin Luther King, Jr. to host and officiate the funeral for Mrs. Coretta Scott King, wife of the late civil rights pioneer; the event was attended by four Presidents. The church has been marred by controversy, with four individuals filing separate lawsuits in DeKalb County Superior Court, Georgia alleging that Bishop Long used his pastoral influence to coerce them into a sexual relationship with him when they were teenagers. On January 15, 2017, Bishop Eddie Long died from an aggressive form of cancer according to a statement released by the church; the church announced Stephen A. Davis, pastor of New Birth Birmingham in Birmingham, Alabama would be Long's successor at New Birth Missionary Baptist Church in Lithonia while remaining pastor of the Birmingham; however in June, 2018 Bishop Davis resigned. On November 19, 2018, the church announced Jamal Bryant, pastor of Empowerment Temple AME Church in Baltimore, Maryland would become the new pastor of New Birth.

Pastor Bryant resigned as Pastor of Empowerment Temple in early December. New Birth Missionary Baptist Church

Joe Flexer

Joe Flexer was a trade unionist and communist activist in Canada. Born in Brooklyn, Flexer was politicized in the mid-1940s through contacts with the American Communist Party in New York City, he left the United States, a Zionist, in 1950 at the age of 17 with the Habonim Zionist youth movement and immigrated to Israel where he lived in Kibbutz Urim. During the early 1950s he witnessed what he viewed as human rights abuses of Palestinians in southern Israel by the Israeli authorities. In 1956, following his participation as a mechanic with the Israeli forces in the Sinai Campaign, he broke from Zionism and became active with the Israeli Communist Party; as a result, he was forced to leave Urim in 1958 and he moved with his family to the southern Israeli town of Beersheba. In 1963 Flexer moved to Canada settling in Winnipeg, Manitoba where he became involved in the anti-war movement protesting the Vietnam War and participated in the celebrated removal of Dow Chemical from the U of M campus. In 1968 he moved to Montreal.

Following a brief stay in Israel in 1970, where he lived and worked on kibbutz Gan-Shmuel, he moved back to Canada and settled in Toronto in 1970. There he joined the Waffle, a radical socialist tendency within the New Democratic Party, becoming its provincial organizer in Ontario. Moving leftward, he helped form a Marxist tendency within the Waffle; when the Waffle was forced out of the NDP in 1972, Flexer and the Red Circle split with the Waffle, opposing its decision to leave the NDP, tried to continue Marxist activities within the NDP. Flexer and the Red Circle joined the Revolutionary Marxist Group in 1973 which, in turn, joined with other Trotskyist groups to form the Revolutionary Workers League in 1977. In 1973, Flexer, a diesel mechanic and machinist by trade, was hired by Carruthers, the main Caterpillar service centre and dealership in Southern Ontario. There he joined the United Auto Workers union local 112, became a shop steward and plant chairman for the union. Flexer led a small industrial caucus within the RWL.

He joined the exodus of Trotskyists that left the RWL in the early 1980s and focused instead on working within the Canadian Auto Workers union. He freelanced in the CAW's education department where he helped develop the union's political education program for workers and taught Marxist Economics in the CAW's Port Elgin, Ontario education centre; when asked what political party he belonged to, he'd joke he was a member of the "Joe Flexer Communist Party, we have a small membership but a lively internal discussion". He joined the Communist Party of Canada while it was in crisis due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and helped organize the split that saw Flexer and much of the CPC's leadership leave to form the Cecil-Ross Society. Flexer opposed Bob Rae's NDP government following its introduction of the Social Contract that suspended collective bargaining contracts for public sector unions. In the 1995 Ontario election he ran as an "Independent Labour" candidate in Oakwood against NDP MPP Tony Rizzo and placed fourth out of seven candidates with 301 votes.

He subsequently joined Socialist Action, a Trotskyist group, became a member of its editorial board. As Socialist Action practiced entryism, Flexer joined the New Democratic Party which he had run against. In 1998, Flexer helped form the NDP Socialist Caucus becoming its co-chair and authored its Manifesto for a Socialist Canada. Flexer suffered from heart disease in the last years of his life. In 1994 he underwent a heart transplant, his new heart failed him after six years and he died in Toronto. Joe Flexer 1933-2000 Socialist History Project

While We Were Waiting

While We Were Waiting is the first studio album by Canadian country music singer-songwriter Jason Blaine. The album was released on independent record label Jay Bird Music on July 26, 2005. Icon Records re-released the album on June 24, 2006. "While We Were Waiting" - 3:16 "What I Can't Forget" - 3:20 "Change the Channel" - 3:18 "Heartache Like Mine" - 4:38 "Last Slow Dance" - 3:20 "What Makes a Man" - 3:09 "Reinvent the Wheel" - 3:52 "Say It Again" - 3:47 "That Shine" - 3:11 "That's What I Do" - 3:41