Homeopathy or homœopathy is a pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine. It was created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, its practitioners, called homeopaths, believe that a substance that causes symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people. Homeopathic preparations are termed remedies and are made using a process called homeopathic dilution; this process involves diluting a chosen substance until nothing—that is, not a single molecule—of the original substance is to remain in the product. Between the dilution iterations homeopaths practice hitting and/or violently shaking the diluent, claim that it makes the diluent remember the original substance after its removal; the diluent is either distilled water, ethanol or sugar. Practitioners claim that such preparations, upon oral intake, can cure disease. Despite the claims by the practitioners, homeopathic preparations are not effective for treating any medical condition. All relevant scientific knowledge about physics, chemistry and biology gained since at least the mid-19th century confirms that homeopathic remedies have no active content and no biophysical effect.
Hahnemann's theory of disease, centered around principles he termed Miasms, is inconsistent with the germ theory of disease in medicine. Clinical trials have demonstrated no objective effect from homeopathic preparations, its lack of effectiveness has led to it being characterized within the scientific and medical communities as quackery and nonsense. After assessments of homeopathy and international bodies have recommended the withdrawal of government funding. Australia, the United Kingdom and France, as well as the European Academies' Science Advisory Council, the Commission on Pseudoscience and Research Fraud of Russian Academy of Sciences each concluded that homeopathy is ineffective, recommended against the practice receiving any further funding. Notably and England, where homeopathy was prevalent, are in the process of removing all public funding; the National Health Service in England ceased funding homeopathic remedies in November 2017 and asked the Department of Health in the UK to add homeopathic remedies to the blacklist of forbidden prescription items, France will remove funding by 2021.
In November 2018, Spain announced moves to ban homeopathy and other pseudotherapies. Hahnemann rejected the mainstream medicine of the late 18th century as irrational and inadvisable because it was ineffective and harmful, he advocated the use of single drugs at lower doses and promoted an immaterial, vitalistic view of how living organisms function. The outcome from no treatment and adequate rest was superior to mainstream medicine as practiced at the time of homeopathy's inception; the term "homeopathy" was coined by Hahnemann and first appeared in print in 1807. Hahnemann conceived of homeopathy while translating a medical treatise by the Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen into German. Being sceptical of Cullen's theory concerning cinchona's use for curing malaria, Hahnemann ingested some bark to investigate what would happen, he experienced fever and joint pain: symptoms similar to those of malaria itself. From this, Hahnemann came to believe that all effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the diseases that they treat, in accord with the "law of similars", proposed by ancient physicians.
An account of the effects of eating cinchona bark noted by Oliver Wendell Holmes, published in 1861, failed to reproduce the symptoms Hahnemann reported. Hahnemann's law of similars is an ipse dixit; this led to the name "homeopathy", which comes from the Greek: ὅμοιος hómoios, "-like" and πάθος páthos, "suffering". Subsequent scientific work showed that cinchona cures malaria because it contains quinine, which kills the Plasmodium falciparum parasite that causes the disease. Hahnemann began to test what effects substances may have produced in humans, a procedure called "homeopathic proving"; these tests required subjects to test the effects of ingesting substances by recording all of their symptoms as well as the ancillary conditions under which they appeared. He published a collection of provings in 1805, a second collection of 65 preparations appeared in his book, Materia Medica Pura; because Hahnemann believed that large doses of drugs that caused similar symptoms would only aggravate illness, he advocated extreme dilutions of the substances.
Hahnemann believed that this process aroused and enhanced "the spirit-like medicinal powers of the crude substances". He gathered and published a complete overview of his new medical system in his book, The Organon of the Healing Art, whose 6th edition, published in 1921, is still used by homeopaths today. In the Organon, Hahnemann introduced the concept of "miasms" as "infectious principles" underlying chronic disease. Hahnemann associated each miasm with specific diseases, thought that initial exposure to miasms causes local symptoms, such as skin or venereal diseases. If, these symptoms were suppressed by medication, the cause went deeper and began to manifest itself as diseases of the internal organs. Homeopathy maintains that treating diseases by directly alleviating their symptoms, as is sometimes done in conventional medicine, is ineffective because all "disease can be traced to some laten
August Ferdinand Möbius was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer. Möbius was born in Schulpforta, Saxony-Anhalt, was descended on his mother's side from religious reformer Martin Luther, he was home-schooled until he was 13, when he attended the College in Schulpforta in 1803, studied there, graduating in 1809. He enrolled at the University of Leipzig, where he studied astronomy under the mathematician and astronomer Karl Mollweide. In 1813, he began to study astronomy under the mathematically inclined professor Carl Friedrich Gauss at the University of Göttingen, while Gauss was the director of the Göttingen Observatory. From there, he went to study with Carl Gauss's instructor, Johann Pfaff, at the University of Halle, where he completed his doctoral thesis The occultation of fixed stars in 1815. In 1816, he was appointed as Extraordinary Professor to the "chair of astronomy and higher mechanics" at the University of Leipzig. Möbius died in Leipzig in 1868 at the age of 77, his son Theodor was a noted philologist.
He is best known for his discovery of the Möbius strip, a non-orientable two-dimensional surface with only one side when embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space. It was independently discovered by Johann Benedict Listing a few months earlier; the Möbius configuration, formed by two mutually inscribed tetrahedra, is named after him. Möbius was the first to introduce, he is recognized for the introduction of the Barycentric coordinate system. Many mathematical concepts are named after him, including the Möbius plane, the Möbius transformations, important in projective geometry, the Möbius transform of number theory, his interest in number theory led to the important Möbius function μ and the Möbius inversion formula. In Euclidean geometry, he systematically developed the use of signed angles and line segments as a way of simplifying and unifying results. Gesammelte Werke erster Band Gesammelte Werke zweiter Band Gesammelte Werke dritter Band Gesammelte Werke vierter Band Möbius band Möbius counter Möbius transformation O'Connor, John J..
"August Ferdinand Möbius", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. August Ferdinand Möbius at the Mathematics Genealogy Project August Ferdinand Möbius - Œuvres complètes Gallica-Math A beautiful visualization of Möbius Transformations, created by mathematicians at the University of Minnesota is viewable at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JX3VmDgiFnY
Shaking Rock Park is located in Oglethorpe County, off Highway 78 in Lexington, Georgia. Before being settled by American pioneers and European emigrants, the area around Shaking Rock was a camping ground of the Cherokee and Creek Indians. Shaking Rock derived its name from a 27-ton boulder, so balanced atop a granite outcrop that it could be moved by the pressure of a hand. Over time, the elements have disturbed this balance to a degree that the boulder can no longer be moved; the "shaking rock" was knocked to the earth by the 1886 Charleston earthquake. Other huge natural granite outcroppings in unusual shapes are scattered throughout while a picnic area active beaver pond, several nature trails with identified trees enhance the park; the park was established in 1968. Mrs. Andrew Cobb Erwin, Mrs. Sallie McWhorter Hawken and Mr. Thurmond McWhorter donated the land for the park to Oglethorpe County at the request of the Lexington Women's Club. Since establishment of the park, Mr. Bobby Maxwell has served as custodian.
In recent years, there has been a surge of college students from the University of Georgia, as well as other rock-climbing enthusiasts who have ventured to climb the boulders at Shaking Rock Park. "Online Oglethorpe County Info", October 27, 2005. Accessed October 29, 2007
G Suite is a suite of cloud computing and collaboration tools and products developed by Google Cloud, first launched on August 28, 2006 as Google Apps for Your Domain. G Suite comprises Gmail, Hangouts and Currents for communication, it includes the digital interactive whiteboard Jamboard and the app development platform App Maker. While these services are free to use for consumers, G Suite adds enterprise features such as custom email addresses at a domain, option for unlimited cloud storage, additional administrative tools and advanced settings, as well as 24/7 phone and email support. Being based in Google's data centers and information is saved and synchronized to other data centers for backup purposes. Unlike the free, consumer-facing services, G Suite users do not see advertisements while using the services, information and data in G Suite accounts do not get used for advertisement purposes. Furthermore, G Suite administrators can fine-tune privacy settings; as of January 2017, G Suite had 4 million paying businesses, 70 million G Suite for Education users.
From February 10, 2006, Google started testing "Gmail for Your Domain" at San Jose City College, hosting Gmail accounts with SJCC domain addresses and admin tools for account management. On August 28, 2006, Google launched Google Apps for a set of apps for organizations. Available for free as a beta service, it included Gmail, Google Talk, Google Calendar, the Google Page Creator, replaced with Google Sites. Dave Girouard Google's vice president and general manager for enterprise, outlined its benefits for business customers: "Organizations can let Google be the experts in delivering high quality email and other web-based services while they focus on the needs of their users and their day-to-day business". Google announced an edition for schools known as Google Apps for Education, on October 10, 2006. On February 22, 2007, Google introduced Google Apps Premier Edition, which differed from the free version by offering more storage, APIs for business integration, 99.9% uptime for Gmail, 24/7 phone support.
It cost $50 per user account per year. According to Google, early adopters of Google Apps Premier Edition included Procter & Gamble, San Francisco Bay Pediatrics, Salesforce.com. Additionally, all editions of Google Apps were able to use Google Documents and Spreadsheets, users could access Gmail on BlackBerry mobile devices, administrators gained more application control. Further enhancements came, on June 25, 2007, when Google added a number of features to Google Apps, including mail migration from external IMAP servers, shared address books, a visual overhaul of Google Docs and Google Sheets, increased Gmail attachment size. A ZDNet article noted that Google Apps now offered a tool for switching from the popular Exchange Server and Lotus Notes, positioning Google as an alternative to Microsoft and IBM. On October 3, 2007, a month after acquiring Postini, Google announced that the startup's email security and compliance options had been added to Google Apps Premier Edition. Customers now had the ability to better configure their spam and virus filtering, implement retention policies, restore deleted messages, give administrators access to all emails.
Google introduced Google Sites on February 28, 2008. Google Sites provided a simple new Google Apps tool for creating intranets and team websites. On June 9, 2009, Google launched Google Apps Sync for Microsoft Outlook, a plugin that allows customers to synchronize their email and contacts data between Outlook and Google Apps. Less than a month on July 7, 2009, Google announced that the services included in Google Apps—Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, Google Talk—were out of beta. Google opened the Google Apps Marketplace, on March 9, 2010, an online store for third-party business applications that integrate with Google Apps, to make it easier for users and software to do business in the cloud. Participating vendors included Intuit and Atlassian. On July 26, 2010, Google introduced an edition for governments, then-known as Google Apps for Government, designed to meet the public sector's unique policy and security needs, it was announced that Google Apps had become the first suite of cloud applications to receive Federal Information Security Management Act certification and accreditation.
Nearly five years after the launch of Google Apps, on April 26, 2011, Google announced that organizations with more than 10 users were no longer eligible for the free edition of Google Apps. They would have to sign up for the paid version, now known as Google Apps for Business. A flexible billing plan was introduced, giving customers the option of paying $5 per user per month with no contractual commitment. On March 28, 2012, Google launched Google Vault, an optional electronic discovery and archiving service for Google Apps for Business customers, and on April 24, 2012, Google introduced Google Drive, a platform for storing and sharing files. Each Google Apps for Business user was given 5GB of Drive storage, with the option to purchase more; that year, Google announced that the free version of Google Apps would no longer be available to new customers. Google unified the storage between Drive and Gmail, on May 13, 2013, giving Google Apps customers 30GB total that are shared across the apps. On March 10, 2014, Google launched the Google Apps Referral Program, which offers participating individuals
WNWV – branded jenY 107-3 – is a commercial modern adult contemporary radio station licensed to Elyria, Ohio. Owned by Rubber City Radio Group, Inc. the station serves Greater Cleveland and much of surrounding Northeast Ohio. The WNWV studios are located in the Cleveland suburb of Independence, while the station transmitter resides off of South Island Road in Grafton. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WNWV broadcasts over a single HD Radio channel, is available online; the station began operations on October 17, 1948 as WEOL-FM, the same day co-owned. Both stations were owned by the Elyria-Lorain Broadcasting Co. a subsidiary of the Elyria Chronicle-Telegram and Medina Gazette newspapers. The original studios were located in the Elyria Savings and Trust Building in downtown Elyria. Simulcasting WEOL's programming, by 1960, WEOL-FM started separate programming on the weekdays. Branded as "Formula 107," WEOL-FM played a mixture of automated classical music and pop standards from 2pm until 10pm weekdays, while both WEOL and WEOL-FM played "Sterophonic Hi-Lites" from 9pm to 11pm on Sundays.
WEOL-FM assumed a separate identity on December 8, 1965, when it switched its call sign to WBEA, with a automated beautiful music/easy listening format. In the late 1960s, the station got a boost from 15,000 watts to 50,000 watts. Many of the area's top broadcast talents made a stop at WBEA and WEOL early in their careers, including Dick Conrad, Jeff Baxter, David Mark, Ronnie Barrett, Ron Penfound, Jim Mehrling, Rick Martyn and Bob Tayek. In 1981, WBEA picked up the Drake-Chenault "Beautiful Music Plus" format adopted a Top 40 format, branded as "B-107." On January 1, 1987, the station picked up the call sign WCZR and operated as the Cleveland affiliate for Z Rock, a heavy metal rock format originating from the Satellite Music Network in Dallas. S. to pick the network up after WZRC /Chicago. Despite garnering a cult following in the area and a significant increase of record sales within the genre attributed to WCZR, lackluster ratings and the sudden success of KTWV/Los Angeles's launch wound up precipitating a format change.
WCZR changed its call sign to WNWV on November 15, 1987, re-branded itself as "The Wave". The Wave Network's operations and programming originated from SRN studios in Chicago and became independent from KTWV after August 1988. WNWV still shared studio operations with WEOL in downtown Elyria, but opened up a separate sales office located in the Cleveland suburb of Rocky River. Operations director Chris "Daniels" Eicher hosted the morning show, threw the switch initiating the format change. Coupled with a television ad campaign featuring saxophonist David Sanborn, WNWV saw immediate ratings success, having jumped to a 3.5 share in the Spring 1988 Arbitron ratings, a 4.5 in the Spring 1988 Birch Survey. Citing disagreements over changes to the music selections, WNWV dropped the Wave Network on September 18, 1990 for a locally-programmed lineup of local hosts. Market veteran Bernie Kimble was hired as midday host. J. Hart in morning drive, Denis Cametti in afternoons, Charlene McVie in evenings, Brian Cruise in overnights.
Accordingly, the station renamed itself "Cleveland's Cool FM: 107-3 WNWV" transitioning from a mix of new age, soft rock and contemporary jazz into smooth jazz with the slogan "Smooth Jazz, Fresh Hits," but returned to calling itself "The Wave" in 1994. Bernie Kimble left WNWV in March 1993 to program WJJZ /Philadelphia upon that station's launch and was succeeded by Steve Hibbard. Current SportsTime Ohio personality Al Pawlowski hosted mornings at WNWV back in 1994. From the late 1990s until 2008, WNWV's airstaff consisted of: Tom Murphy in morning drive. Other personalities included Dan Steinberg, Lisa Danevich, Sandy Bennett, Larry Adams, Sarah Greer, Cody Brooks, Mark McQuire, Kathy Gudell, Tracey Brich Murphy, Jen Kaminski, Greg Yocum, Tammy Frizzel, Pat Allen and Andrea Morris. Under this iteration of "The Wave", WNWV was a two-time National Association of Broadcasters Marconi Award winner for "Jazz Station of the Year", in 1995 and 2001. In 2003, WNWV became the first station in the Cleveland market to broadcast in the new HD Radio digital format, as well as one of a handful in the country to make the initial switch.
Bernie Kimble was replaced as program director by Angie Handa. Mike Kessler took over as morning host in July 2009 after Tom Murphy's departure. Elyria-Lorain announced on December 21, 2009, that WNWV would change its smooth jazz format after a 22-year run. Despite having been a perennially strong ratings performer and pulli
Of the Blue Colour of the Sky is the third studio album by American rock band OK Go. It was released on January 12, 2010 on Capitol Records in the USA and EMI in the UK, re-released on the band's independent label Paracadute Records on April 1; the album was produced by Dave Fridmann and was recorded in a span of seven months at Fridmann's Tarbox Road Studios in Cassadaga, New York. The compilation's name and concept are based on The Influence of the Blue Ray of the Sunlight and of the Blue Colour of the Sky, a pseudoscientific book published in 1876, its style was noted as a significant departure from the power pop of their earlier albums. After the band's split with EMI and Capitol, Paracadute took over the promotional campaign and all distribution responsibilities; the compilation received positive reviews from music critics upon release and debuted at number 40 on Billboard 200 chart. After the band's previous album Oh No was finished being recorded in 2005, guitarist Andy Duncan left the band, citing creative differences and major label pressures.
He was replaced by Andy Ross, involved in the album's promotion, including music video appearances. The music videos for "A Million Ways" and "Here It Goes Again" attracted much attention as viral videos on YouTube, were influential in the Oh No's success and rise in OK Go's popularity. Along with releasing the EP You're Not Alone with New Orleans brass funk rock band Bonerama in 2008, the band toured continually for three years in support of Oh No. OK Go finished writing new material and started working in the studio in October 2008, they worked for two-week intervals in producer Dave Fridmann's Tarbox Road Studios, a converted Amish barn in Cassadaga, New York, through May the following year. Bassist Tim Nordwind described the process of the studio sessions as a midpoint between the slick production work done on OK Go and the emphasis on live takes with the recording of Oh No. Of the Blue Colour of the Sky's accompanying booklet presents the album as a concept based on an unnamed passage from The Influence of the Blue Ray of the Sunlight and of the Blue Colour of the Sky by General A.
J. Pleasonton; the title of this book, proposing that blue is the essential life force, was adapted for the album because of the parallels between Pleasonton's faith in the color blue and Kulash's faith in the music that arises from him organically without rational thought. Elements of the booklet compare the lyrics with the passage, with data gathered from the characteristics of the texts presented by different graphical means; the image on the album cover was constructed with a list of twenty-five themes, each representing a specific color, assigned to each sentence in both the passage and the lyrics. If more than one theme is assigned to the same sentence, the colors are combined with additive mixing. With each sentence being represented by a colored line, the lines are arranged radially giving the impression of beams of multicolored light emanating from the center. Other data collected for presentation inside the booklet includes sentence length, parts of speech occurrences, syllable stress, words common to both texts.
Kulash, as the primary songwriter for the album, developed the concept and collected the data with Stefanie Posavec and Greg McInerny, who were credited with visualization and layout of the booklet. Since OK Go split from EMI, their label, Paracadute, re-released the album with two bonus tracks April 1, 2010. On September 19, they announced that an Extra Nice Edition was to be released in the USA on November 2, it features the standard thirteen-track album along with a bonus disk that includes demos, alternate versions, two covers, an in-depth interview with the band by Ira Glass. Access to a digital database is included with its purchase. Music will continually be added to the database though the album is out. So far, a digital-only album entitled Twelve Remixes of Four Songs is available for instant download along with the two physical disks in Apple Lossless files or medium-sized MP3s. Of the Blue Colour of the Sky received positive reviews from critics, earning a 67 out of 100 score on Metacritic, based on 22 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
Barry Walters of Spin said compared the album to the creativity of their music videos from Oh No, writing that it was "similarly ambitious" how the foursome applied the two contrasting genres of "Prince's sexy synth-funk and the Flaming Lips' elaborate dream-rock." Writing for The A. V. Club, Chris Mincher contrasted the album favorably with OK Go's earlier output, describing a "darker atmosphere in which the band can release emotions other than goofy exuberance". Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic writes that the album "ultimately seems diffuse" and that the "spaciousness expands as the album rolls on obscuring the hooks of the first half". Adam Conner-Simons of The Boston Globe writes that although "OK Go seems to be trying too hard...the album delivers some of the band's most realized compositions to date." The video for the song "All Is Not Lost" was nominated for a 2012 Grammy Award for "Best Short-Form Music Video." All songs credited to OK Go. OK GoDamian Kulash, Jr. — lead vocals, programming, percussion Tim Nordwind – bass, glockenspiel on track 9 Dan Konopka – drums Andy Ross — guitars, vocalsAdditionalDave Fridmann — producer Greg Calbi — audio mastering Mark Mullins — trombone on track 12 Brian L. Perkins — clapping on track 12 The Influence of the Blue Ray of the Sunlight and of the Blue Colour of the Sky at Google Books